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Low Temperature Electronics

Author: Edmundo A. Gutierrez
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780123106759
Size: 50.51 MB
Format: PDF
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Low Temperature Electronics: Physics, Devices, Circuits, and Applications summarizes the recent advances in cryoelectronics starting from the fundamentals in physics and semiconductor devices to electronic systems, hybrid superconductor-semiconductor technologies, photonic devices, cryocoolers and thermal management. Furthermore, this book provides an exploration of the currently available theory, research, and technologies related to cryoelectronics, including treatment of the solid state physical properties of the materials used in these systems. Current applications are found in infrared systems, satellite communications and medical equipment. There are opportunities to expand in newer fields such as wireless and mobile communications, computers, and measurement and scientific equipment. Low temperature operations can offer certain advantages such as higher operational speeds, lower power dissipation, shorter signal transmission times, higher semiconductor and metal thermal conductivities, and improved digital and analog circuit performance. The computer, telecommunication, and cellular phone market is pushing the semiconductor industry towards the development of very aggressive device and integrated circuit fabrication technologies. This is taking these technologies towards the physical miniaturization limit, where quantum effects and fabrication costs are becoming a technological and economical barrier for further development. In view of these limitations, operation of semiconductor devices and circuits at low temperature (cryogenic temperature) is studied in this book. * It is a book intended for a wide audience: students, scientists, technology development engineers, private companies, universities, etc. * It contains information which is for the first time available as an all-in-one source; Interdisciplinary material is arranged and made compatible in this book * It is a must as reference source

Device And Circuit Cryogenic Operation For Low Temperature Electronics

Author: Francis Balestra
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475733186
Size: 31.74 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics is a first in reviewing the performance and physical mechanisms of advanced devices and circuits at cryogenic temperatures that can be used for many applications. The first two chapters cover bulk silicon and SOI MOSFETs. The electronic transport in the inversion layer, the influence of impurity freeze-out, the special electrical properties of SOI structures, the device reliability and the interest of a low temperature operation for the ultimate integration of silicon down to nanometer dimensions are described. The next two chapters deal with Silicon-Germanium and III-V Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors, as well as III-V High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMT). The basic physics of the SiGe HBT and its unique cryogenic capabilities, the optimization of such bipolar devices, and the performance of SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology at liquid nitrogen temperature are examined. The physical effects in III-V semiconductors at low temperature, the HEMT and HBT static, high frequency and noise properties, and the comparison of various cooled III-V devices are also addressed. The next chapter treats quantum effect devices made of silicon materials. The major quantum effects at low temperature, quantum wires, quantum dots as well as single electron devices and applications are investigated. The last chapter overviews the performances of cryogenic circuits and their applications. The low temperature properties and performance of inverters, multipliers, adders, operational amplifiers, memories, microprocessors, imaging devices, circuits and systems, sensors and read-out circuits are analyzed. Device and Circuit Cryogenic Operation for Low Temperature Electronics is useful for researchers, engineers, Ph.D. and M.S. students working in the field of advanced electron devices and circuits, new semiconductor materials, and low temperature electronics and physics.

Matter And Methods At Low Temperatures

Author: Frank Pobell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540463603
Size: 30.72 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This textbook contains information essential for successful experiments at low temperatures. The first chapters describe the low-temperature properties of liquids and solid matter, including liquid helium. Most of the book is devoted to refrigeration techniques and the physics on which they rely, the definition of temperature, thermometry, and a variety of design and construction techniques. The lively and practical style make it easy to read and particularly useful to anyone beginning research in low-temperature physics. Low-temperature scientists will find it of great value due to its extensive compilation of materials data and relevant new results.

Compound Semiconductor Electronics

Author: Michael Shur
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9789810223250
Size: 40.68 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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In many respects, compound semiconductor technology has reached the age of maturity when applications will have been defined, yields are high enough and well established, and gallium arsenide and related compounds have carved many important niches in electronics. This book reviews the state-of-the-art of compound semiconductor electronics. It covers the microwave, millimeter wave, and submillimeter wave devices, monolithic microwave and digital integrated circuits made from compound semiconductors and emerging wide band semiconductor materials. The book is written by leading experts in compound semiconductor electronics from industry and academia and strikes the balance between practical applications, record-breaking results, and design and modeling tools specific for compound semiconductor technology. Engineers, scientists, and graduate students working in solid state electronics and especially in the area of compound semiconductor electronics will find this book very useful. It could also be used as a text or a supplementary text for graduate courses in this field.

Microwave Integrated Circuits

Author: Konishi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824781996
Size: 78.31 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Presents to a wide range of students and engineers up-to-date techniques of MICs, with readily comprehensible explanations, providing a unified description of MICs, clarifying physical content, including sufficient data to be directly useful to active engineers, and providing a path of entry into th

Low Capacity Cryogenic Refrigeration

Author: Graham Walker
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198517603
Size: 74.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In the early 1980s, Graham Walker wrote his classic two-volume monograph Cryocoolers. Records show that sections of this work have been referenced more often and by more authors than any other cryogenic paper published in the mid-1980s. Nevertheless, the significant time lapse in so dynamic a field and Walker and Bingham's experience of teaching short courses has revealed the need for a more up-to-date book - one that is more compact, lower in cost, and embraces more topics. Low-capacity Cryogenic Refrigeration provides an elementary yet comprehensive introduction to the subject, with diverse applications in scientific, medical, educational, military, and civil systems. It is complementary to the earlier two-volume work, but covers a wider field and has a wealth of information about the new developments in the last fifteen years. In addition to descriptions of all the principal methods to achieve low-capacity cryogenic refrigeration, this new volume contains a valuableguide to the literature sources and references more advanced works.