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Legal Imperialism

Author: Turan Kayaoğlu
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521765919
Size: 30.26 MB
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Legal Imperialism examines the important role of nineteenth-century Western extraterritorial courts in non-Western states. These courts, created as a separate legal system for Western expatriates living in Asian and Islamic coutries, developed from the British imperial model, which was founded on ideals of legal positivism. Based on a cross-cultural comparison of the emergence, function, and abolition of these court systems in Japan, the Ottoman Empire, and China, Turan Kayaoglu elaborates a theory of extraterritoriality, comparing the nineteenth-century British example with the post-World War II American legal imperialism. He also provides an explanation for the end of imperial extraterritoriality, arguing that the Western decision to abolish their separate legal systems stemmed from changes in non-Western territories, including Meiji legal reforms, Republican Turkey's legal transformation under Ataturk, and the Guomindang's legal reorganization in China. Ultimately, his research provides an innovative basis for understanding the assertion of legal authority by Western powers on foreign soil and the influence of such assertion on ideas about sovereignty.

Recht Und Gerechtigkeit In Der Konsulargerichtsbarkeit

Author: Johannes Berchtold
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3486713825
Size: 16.92 MB
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Westeuropäische Kaufleute genossen seit byzantinischen Zeiten umfassende exterritoriale Rechte im Levanteraum, darunter das Recht auf eine eigene, durch die Konsuln ausgeübte Gerichtsbarkeit. Dieses auf dem Prinzip der Personalität des Rechts anfänglich vom Sultan gewährte Privileg wurde vom späten 18. Jahrhundert an in ein einseitig konzipiertes Vertragswerk zwischen dem Osmanischen Reich und den europäischen Staaten überführt. Die Studie geht der Frage nach, inwieweit die in der Theorie unbestreitbare Souveränitätseinschränkung des Osmanischen Reichs sich in der Rechtspraxis der Konsulargerichte bestätigt findet. Anhand von Gerichtsakten rekonstruiert Johannes Berchtold die britische Rechtspraxis im 19. Jahrhundert und legt so den Blick auf die komplexen Rechts- und Machtverhältnisse in den Hafenstädten Smyrna und Konstantinopel frei.

Life In Treaty Port China And Japan

Author: Donna Brunero
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811073686
Size: 47.97 MB
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This edited volume moves beyond the traditional examination of the treaty ports of China and Japan as places of cultural interaction. It moves ‘beyond the Bund’, presenting instead the history of material culture, the everyday life of the residents of the treaty ports beyond the symbology of Shanghai's waterfront. Bringing for the first time together scholars of China and Japan, museum curators, legal, economic and architectural historians, it studies the treaty ports not only as sites of cultural exchange, but also as sites of social contestation, accommodation and mobility, covering topics as varied as day to day life itself, such as family, property and law, health and welfare, travel, visual culture and memory. The call of this volume is to peel the multiple layers of the encounter between East and West in the treaty ports of China and Japan.

Geschichte Der Welt Wege Zur Modernen Welt

Author: Akira Iriye
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406641148
Size: 28.90 MB
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"Weltgeschichte ist lange Zeit als eine Geschichte des Aufstiegs und Niedergangs einer kleinen Zahl von 'Hochkulturen' geschrieben worden. Unter diesen Kulturen schienen Europa oder der atlantische 'Westen' während der letzten Jahrhunderte nach den Kriterien Macht, Wohlstand und kulturelle Kreativität zu dominieren. Das neue sechsbändige Werk zur Weltgeschichte, das von einem Team von Historikerinnen und Historikern vorwiegend aus den USA und Deutschland erarbeitet wird und das gleichzeitig bei C.H.Beck und Harvard University Press erscheint, verabschiedet sich von diesen Traditionen. Es leugnet die Errungenschaften des Westens nicht, stellt sie aber in den größeren Zusammenhang gleichzeitiger Entwicklungen in anderen Teilen der Welt. Dadurch wird das allmähliche, dabei aber krisenhafte Entstehen des heutigen dicht integrierten und pluralistischen Weltzusammenhangs sichtbar. Erstmals werden in diesen Bänden die Ergebnisse von mehreren Jahrzehnten internationaler Forschung zur Vorgeschichte der Globalisierung und zur Entwicklung von Gesellschaften und politischen Ordnungen auf allen Kontinenten von führenden Experten zusammenfassend dargestellt. Weltgeschichte erscheint hier nicht als Aneinanderreihung einzelner Spezialgeschichten. Die Aufmerksamkeit richtet sich auf bisher wenig beachtete Querbeziehungen und Wechselwirkungen: auf Migrationen von Einzelnen und Gruppen und die Gründung neuer Gesellschaften, auf die interkontinentale Ausbreitung von Technologien, Religionen oder politischen Ideen, auf globale Kommunikationsnetze, Handelsströme und Konsummuster, auf Imperialismus, Kolonialismus und großräumige Kriege." Akira Iriye und Jürgen Osterhammel Zwischen 1750 und 1870 wurde aus einer Welt, die – bei aller Vernetzung – im Großen und Ganzen noch regional strukturiert war, eine immer enger zusammenhängende Einheit. Seitdem sind die unterschiedlichen Teile des Globus nicht nur über Kriege und Handel miteinander verbunden; auch kulturelle Entwicklungen, politische Reformen und soziale Veränderungen waren immer häufiger aufeinander bezogen. Mit dem Band "Wege zur modernen Welt" liegt nun der vierte Band der großen, auf insgesamt sechs Bände angelegten "Geschichte der Welt" vor. "Intellektuell so anregend wie kaum eine weitere gegenwärtige Arbeit der Geschichtswissenschaft." Jacques Schuster, Die Welt "Was für ein Meilenstein: Einige der besten Historiker schreiben eine Geschichte der Welt." Dirk van Laak, DIE ZEIT

Exporting Legality

Author: Mariya Tait Slys
Publisher: Graduate Institute Publications
ISBN: 2940503435
Size: 21.91 MB
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How did two radically different legal cultures, those of the Ottomans and the Chinese, gradually acquire a legal architecture analogous to that of Europe? This Paper attempts to answer this question by providing a comparative study in legal history of the rise and demise of extraterritorial consular jurisdiction, utilizing a post-colonial and inter-disciplinary approach to international law. The study reveals that the establishment of consular jurisdiction during the nineteenth century was closely linked to the process of legal ‘modernization’ that affected many Asian and Arab societies. As such, this study contributes to the explanation of the gradual convergence of many non-Western traditional legal cultures with typically continental legal structures. This ePaper provides an in-depth analysis of the origin, further development and termination of this controversial institution of public international law as applied to the Ottoman Empire and China. Mariano Garcia Rubio Prize 2013 in International Law.

War Crimes Trials In The Wake Of Decolonization And Cold War In Asia 1945 1956

Author: Kerstin von Lingen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319429876
Size: 80.30 MB
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This book investigates the political context and intentions behind the trialling of Japanese war criminals in the wake of World War Two. After the Second World War in Asia, the victorious Allies placed around 5,700 Japanese on trial for war crimes. Ostensibly crafted to bring perpetrators to justice, the trials intersected in complex ways with the great issues of the day. They were meant to finish off the business of World War Two and to consolidate United States hegemony over Japan in the Pacific, but they lost impetus as Japan morphed into an ally of the West in the Cold War. Embattled colonial powers used the trials to bolster their authority against nationalist revolutionaries, but they found the principles of international humanitarian law were sharply at odds with the inequalities embodied in colonialism. Within nationalist movements, local enmities often overshadowed the reckoning with Japan. And hovering over the trials was the critical question: just what was justice for the Japanese in a world where all sides had committed atrocities?

Grounds Of Judgment

Author: P?r Kristoffer Cassel
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199924287
Size: 15.14 MB
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Perhaps more than anywhere else in the world, the nineteenth century encounter between East Asia and the Western world has been narrated as a legal encounter. Commercial treaties--negotiated by diplomats and focused on trade--framed the relationships among Tokugawa-Meiji Japan, Qing China, Choson Korea, and Western countries including Britain, France, and the United States. These treaties created a new legal order, very different than the colonial relationships that the West forged with other parts of the globe, which developed in dialogue with local precedents, local understandings of power, and local institutions. They established the rules by which foreign sojourners worked in East Asia, granting them near complete immunity from local laws and jurisdiction. The laws of extraterritoriality looked similar on paper but had very different trajectories in different East Asian countries. P?r Cassel's first book explores extraterritoriality and the ways in which Western power operated in Japan and China from the 1820s to the 1920s. In Japan, the treaties established in the 1850s were abolished after drastic regime change a decade later and replaced by European-style reciprocal agreements by the turn of the century. In China, extraterritoriality stood for a hundred years, with treaties governing nearly one hundred treaty ports, extensive Christian missionary activity, foreign controlled railroads and mines, and other foreign interests, and of such complexity that even international lawyers couldn't easily interpret them. Extraterritoriality provided the springboard for foreign domination and has left Asia with a legacy of suspicion towards international law and organizations. The issue of unequal treaties has had a lasting effect on relations between East Asia and the West. Drawing on primary sources in Chinese, Japanese, Manchu, and several European languages, Cassel has written the first book to deal with exterritoriality in Sino-Japanese relations before 1895 and the triangular relationship between China, Japan, and the West. Grounds of Judgment is a groundbreaking history of Asian engagement with the outside world and within the region, with broader applications to understanding international history, law, and politics.

Paradoxes Of Peace In Nineteenth Century Europe

Author: Thomas Hippler
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191043877
Size: 45.31 MB
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'Peace' is often simplistically assumed to be war's opposite, and as such is not examined closely or critically idealized in the literature of peace studies, its crucial role in the justification of war is often overlooked. Starting from a critical view that the value of 'restoring peace' or 'keeping peace' is, and has been, regularly used as a pretext for military intervention, this book traces the conceptual history of peace in nineteenth century legal and political practice. It explores the role of the value of peace in shaping the public rhetoric and legitimizing action in general international relations, international law, international trade, colonialism, and armed conflict. Departing from the assumption that there is no peace as such, nor can there be, it examines the contradictory visions of peace that arise from conflict. These conflicting and antagonistic visions of peace are each linked to a set of motivations and interests as well as to a certain vision of legitimacy within the international realm. Each of them inevitably conveys the image of a specific enemy that has to be crushed in order to peace being installed. This book highlights the contradictions and paradoxes in nineteenth century discourses and practices of peace, particularly in Europe.

Jenseits Der Menschenrechte

Author: Anne Peters
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161527494
Size: 80.79 MB
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Grundthese des Buches ist, dass ein Paradigmenwechsel stattgefunden hat, der den Menschen zum primaren Volkerrechtssubjekt macht. Diese These wird vor dem Hintergrund der Ideengeschichte und Dogmatik der Volkerrechtspersonlichkeit des Menschen entfaltet und auf die Rechtspraxis in zahlreichen Teilrechtsgebieten, angefangen vom Recht der internationalen Verantwortung uber das Recht des bewaffneten Konflikts, das Recht der Katastrophenhilfe, das internationale Strafrecht, das internationale Umweltrecht, das Konsularrecht und das Recht des diplomatischen Schutzes, das internationale Arbeitsrecht, das Fluchtlingsrecht bis hin zum internationalen Investitionsschutzrecht gestutzt. Der neue Volkerrechtsstatus des Menschen wird mit dem Begriff des subjektiven internationalen Rechts auf den Punkt gebracht.