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Looking Back

Author: Neil J. Dorans
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441993892
Size: 18.43 MB
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In 2006, Paul W. Holland retired from Educational Testing Service (ETS) after a career spanning five decades. In 2008, ETS sponsored a conference, Looking Back, honoring his contributions to applied and theoretical psychometrics and statistics. Looking Back attracted a large audience that came to pay homage to Paul Holland and to hear presentations by colleagues who worked with him in special ways over those 40+ years. This book contains papers based on these presentations, as well as vignettes provided by Paul Holland before each section. The papers in this book attest to how Paul Holland's pioneering ideas influenced and continue to influence several fields such as social networks, causal inference, item response theory, equating, and DIF. He applied statistical thinking to a broad range of ETS activities in test development, statistical analysis, test security, and operations. The original papers contained in this book provide historical context for Paul Holland’s work alongside commentary on some of his major contributions by noteworthy statisticians working today.

Test Equating Scaling And Linking

Author: Michael J. Kolen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1493903179
Size: 10.34 MB
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This book provides an introduction to test equating, scaling and linking, including those concepts and practical issues that are critical for developers and all other testing professionals. In addition to statistical procedures, successful equating, scaling and linking involves many aspects of testing, including procedures to develop tests, to administer and score tests and to interpret scores earned on tests. Test equating methods are used with many standardized tests in education and psychology to ensure that scores from multiple test forms can be used interchangeably. Test scaling is the process of developing score scales that are used when scores on standardized tests are reported. In test linking, scores from two or more tests are related to one another. Linking has received much recent attention, due largely to investigations of linking similarly named tests from different test publishers or tests constructed for different purposes. In recent years, researchers from the education, psychology and statistics communities have contributed to the rapidly growing statistical and psychometric methodologies used in test equating, scaling and linking. In addition to the literature covered in previous editions, this new edition presents coverage of significant recent research. In order to assist researchers, advanced graduate students and testing professionals, examples are used frequently and conceptual issues are stressed. New material includes model determination in log-linear smoothing, in-depth presentation of chained linear and equipercentile equating, equating criteria, test scoring and a new section on scores for mixed-format tests. In the third edition, each chapter contains a reference list, rather than having a single reference list at the end of the volume The themes of the third edition include: * the purposes of equating, scaling and linking and their practical context * data collection designs * statistical methodology * designing reasonable and useful equating, scaling, and linking studies * importance of test development and quality control processes to equating * equating error, and the underlying statistical assumptions for equating

Advancing Human Assessment

Author: Randy E. Bennett
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319586890
Size: 45.90 MB
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license.​​ This book describes the extensive contributions made toward the advancement of human assessment by scientists from one of the world’s leading research institutions, Educational Testing Service. The book’s four major sections detail research and development in measurement and statistics, education policy analysis and evaluation, scientific psychology, and validity. Many of the developments presented have become de-facto standards in educational and psychological measurement, including in item response theory (IRT), linking and equating, differential item functioning (DIF), and educational surveys like the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), the Programme of international Student Assessment (PISA), the Progress of International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and the Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In addition to its comprehensive coverage of contributions to the theory and methodology of educational and psychological measurement and statistics, the book gives significant attention to ETS work in cognitive, personality, developmental, and social psychology, and to education policy analysis and program evaluation. The chapter authors are long-standing experts who provide broad coverage and thoughtful insights that build upon decades of experience in research and best practices for measurement, evaluation, scientific psychology, and education policy analysis. Opening with a chapter on the genesis of ETS and closing with a synthesis of the enormously diverse set of contributions made over its 70-year history, the book is a useful resource for all interested in the improvement of human assessment.

A Survey Of Statistical Network Models

Author: Anna Goldenberg
Publisher: Now Publishers Inc
ISBN: 1601983204
Size: 23.82 MB
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"Networks are ubiquitous in science and have become a focal point for discussion in everyday life. Formal statistical models for the analysis of network data have emerged as a major topic of interest in diverse areas of study, and most of these involve a form of graphical representation. Probability models on graphs date back to 1959. Along with empirical studies in social psychology and sociology from the 1960s, these early works generated an active "network community" and a substantial literature in the 1970s. This effort moved into the statistical literature in the late 1970s and 1980s, and the past decade has seen a burgeoning network literature in statistical physics and computer science. The growth of the World Wide Web and the emergence of online "networking communities" such as Facebook, MySpace, and LinkedIn, and a host of more specialized professional network communities has intensified interest in the study of networks and network data. Our goal in this review is to provide the reader with an entry point to this burgeoning literature. We begin with an overview of the historical development of statistical network modeling and then we introduce a number of examples that have been studied in the network literature. Our subsequent discussion focuses on a number of prominent static and dynamic network models and their interconnections. We emphasize formal model descriptions, and pay special attention to the interpretation of parameters and their estimation. We end with a description of some open problems and challenges for machine learning and statistics."--Pages 7-8.

Handbook Of Knowledge Representation

Author: Frank van Harmelen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080557021
Size: 48.85 MB
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Handbook of Knowledge Representation describes the essential foundations of Knowledge Representation, which lies at the core of Artificial Intelligence (AI). The book provides an up-to-date review of twenty-five key topics in knowledge representation, written by the leaders of each field. It includes a tutorial background and cutting-edge developments, as well as applications of Knowledge Representation in a variety of AI systems. This handbook is organized into three parts. Part I deals with general methods in Knowledge Representation and reasoning and covers such topics as classical logic in Knowledge Representation; satisfiability solvers; description logics; constraint programming; conceptual graphs; nonmonotonic reasoning; model-based problem solving; and Bayesian networks. Part II focuses on classes of knowledge and specialized representations, with chapters on temporal representation and reasoning; spatial and physical reasoning; reasoning about knowledge and belief; temporal action logics; and nonmonotonic causal logic. Part III discusses Knowledge Representation in applications such as question answering; the semantic web; automated planning; cognitive robotics; multi-agent systems; and knowledge engineering. This book is an essential resource for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in knowledge representation and AI. * Make your computer smarter * Handle qualitative and uncertain information * Improve computational tractability to solve your problems easily

The Rotarian

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Publisher:
ISBN:
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Established in 1911, The Rotarian is the official magazine of Rotary International and is circulated worldwide. Each issue contains feature articles, columns, and departments about, or of interest to, Rotarians. Seventeen Nobel Prize winners and 19 Pulitzer Prize winners – from Mahatma Ghandi to Kurt Vonnegut Jr. – have written for the magazine.

Asymptotic Geometric Analysis Part I

Author: Shiri Artstein-Avidan
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470421933
Size: 75.91 MB
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The authors present the theory of asymptotic geometric analysis, a field which lies on the border between geometry and functional analysis. In this field, isometric problems that are typical for geometry in low dimensions are substituted by an "isomorphic" point of view, and an asymptotic approach (as dimension tends to infinity) is introduced. Geometry and analysis meet here in a non-trivial way. Basic examples of geometric inequalities in isomorphic form which are encountered in the book are the "isomorphic isoperimetric inequalities" which led to the discovery of the "concentration phenomenon", one of the most powerful tools of the theory, responsible for many counterintuitive results. A central theme in this book is the interaction of randomness and pattern. At first glance, life in high dimension seems to mean the existence of multiple "possibilities", so one may expect an increase in the diversity and complexity as dimension increases. However, the concentration of measure and effects caused by convexity show that this diversity is compensated and order and patterns are created for arbitrary convex bodies in the mixture caused by high dimensionality. The book is intended for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this exciting subject. Among the topics covered in the book are convexity, concentration phenomena, covering numbers, Dvoretzky-type theorems, volume distribution in convex bodies, and more.

Proceedings Of The International Conference On Signal Networks Computing And Systems

Author: Daya K. Lobiyal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132235894
Size: 51.46 MB
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The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in the first International Conference on Signal, Networks, Computing, and Systems (ICSNCS 2016) held at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India during February 25–27, 2016. The book is organized in to two volumes and primarily focuses on theory and applications in the broad areas of communication technology, computer science and information security. The book aims to bring together the latest scientific research works of academic scientists, professors, research scholars and students in the areas of signal, networks, computing and systems detailing the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted.

Truth Decay

Author: Kavanagh
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 1977400132
Size: 45.82 MB
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Political and civil discourse in the United States is characterized by “Truth Decay,” defined as increasing disagreement about facts, a blurring of the line between opinion and fact, an increase in the relative volume of opinion compared with fact, and lowered trust in formerly respected sources of factual information. This report explores the causes and wide-ranging consequences of Truth Decay and proposes strategies for further action.