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Managing Risk And Uncertainty During A Novel Epidemic

Author: Maya Ponte
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 51.59 MB
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This dissertation is an analysis of the strategic management of risk and uncertainty in health policy. The question I have posed is: how does the government and its scientific advisers attempt to control the future of a disease when many gaps in our knowledge persist? In particular, I focus on selected debates, discussions, and decisions surrounding the management of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, in both the US and UK over the past two decades. Between the summer of 2001 and the spring of 2005 I conducted participant-observation research in a variety of settings. Beginning with a few nodes in the network of prion disease management, I followed the network to other nodes, or sites, where knowledge was being produced, disease management actions were being discussed, and decisions were being made. In addition, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 family members of patients diagnosed with prion disease, 15 past or present US and UK government employees in positions dealing with prion disease risk management, and 48 scientists from the US, UK, France, Germany, and Switzerland. I found that risk and uncertainty were managed strategically through recourse to metaphors. These metaphors included model systems of the disease and past experiences with other diseases. Uncertainty was further marginalized, or rather disguised, by employing Future Oriented Statistical Projections, or predictions of the ensuing course of a disease based on the aforementioned metaphors. By presenting the future course of a disease as knowable through numbers, the remaining uncertainties appeared to melt away. Further, risk was often treated as though it could be bounded spatially and temporally through recourse to bodily, geographic, and temporal metaphors while the attendant uncertainties were bracketed to produce a momentary feeling of certainty. These strategies offered a means of cloaking risk management decisions in a guise of rationality despite the underlying uncertainties involved. In this way, governments, advisory committees, and other institutions charged with managing disease upheld their mandate to plan for the future in a "rational" manner. Such rationality was often only temporary in appearance, readily dissolving as uncertainties resurfaced.

Contested Spaces In Contemporary North American Novels

Author: Şemsettin Tabur
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527516946
Size: 10.18 MB
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This volume investigates the ways in which Toni Morrison’s A Mercy, Dionne Brand’s In Another Place, Not Here, Jhumpa Lahiri’s The Namesake, and Carolyn See’s There Will Never Be Another You engage with the physical, ideological, and socially constructed “real-and-imagined” spaces of colonialism, justice, diaspora, and risk. Building on a range of theoretical approaches to the production of space, this study argues for the significance of literature as a cartographic practice charting the intricacies of the socio-spatiality of human life. Through rigorous readings, this book examines each novel as a critical map that both represents and explores contested spaces and alternative spatial negotiations. These spatially oriented literary analyses contribute to recent conceptualizations of space as socially and relationally produced, open, dynamic, and contested, and enrich the existing scholarship on the novels discussed here.

Fowler S Zoo And Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy Volume 7 E Book

Author: R. Eric Miller
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1437719856
Size: 15.71 MB
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With coverage of current issues and emerging trends, Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Volume 7 provides a comprehensive, all-new reference for the management of zoo and wildlife diseases. A Current Therapy format emphasizes the latest advances in the field, including nutrition, diagnosis, and treatment protocols. Cutting-edge coverage includes topics such as the "One Medicine" concept, laparoscopic surgery in elephants and rhinoceros, amphibian viral diseases, and advanced water quality evaluation for zoos. Editors R. Eric Miller and Murray E. Fowler promote a philosophy of animal conservation, bridging the gap between captive and free-ranging wild animal medicine with chapters contributed by more than 100 international experts. The Current Therapy format focuses on emerging trends, treatment protocols, and diagnostic updates new to the field, providing timely information on the latest advances in zoo and wild animal medicine. Content ranges from drug treatment, nutrition, husbandry, surgery, and imaging to behavioral training. Coverage of species ranges from giraffes, elephants, lions, and orangutans to sea turtles, hellbenders, bats, kakapos, and more. An extensive list of contributors includes recognized authors from around the world, offering expert information with chapters focusing on the latest research and clinical management of captive and free-ranging wild animals. A philosophy of animal conservation helps zoo and wildlife veterinarians fulfill not only the technical aspects of veterinary medicine, but contribute to the overall biological teams needed to rescue many threatened and endangered species from extinction. All content is new, with coverage including coverage of cutting-edge issues such as white-nose disease in bats, updates on Ebola virus in wild great apes, and chytrid fungus in amphibians. Full-color photographs depict external clinical signs for more accurate clinical recognition. Discussions of the "One Medicine" concept include chapters addressing the interface between wildlife, livestock, human, and ecosystem health. New sections cover Edentates, Marsupials, Carnivores, Perrissodactyla, and Camelids. Over 100 new tables provide a quick reference to a wide range of topics. An emphasis on conserving threatened and endangered species globally involves 102 expert authors representing 12 different countries.

Coping With Risk In Agriculture 3rd Edition

Author: J Brian Hardaker
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1780645740
Size: 50.53 MB
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Risk and uncertainty are inescapable factors in agriculture which require careful management. Farmers face production risks from the weather, crop and livestock performance, and pests and diseases, as well as institutional, personal and business risks. This revised third edition of the popular textbook includes updated chapters on theory and methods and contains a new chapter discussing the state-contingent approach to the analysis of production and the use of copulas to better model stochastic dependency. Aiming to introduce agricultural decision making, probability and risk preference, this book is an indispensable guide for students and researchers of agriculture and agribusiness management.

Emerging Pathogens An Issue Of Clinics In Laboratory Medicine E Book

Author: Nahed Ismail
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323530168
Size: 21.32 MB
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This issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, edited by Drs. Nahed Ismail, A. William Pasculle, and James Snyder, will cover a wide variety of Emerging Pathogens. Topics covered in this issue include, but are not limited to West Nile Virus; Zika Virus; Ebola and Marburg Heamorrhagic Fever; Rift Valley Fever; Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriacae; Closteridium Difficuile; and Chikungunya, among others.

New Risks Issues And Management

Author: Louis A. Cox
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306435379
Size: 36.33 MB
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This volume contains the proceedings of the 1986 annual meeting and conference of the Society for Risk Analysis. It provides a detailed view of both mature disciplines and emerging areas within the fields of health, safety, and environmental risk analysis as they existed in 1986. In selecting and organizing topics for this conference, we sought both (i) to identify and include new ideas and application areas that would be of lasting interest to risk analysts and to users of risk analysis results, and (ii) to include innovative methods and applications in established areas of risk analysis. In the three years since the conference, many of the topics presented there for the first time to a broad risk analysis audience have become well developed-and sometimes hotly debated-areas of applied risk research. Several, such as the public health hazards from indoor air pollutants, radon in the home, high-voltage electric fields, and the AIDS epidemic, have been the subjects of headlines since 1986. Older areas, such as hazardous waste site ranking and remediation, air emissions dispersion modeling and exposure assessment, transportation safety, seismic and nuclear risk assessment, and occupational safety in the chemical industry, have continued to receive new treatments and to benefit from advances in quantitative risk assessment methods, as documented in the theoretical and methodological papers in this volume. A theme of the meeting was the importance of new technologies and the new and uncertain risks that they create.

Dental Management Of The Medically Compromised Patient E Book

Author: James W. Little
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323088015
Size: 80.35 MB
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Learn how common medical conditions can affect the course of the dental treatment a patient receives. This updated, concise reference provides the information you need to provide appropriate dental care to any patient, regardless of existing medical conditions. Featuring vivid illustrations and well-organized tables in each chapter, this text gives you the in-depth details and the overall summaries you need to get to the root of your patients’ needs. Organization of medical conditions provides a brief overview of the basic disease process, epidemiology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, and currently accepted medical therapy of each disorder. This is followed by a detailed explanation and recommendations for specific dental management. Coverage of dosages, side effects, and drug interactions with medications used in dentistry, including those used during pregnancy. Chapters focusing on major health problems in the US and other nations include, ischemic hearth disease, smoking and tobacco use cessation, sleep-related breathing disorders, sexually transmitted diseases, diabetes mellitus, and psychiatric disorders. Dental management summary table summarizes important factors for consideration in the dental management of medically compromised patients. Appendix on the therapeutic management of common oral lesions provides a quick reference to the causative factors, clinical description, currently accepted therapeutic management, and patient education regarding common oral conditions. Appendix on alternative and complementary drugs looks at herbal remedies, specifically efficacy, adverse effects/reactions, medical problems, drug interactions, and dental implications. NEW! Chapter on drug and alcohol abuse discusses the effects of marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines/methamphetamine, and alcohol, along with considerations for both medical and dental management. NEW! 2009 AAOS statement on Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Bacteremia in Patients with Joint Replacements provides recommendations to supplement practitioners in their clinical judgment regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with a joint prosthesis.

Community In The Balance

Author: James Hagen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317262204
Size: 55.34 MB
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Community in the Balance presents a fresh perspective on some classic social science issues. It examines the conflicts and tensions that permeate day-to-day interactions of a people in a remote region of the eastern Indonesian province of Maluku. The Maneo openly tout the pleasures of living alone in the forests of Seram away from the demands of kith and kin and the scrutiny that comes from life in villages in close proximity. The option is real. Yet while the incessant social demands and low-level enmities they attribute to village life are also felt, most acutely in the peril of sorcery, the accounts of strife are exaggerated to help establish the mutuality of the terms on which people do associate-as a collective sacrifice and virtue. Drawing on Aristotelian ideas of morality and exploring the modalities of recognition, desire, and displacement, the book focuses on the strategies of negotiation and obfuscation Maneo employ to foster community life. As volition is central to moral practice, the book's analysis of the subsequent religious conflagration that swept the province between 1999 and 2002 illuminates how fears and rumors of attack narrowed options that might otherwise have enabled enough people to opt out, condemn the violence, and perhaps contain it.

Mad Cow Crisis

Author: Scott C. Ratzan
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 081477511X
Size: 37.93 MB
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In the spring of 1996, when numerous reports of bovine spongioform encephalopathy, popularly known as "mad cow disease," coincided with an outbreak of a similar neuropathological disease in humans, a panic spread across Britain, Europe, and subsequently to the United States. Described as "the biggest crisis the European Union ever had," the mad cow controversy raised important issues about the ways in which risks to the public heath are assessed, disseminated, and controlled. Was the "epidemic" merely a failure of management, the lessons of which could be incorporated into a new strategy for dealing with public anxiety? Was it an isolated case of poor decision-making in a highly volatile economic sector, or was it the kind of nightmare that could face any government responsible for public safety? And what role did the media play in exacerbating an already spiraling crisis? Divided into four major sections–"Scientific/Historical Perspectives"; "Politics as Health"; "Understanding the Crisis"; and "Lessons and Possibilities" – Mad Cow Crisis assembles the perspectives of a range of experts on this strange and frightening phenomenon, with a view to helping us comprehend how and why such crises occur. Both a careful consideration of how we interpret risk and uncertainty and a step-by-step guide to managing public fear, this important book will interest anyone concerned with public health, communication, science, economics, and medicine.

Introduction To Public Health E Book

Author: Mary Louise Fleming
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0729578909
Size: 17.82 MB
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This text introduces students to the core concepts and principles of public health: the nature and scope of public health; its history; an introduction to health determinants and epidemiology; evidence-based practice in public health and understanding public health data plus more.