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Long Island Sound

Author: James S. Latimer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146146126X
Size: 27.14 MB
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The U.S. Ocean Commission Report identified the need for regional ecosystem assessments to support coastal and ocean management. These assessments must provide greater understanding of physical and biological dynamics than assessments at global and national scales can provide but transcend state and local interests. This need and timeliness is apparent for Long Island Sound, where a multi-state regional restoration program is underway for America’s most urbanized estuary. Synthesis of the Long Island Sound ecosystem is needed to integrate knowledge across disciplines and provide insight into understanding and managing pressing issues, such as non-point sources of pollution, coastal development, global climatic change, and invasive species. Currently, there is a need for a comprehensive volume that summarizes the ecological and environmental dynamics and status of Long Island Sound and its myriad ecosystems. It has been 30 years since a comprehensive summary of Long Island Sound was prepared and 50 years since the pioneering work of Gordon Riley. Major advances in estuarine science are providing new insights into these systems, and yet, the condition of many estuaries is in decline in the face of continuing coastal development. There is an opportunity to lay a foundation for integrative coastal observing systems that truly provide the foundation for improved decision-making. This book will provide a key reference of our scientific understanding for work performed over the past three decades and guide future research and monitoring in a dynamic urbanized estuary.

Urbanization Biodiversity And Ecosystem Services Challenges And Opportunities

Author: Thomas Elmqvist
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 940077088X
Size: 74.42 MB
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Urbanization is a global phenomenon and the book emphasizes that this is not just a social-technological process. It is also a social-ecological process where cities are places for nature, and where cities also are dependent on, and have impacts on, the biosphere at different scales from local to global. The book is a global assessment and delivers four main conclusions: Urban areas are expanding faster than urban populations. Half the increase in urban land across the world over the next 20 years will occur in Asia, with the most extensive change expected to take place in India and China Urban areas modify their local and regional climate through the urban heat island effect and by altering precipitation patterns, which together will have significant impacts on net primary production, ecosystem health, and biodiversity Urban expansion will heavily draw on natural resources, including water, on a global scale, and will often consume prime agricultural land, with knock-on effects on biodiversity and ecosystem services elsewhere Future urban expansion will often occur in areas where the capacity for formal governance is restricted, which will constrain the protection of biodiversity and management of ecosystem services

Balanced Urban Development Options And Strategies For Liveable Cities

Author: Basant Maheshwari
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319281127
Size: 56.63 MB
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This book provides a unique synthesis of concepts and tools to examine natural resource, socio-economic, legal, policy and institutional issues that are important for managing urban growth into the future. The book will particularly help the reader to understand the current issues and challenges and develop strategies and practices to cope with future pressures of urbanisation and peri-urban land, water and energy use challenges. In particular, the book will help the reader to discover underlying principles for the planning of future cities and peri-urban regions in relation to: (i) Balanced urban development policies and institutions for future cities; (ii) Understanding the effects of land use change, population increase, and water demand on the liveability of cities; (iii) Long-term planning needs and transdisciplinary approaches to ensure the secured future for generations ahead; and (iv) Strategies to adapt the cities and land, water and energy uses for viable and liveable cities. There are growing concerns about water, food security and sustainability with increased urbanisation worldwide. For cities to be liveable and sustainable into the future there is a need to maintain the natural resource base and the ecosystem services in the peri-urban areas surrounding cities. This need is increasing under the looming spectre of global warming and climate change. This book will be of interest to policy makers, urban planners, researchers, post-graduate students in urban planning, environmental and water resources management, and managers in municipal councils.

Nature Based Solutions To Climate Change Adaptation In Urban Areas

Author: Nadja Kabisch
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319560913
Size: 52.76 MB
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This open access book brings together research findings and experiences from science, policy and practice to highlight and debate the importance of nature-based solutions to climate change adaptation in urban areas. Emphasis is given to the potential of nature-based approaches to create multiple-benefits for society. The expert contributions present recommendations for creating synergies between ongoing policy processes, scientific programmes and practical implementation of climate change and nature conservation measures in global urban areas. Except where otherwise noted, this book is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Global Atmospheric Chemical Change

Author: C.N. Hewitt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401537143
Size: 61.38 MB
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Air pollution has historically been viewed as a local or regional scale problem with attention focused on acute episodes such as the sulphur dioxide and smoke smogs of London in the 1950s and 1960s and the photochemical smogs of southern California first recognized by Haagen Smit in the early 1950s. In recent years, however, it has become apparent that human activity has, and still is, changing the chemical composition of the atmosphere on a global scale. The composition of the atmosphere has seen enormous changes due to natural processes since the formation of the planet. Data obtained from air bubbles trapped in polar ice are beginning to reveal information about these changes over the last tens of thousands of years and geochemical models of the evolution of the Earth give us insights into the changes over much longer periods of time. Perhaps the crucial differences between these natural changes and those now being induced by man are their rel ative rates of change. The magnitude of present day fluxes of some com pounds released as air pollutants is in some cases much larger than those arising naturally. In other cases, for example carbon dioxide, the an thropogenic emission rates are small compared with that of the natural cycle, but the kinetics of the system are such that the steady state concent rations of the compounds in the atmosphere are now being perturbed.

Changing Global Perspectives On Horseshoe Crab Biology Conservation And Management

Author: Ruth H. Carmichael
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319195425
Size: 58.44 MB
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This book reports significant progress of scientific research on horseshoe crabs, including aspects of evolution, genetics, ecology, population dynamics, general biology and physiology, within the recent 10 years. It also highlights the emerging issues related to world-wide conservation threats, status and needs. The contributions in this book represent part of an ongoing global effort to increase data and concept sharing to support basic research and advance conservation for horseshoe crabs.

Rangeland Systems

Author: David D. Briske
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319467093
Size: 42.64 MB
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. This book provides an unprecedented synthesis of the current status of scientific and management knowledge regarding global rangelands and the major challenges that confront them. It has been organized around three major themes. The first summarizes the conceptual advances that have occurred in the rangeland profession. The second addresses the implications of these conceptual advances to management and policy. The third assesses several major challenges confronting global rangelands in the 21st century. This book will compliment applied range management textbooks by describing the conceptual foundation on which the rangeland profession is based. It has been written to be accessible to a broad audience, including ecosystem managers, educators, students and policy makers. The content is founded on the collective experience, knowledge and commitment of 80 authors who have worked in rangelands throughout the world. Their collective contributions indicate that a more comprehensive framework is necessary to address the complex challenges confronting global rangelands. Rangelands represent adaptive social-ecological systems, in which societal values, organizations and capacities are of equal importance to, and interact with, those of ecological processes. A more comprehensive framework for rangeland systems may enable management agencies, and educational, research and policy making organizations to more effectively assess complex problems and develop appropriate solutions.

Between Stony Brook Harbor Tides

Author: R. Lawrence Swanson
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 1438462352
Size: 24.83 MB
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Examines the ecological and historical significance of the harbor and what it can bring to future residents. Stony Brook Harbor, or Three Sisters Harbor as it was known historically, is perhaps the most pristine of the Long Island north shore pocket bays. Untouched by major commercialization, it has been designated a Significant Coastal Fish and Wildlife Habitat by the New York State Department of State and a Significant Coastal Habitat by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Despite these designations, however, there is constant pressure to increase development of and around the harbor. Between Stony Brook Harbor Tides interweaves scientific understandings of the harbor with a consideration of its colorful history to inform and educate a general audience about its unique and delicate state. Data is used to illustrate the harbor’s tides and currents and to show how they influence geological processes and pollution susceptibility. Storm surge measurements going back to the early 1990s document some of the extreme high waters experienced, and descriptions of some of the more interesting or important marine species of plants and animals found in the harbor are also included. The book discusses the century-long conflicts that local residents have fought in order to preserve this beautiful place, and it documents the tools that currently exist to help manage the harbor well into the twenty-first century. An excellent supplement to any high school or undergraduate environmental course, Between Stony Brook Harbor Tides provides readers with a basis for embracing the significance of the harbor and what it can bring to future residents. “This book is a small gem, an intimate look at a small local place that—like many small local places—is very special indeed. Many people have such places, often overlooked as too familiar, undervalued as too ordinary. The reader can take a hint from the authors and seek deeper acquaintance with one’s own special places, wherever they are.” — Carl Safina, author of The View from Lazy Point: A Natural Year in an Unnatural World “I was impressed by Between Stony Brook Harbor Tides’ well-written and comprehensive overview of the rich history of Stony Brook Harbor. The research in this was thorough and well documented using both current and historical studies of Stony Brook Harbor. It is vital when looking forward to future planning of our waterways to examine the historical background, as this book does, in order to move forward without harming the natural ecosystems that have developed over many thousands of years.” — Suffolk County Legislator Kara Hahn, 5th District “This book, by two eminent coastal oceanographers, is a must read for those interested or concerned with coastal community planning, management, or marine environmental processes.” — Lee E. Koppelman, Executive Director Emeritus, Long Island Regional Planning Board “It was at Cordwood Beach at the southern end of Stony Brook Harbor, where, at the age of six, I saw my first horseshoe crab. ‘Don’t step on its tail; it’s poisonous and will sting you,’ I remember imploring my friend, and, in so doing, perpetuating a persistent myth about the animal. As Larry Swanson and Malcolm Bowman indicate, in this interesting and informative book, while horseshoe crab tails are sharp, and were used for spear tips by Native Americans, they are not poisonous. This and a good many more fascinating facts about the harbor’s cultural and natural history await the reader. It is a must read for anyone who loves this charming and special part of Long Island.” — John Turner, author of Exploring the Other Island: A Seasonal Guide to Nature on Long Island

Beach Management Tools Concepts Methodologies And Case Studies

Author: Camilo M. Botero
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319583042
Size: 32.66 MB
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This book provides an overview of beach management tools, including carrying capacity, beach nourishment, environmental and tourism awards (like Blue Flag or others), bathing water quality, zoning, beach typologies, quality index, user's perception, interdisciplinary beach monitoring, coastal legislation, shore protection, social and economic indicators, ecosystem services, and coastal governance (applied in beach case studies). Beaches are one of the most intensely used coastal ecosystems and are responsible for more than half of all global tourism revenues, and as such the book introduces a wide range of state-of-the-art tools that can be used to deal with a variety of beach challenges. Each chapter features specific types of tools that can be applied to advantage in beach management practices. With examples of local and regional case studies from around the globe, this is a valuable resource for anyone involved in beach management.