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Lithography For Vlsi

Author: Norman G. Einspruch
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483217825
Size: 17.48 MB
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VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 16: Lithography for VLSI treats special topics from each branch of lithography, and also contains general discussion of some lithographic methods. This volume contains 8 chapters that discuss the various aspects of lithography. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to optical lithography. Chapter 3 covers electron lithography in general, and Chapter 4 discusses electron resist exposure modeling. Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of ion-beam lithography. Mask/wafer alignment for x-ray proximity printing and for optical lithography is tackled in Chapter 6. Chapters 7 and 8 on metrology deal with the characterization of lithography by measurements of various types. Engineers, scientists, and technical managers in the semiconductor industry, and engineering and applied physics faculty and graduate students will find the text very useful.

Handbook Of Vlsi Microlithography

Author: William B. Glendinning
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 1437728227
Size: 53.17 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This handbook gives readers a close look at the entire technology of printing very high resolution and high density integrated circuit (IC) patterns into thin resist process transfer coatings-- including optical lithography, electron beam, ion beam, and x-ray lithography. The book's main theme is the special printing process needed to achieve volume high density IC chip production, especially in the Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) industry. The book leads off with a comparison of various lithography methods, covering the three major patterning parameters of line/space, resolution, line edge and pattern feature dimension control. The book's explanation of resist and resist process equipment technology may well be the first practical description of the relationship between the resist process and equipment parameters. The basics of resist technology are completely covered -- including an entire chapter on resist process defectivity and the potential yield limiting effect on device production. Each alternative lithographic technique and testing method is considered and evaluated: basic metrology including optical, scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) techniques and electrical test devices, along with explanations of actual printing tools and their design, construction and performance. The editor devotes an entire chapter to today's sophisticated, complex electron-beam printers, and to the emerging x-ray printing technology now used in high-density CMOS devices. Energetic ion particle printing is a controllable, steerable technology that does not rely on resist, and occupies a final section of the handbook.

Fine Line Lithography

Author: R Newman
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444601287
Size: 47.94 MB
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Materials Processing - Theory and Practices, Volume 1: Fine Line Lithography reviews technical information as well as the theory and practices of materials processing. It looks at very large scale integration (VLSI) technology, with emphasis on the creation of fine line patterned structures that make up the devices and interconnects of complex functional circuits. It also describes a variety of other technologies that provide finer patterns, from modified versions of optical methods to electron-optic systems, non-plus-ultra of X-ray techniques, and dry processing that uses the chemical or kinetic energies of gas molecules or ions. Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the fundamentals of electron and X-ray lithography, with a focus on resists and the way they function, and how they are used in microfabrication. It then discusses electron scattering and its effects on resist exposure and development, electron-beam lithography equipment, X-ray lithography, and optical methods for fine line lithography. It systematically introduces the reader to electron-beam projection techniques, dry processing methods, and application of electron-beam technology to large-scale integrated circuits. Other chapters focus on contact and proximity printing, projection printing, deep-UV lithography, and shadow printing with electrons and ions. The book describes reactive plasma etching and ion beam etching before concluding with a look at factors affecting the performance of the scanning-probe type of systems. This book is a valuable resource for materials engineers and processing engineers, as well as those in the academics and industry.

Lithography Driven Design For Manufacturing In Nanometer Era Vlsi

Author: Chul-Hong Park
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 77.74 MB
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Photolithography has been a key enabler of the aggressive IC technology scaling implicit in Moore's Law. As minimum feature sizes approach the physical limits of lithography and the manufacturing process, resolution enhancement techniques (RETs) dictate certain tradeoffs with various aspects of process and performance. This in turn has led to unpredictable design, unpredictable manufacturing, and low yield. As a result, close communication between designer and manufacturer has become essential to overcome the uncertainties of design and manufacturing. The design for manufacturability (DFM) paradigm has emerged recently to improve communications at the design-manufacturing interface and to reduce manufacturing variability. DFM is a set of technologies and methodologies that both help the designer extract maximum value from silicon process technology and solve "unsolvable" manufacturing challenges. Traditional DFM techniques, which include design rule check (DRC) and optical proximity correction (OPC), have been successfully used until now. However, as the extent and complexity of lithography variations increase, traditional techniques are no longer adequate to accommodate the various lithography demands. This thesis focuses on ways to mitigate the impact of lithography variations on design by establishing new interfaces between design and manufacturing. The motivations for doing so are improved printability, timing and leakage as well as reduced design cost. To improve printability, we propose a detailed placement perturbation technique for improved depth of focus and process window. Using a dynamic programming (DP)-based method for the perturbation, the technique facilitates insertion of scattering bars and etch dummy features, reducing inter-cell forbidden pitches almost completely. We also propose a novel auxiliary pattern-enabled cell-based OPC which can improve the edge placement error over cell-based OPC. The technique improves runtime which has grown unacceptably in model-based OPC, while retaining its runtime advantage as well as timing and leakage optimization. The detailed placement framework is also available to allow opportunistic insertion of auxiliary pattern around cell instances in the design layout. Aberration leads to linewidth variation which is fundamental to achieve timing performance and manufacturing yield. We describe an aberration-aware timing analysis flow that accounts for aberration-induced cell delay variations. We then propose an aberration-aware timing-driven global placement technique which utilizes the predictable slow and fast regions created on the chip due to aberration to improve cycle time. The use of the technique along with field blading achieves significant cycle time improvement. DoseMapper technique adopted in advanced lithography equipments has been used to reduce the across-chip linewidth variation. We propose a novel method to enhance timing yield as well as reduce leakage power by combined dose map and placement optimizations. The new dose map is not determined to have the same critical dimension (CD) in all transistor gates, but optimized to have different linewidths. That is, for devices on setup timing-critical paths, a smaller than nominal CD will be desirable, since this creates a faster-switching transistor. On the other hand, for devices on hold timing-critical paths, a larger than nominal gate CD will be desirable since this creates a less leaky transistor. Last, the golden verification signoff tool using simulation-based approach represents a runtime-quality tradeoff that is high in quality, but also high in runtime. We are motivated to develop a low-runtime pre-filter that reduces the amount of layout area to be analyzed by the golden tool, without compromising the overall quality finding hotspots. We demonstrate a dual graph-based hotspot filtering technique that enables fast and accurate estimation.

Manufacturability Aware Routing In Nanometer Vlsi

Author: David Z. Pan
Publisher: Now Publishers Inc
ISBN: 1601983506
Size: 68.32 MB
Format: PDF
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Nanometer very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuit design faces tremendous challenges due to the manufacturing limitations. These manufacturing and process related challenges include the printability issues due to deep sub-wavelength lithography, the topography variations due to chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP), the random defects due to missing or extra material, and so on. Thus, design "closure" may not automatically guarantee the manufacturing closure due to the manufacturing yield loss. Manufacturability aware layout optimization plays a key role in the overall yield improvement. Manufacturability Aware Routing in Nanometer VLSI examines key aspects of manufacturability issues and how to alleviate them during the routing stage. It shows that various key manufacturability issues can be optimized at different routing stages according to the granularity of routing algorithms and the availability of inputs to models. It surveys both model-based manufacturability optimization and rule-based yield improvement during routing. Existing industry design for manufacturability (DFM) practices mainly rely on either rule-based optimization or post-layout enhancement guided by modeling. Manufacturability Aware Routing in Nanometer VLSI demonstrates that there are tremendous opportunities to capture the downstream manufacturing/process effects, and abstract them early into the key physical design stage, through model-based manufacturability aware routing optimization.