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Lithography For Vlsi

Author: Norman G. Einspruch
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 1483217825
Size: 54.69 MB
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VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 16: Lithography for VLSI treats special topics from each branch of lithography, and also contains general discussion of some lithographic methods. This volume contains 8 chapters that discuss the various aspects of lithography. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to optical lithography. Chapter 3 covers electron lithography in general, and Chapter 4 discusses electron resist exposure modeling. Chapter 5 presents the fundamentals of ion-beam lithography. Mask/wafer alignment for x-ray proximity printing and for optical lithography is tackled in Chapter 6. Chapters 7 and 8 on metrology deal with the characterization of lithography by measurements of various types. Engineers, scientists, and technical managers in the semiconductor industry, and engineering and applied physics faculty and graduate students will find the text very useful.

Handbook Of Vlsi Microlithography

Author: William B. Glendinning
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 1437728227
Size: 50.81 MB
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This handbook gives readers a close look at the entire technology of printing very high resolution and high density integrated circuit (IC) patterns into thin resist process transfer coatings-- including optical lithography, electron beam, ion beam, and x-ray lithography. The book's main theme is the special printing process needed to achieve volume high density IC chip production, especially in the Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) industry. The book leads off with a comparison of various lithography methods, covering the three major patterning parameters of line/space, resolution, line edge and pattern feature dimension control. The book's explanation of resist and resist process equipment technology may well be the first practical description of the relationship between the resist process and equipment parameters. The basics of resist technology are completely covered -- including an entire chapter on resist process defectivity and the potential yield limiting effect on device production. Each alternative lithographic technique and testing method is considered and evaluated: basic metrology including optical, scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) techniques and electrical test devices, along with explanations of actual printing tools and their design, construction and performance. The editor devotes an entire chapter to today's sophisticated, complex electron-beam printers, and to the emerging x-ray printing technology now used in high-density CMOS devices. Energetic ion particle printing is a controllable, steerable technology that does not rely on resist, and occupies a final section of the handbook.

Semiconductor Lithography

Author: Wayne M. Moreau
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461308852
Size: 75.47 MB
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Semiconductor lithography is one of the key steps in the manufacturing of integrated silicon-based circuits. In fabricating a semiconductor device such as a transistor, a series of hot processes consisting of vacuum film deposition, oxidations, and dopant implantation are all patterned into microscopic circuits by the wet processes of lithography. Lithography, as adopted by the semiconductor industry, is the process of drawing or printing the pattern of an integrated circuit in a resist material. The pattern is formed and overlayed to a previous circuit layer as many as 30 times in the manufacture of logic and memory devices. With the resist pattern acting as a mask, a permanent device structure is formed by subtractive (removal) etching or by additive deposition of metals or insulators. Each process step in lithography uses inorganic or organic materials to physically transform semiconductors of silicon, insulators of oxides, nitrides, and organic polymers, and metals, into useful electronic devices. All forms of electromagnetic radiation are used in the processing. Lithography is a mUltidisciplinary science of materials, processes, and equipment, interacting to produce three-dimensional structures. Many aspects of chemistry, electrical engineering, materials science, and physics are involved. The purpose of this book is to bring together the work of many scientists and engineers over the last 10 years and focus upon the basic resist materials, the lithographic processes, and the fundamental principles behind each lithographic process.

Fine Line Lithography

Author: R Newman
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444601287
Size: 18.17 MB
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Materials Processing - Theory and Practices, Volume 1: Fine Line Lithography reviews technical information as well as the theory and practices of materials processing. It looks at very large scale integration (VLSI) technology, with emphasis on the creation of fine line patterned structures that make up the devices and interconnects of complex functional circuits. It also describes a variety of other technologies that provide finer patterns, from modified versions of optical methods to electron-optic systems, non-plus-ultra of X-ray techniques, and dry processing that uses the chemical or kinetic energies of gas molecules or ions. Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the fundamentals of electron and X-ray lithography, with a focus on resists and the way they function, and how they are used in microfabrication. It then discusses electron scattering and its effects on resist exposure and development, electron-beam lithography equipment, X-ray lithography, and optical methods for fine line lithography. It systematically introduces the reader to electron-beam projection techniques, dry processing methods, and application of electron-beam technology to large-scale integrated circuits. Other chapters focus on contact and proximity printing, projection printing, deep-UV lithography, and shadow printing with electrons and ions. The book describes reactive plasma etching and ion beam etching before concluding with a look at factors affecting the performance of the scanning-probe type of systems. This book is a valuable resource for materials engineers and processing engineers, as well as those in the academics and industry.

Silicon On Insulator Technology Materials To Vlsi

Author: J.-P. Colinge
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402077739
Size: 36.95 MB
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Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI, Third Edition, retraces the evolution of SOI materials, devices and circuits over a period of roughly twenty years. Twenty years of progress, research and development during which SOI material fabrication techniques have been born and abandoned, devices have been invented and forgotten, but, most importantly, twenty years during which SOI Technology has little by little proven it could outperform bulk silicon in every possible way. The turn of the century turned out to be a milestone for the semiconductor industry, as high-quality SOI wafers suddenly became available in large quantities. From then on, it took only a few years to witness the use of SOI technology in a wealth of applications ranging from audio amplifiers and wristwatches to 64-bit microprocessors. This book presents a complete and state-of-the-art review of SOI materials, devices and circuits. SOI fabrication and characterization techniques, SOI CMOS processing, and the physics of the SOI MOSFET receive an in-depth analysis. Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI, Third Edition, also describes the properties of other SOI devices, such as multiple gate MOSFETs, dynamic threshold devices and power MOSFETs. The advantages and performance of SOI circuits used in both niche and mainstream applications are discussed in detail. The SOI specialist will find this book invaluable as a source of compiled references covering the different aspects of SOI technology. For the non-specialist, the book serves an excellent introduction to the topic with detailed, yet simple and clear explanations. Silicon-on-Insulator Technology: Materials to VLSI, Third Edition is recommended for use as a textbook for classes on semiconductor device processing and physics at the graduate level.

Manufacturability Aware Routing In Nanometer Vlsi

Author: David Z. Pan
Publisher: Now Publishers Inc
ISBN: 1601983506
Size: 30.61 MB
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This paper surveys key research challenges and recent results of manufacturability aware routing in nanometer VLSI designs. The manufacturing challenges have their root causes from various integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing processes and steps, e.g., deep sub-wavelength lithography, random defects, via voids, chemical-mechanical polishing, and antenna-effects. They may result in both functional and parametric yield losses. The manufacturability aware routing can be performed at different routing stages including global routing, track routing, and detail routing, guided by both manufacturing process models and manufacturing-friendly rules. The manufacturability/yield optimization can be performed through both correct-by-construction (i.e., optimization during routing) as well as construct-by-correction (i.e., post-routing optimization). This paper will provide a holistic view of key design for manufacturability issues in nanometer VLSI routing.