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Making Money

Author: Christine Desan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191025399
Size: 41.75 MB
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Money travels the modern world in disguise. It looks like a convention of human exchange - a commodity like gold or a medium like language. But its history reveals that money is a very different matter. It is an institution engineered by political communities to mark and mobilize resources. As societies change the way they create money, they change the market itself - along with the rules that structure it, the politics and ideas that shape it, and the benefits that flow from it. One particularly dramatic transformation in money's design brought capitalism to England. For centuries, the English government monopolized money's creation. The Crown sold people coin for a fee in exchange for silver and gold. 'Commodity money' was a fragile and difficult medium; the first half of the book considers the kinds of exchange and credit it invited, as well as the politics it engendered. Capitalism arrived when the English reinvented money at the end of the 17th century. When it established the Bank of England, the government shared its monopoly over money creation for the first time with private investors, institutionalizing their self-interest as the pump that would produce the money supply. The second half of the book considers the monetary revolution that brought unprecedented possibilities and problems. The invention of circulating public debt, the breakdown of commodity money, the rise of commercial bank currency, and the coalescence of ideological commitments that came to be identified with the Gold Standard - all contributed to the abundant and unstable medium that is modern money. All flowed as well from a collision between the individual incentives and public claims at the heart of the system. The drama had constitutional dimension: money, as its history reveals, is a mode of governance in a material world. That character undermines claims in economics about money's neutrality. The monetary design innovated in England would later spread, producing the global architecture of modern money.

Making Money

Author: Christine Desan
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0198709579
Size: 63.72 MB
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In this revisionist history of the development of the modern monetary system, Christine Desan argues that money effectively creates economic activity rather than emerging from it. Her account demonstrates that money's design has been a project central to governance and formative to markets.

Making Money

Author: Christine Desan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191025380
Size: 67.36 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 1118
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Money travels the modern world in disguise. It looks like a convention of human exchange - a commodity like gold or a medium like language. But its history reveals that money is a very different matter. It is an institution engineered by political communities to mark and mobilize resources. As societies change the way they create money, they change the market itself - along with the rules that structure it, the politics and ideas that shape it, and the benefits that flow from it. One particularly dramatic transformation in money's design brought capitalism to England. For centuries, the English government monopolized money's creation. The Crown sold people coin for a fee in exchange for silver and gold. 'Commodity money' was a fragile and difficult medium; the first half of the book considers the kinds of exchange and credit it invited, as well as the politics it engendered. Capitalism arrived when the English reinvented money at the end of the 17th century. When it established the Bank of England, the government shared its monopoly over money creation for the first time with private investors, institutionalizing their self-interest as the pump that would produce the money supply. The second half of the book considers the monetary revolution that brought unprecedented possibilities and problems. The invention of circulating public debt, the breakdown of commodity money, the rise of commercial bank currency, and the coalescence of ideological commitments that came to be identified with the Gold Standard - all contributed to the abundant and unstable medium that is modern money. All flowed as well from a collision between the individual incentives and public claims at the heart of the system. The drama had constitutional dimension: money, as its history reveals, is a mode of governance in a material world. That character undermines claims in economics about money's neutrality. The monetary design innovated in England would later spread, producing the global architecture of modern money.

American Capitalism

Author: Sven Beckert
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231546068
Size: 25.92 MB
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The United States has long epitomized capitalism. From its enterprising shopkeepers, wildcat banks, violent slave plantations, huge industrial working class, and raucous commodities trade to its world-spanning multinationals, its massive factories, and the centripetal power of New York in the world of finance, America has come to symbolize capitalism for two centuries and more. But an understanding of the history of American capitalism is as elusive as it is urgent. What does it mean to make capitalism a subject of historical inquiry? What is its potential across multiple disciplines, alongside different methodologies, and in a range of geographic and chronological settings? And how does a focus on capitalism change our understanding of American history? American Capitalism presents a sampling of cutting-edge research from prominent scholars. These broad-minded and rigorous essays venture new angles on finance, debt, and credit; women’s rights; slavery and political economy; the racialization of capitalism; labor beyond industrial wage workers; and the production of knowledge, including the idea of the economy, among other topics. Together, the essays suggest emerging themes in the field: a fascination with capitalism as it is made by political authority, how it is claimed and contested by participants, how it spreads across the globe, and how it can be reconceptualized without being universalized. A major statement for a wide-open field, this book demonstrates the breadth and scope of the work that the history of capitalism can provoke.

Casualties Of Credit

Author: Carl Wennerlind
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674062663
Size: 46.32 MB
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With a circulating credit currency, a modern national debt, and sophisticated financial markets, England developed a fiscal-military state that instilled fear and facilitated the first industrial revolution. Yet this new system of credit was precarious and prone to accidents, and it depended on trust, public opinion, and ultimately violence.

Making Money

Author: Ole Bjerg
Publisher: Verso Books
ISBN: 1781682674
Size: 41.69 MB
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What is money? Where does it come from? Who makes our money today? And how can we understand the current state of our economy as a crisis of money itself? In Making Money, Ole Bjerg turns these questions into a matter of philosophical rather than economic analysis. Using the thinking of Slavoj Žižek, while still engaging with mainstream economic literature, the book provides a genuinely philosophical theory of money. This theory is unfolded in reflections on the nature of monetary phenomenon such as financial markets, banks, debt, credit, derivatives, gold, risk, value, price, interests, and arbitrage. The analysis of money is put into an historical context by suggesting that the current financial turbulence and debt crisis are symptoms that we live in the age of post-credit capitalism. By bridging the fields of economics and contemporary philosophy, Bjerg's work engages in a productive form of intellectual arbitrage. From the Trade Paperback edition.

Private Power And Global Authority

Author: A. Claire Cutler
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107320429
Size: 43.31 MB
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Transnational merchant law, which is mistakenly regarded in purely technical and apolitical terms, is a central mediator of domestic and global political/legal orders. By engaging with literature in international law, international relations and international political economy, this book develops the conceptual and theoretical foundations for analyzing the political significance of international economic law. In doing so, it illustrates the private nature of the interests that this evolving legal order has served over time. The book makes a sustained and comprehensive analysis of transnational merchant law and offers a radical critique of global capitalism.

No Freedom Without Regulation

Author: Joseph William Singer
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300211678
Size: 11.45 MB
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A tour de force that corrects a misconception long embraced by both the left and the right about markets and regulation

A Nation Of Counterfeiters

Author: Stephen Mihm
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674041011
Size: 68.15 MB
Format: PDF
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Prior to the Civil War, the United States did not have a single, national currency. Counterfeiters flourished amid this anarchy, putting vast quantities of bogus bills into circulation. Their success, Mihm reveals, is more than an entertaining tale of criminal enterprise: it is the story of the rise of a country defined by freewheeling capitalism and little government control. Mihm shows how eventually the older monetary system was dismantled, along with the counterfeit economy it sustained.

Money In The Western Legal Tradition

Author: Wolfgang Ernst
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198704747
Size: 24.24 MB
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Money in the Western Legal Tradition is the first book to undertake a history of monetary law from the High Middle Ages through to the middle of the 20th century. It spans the two great Western legal traditions: the common law of the Anglo-American legal world, and the civil law systems of continental Europe. It analyses the law governing the payment of money in finance, loan and sale transactions as it has been understood by legal scholars and legalpractitioners of the past 800 years. The book aims to go beyond the many accounts of money already given by numismatists and economic historians. It analyses the distinctive concepts of money applied by legalpractitioners and scholars, and shows how they have been enforced private transactions throughout the period.Money in the Western Legal Tradition develops a connected thematic structure, even though the chapters are written by different specialist authors. The book aims to set the legal doctrines against the background of monetary practice in which they developed.