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Managing Risk And Uncertainty During A Novel Epidemic

Author: Maya Ponte
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 50.30 MB
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This dissertation is an analysis of the strategic management of risk and uncertainty in health policy. The question I have posed is: how does the government and its scientific advisers attempt to control the future of a disease when many gaps in our knowledge persist? In particular, I focus on selected debates, discussions, and decisions surrounding the management of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, in both the US and UK over the past two decades. Between the summer of 2001 and the spring of 2005 I conducted participant-observation research in a variety of settings. Beginning with a few nodes in the network of prion disease management, I followed the network to other nodes, or sites, where knowledge was being produced, disease management actions were being discussed, and decisions were being made. In addition, I conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 family members of patients diagnosed with prion disease, 15 past or present US and UK government employees in positions dealing with prion disease risk management, and 48 scientists from the US, UK, France, Germany, and Switzerland. I found that risk and uncertainty were managed strategically through recourse to metaphors. These metaphors included model systems of the disease and past experiences with other diseases. Uncertainty was further marginalized, or rather disguised, by employing Future Oriented Statistical Projections, or predictions of the ensuing course of a disease based on the aforementioned metaphors. By presenting the future course of a disease as knowable through numbers, the remaining uncertainties appeared to melt away. Further, risk was often treated as though it could be bounded spatially and temporally through recourse to bodily, geographic, and temporal metaphors while the attendant uncertainties were bracketed to produce a momentary feeling of certainty. These strategies offered a means of cloaking risk management decisions in a guise of rationality despite the underlying uncertainties involved. In this way, governments, advisory committees, and other institutions charged with managing disease upheld their mandate to plan for the future in a "rational" manner. Such rationality was often only temporary in appearance, readily dissolving as uncertainties resurfaced.

New Risks Issues And Management

Author: Louis A. Cox
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306435379
Size: 28.18 MB
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This volume contains the proceedings of the 1986 annual meeting and conference of the Society for Risk Analysis. It provides a detailed view of both mature disciplines and emerging areas within the fields of health, safety, and environmental risk analysis as they existed in 1986. In selecting and organizing topics for this conference, we sought both (i) to identify and include new ideas and application areas that would be of lasting interest to risk analysts and to users of risk analysis results, and (ii) to include innovative methods and applications in established areas of risk analysis. In the three years since the conference, many of the topics presented there for the first time to a broad risk analysis audience have become well developed-and sometimes hotly debated-areas of applied risk research. Several, such as the public health hazards from indoor air pollutants, radon in the home, high-voltage electric fields, and the AIDS epidemic, have been the subjects of headlines since 1986. Older areas, such as hazardous waste site ranking and remediation, air emissions dispersion modeling and exposure assessment, transportation safety, seismic and nuclear risk assessment, and occupational safety in the chemical industry, have continued to receive new treatments and to benefit from advances in quantitative risk assessment methods, as documented in the theoretical and methodological papers in this volume. A theme of the meeting was the importance of new technologies and the new and uncertain risks that they create.

Risk And Reason

Author: Cass R. Sunstein
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521016254
Size: 50.11 MB
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Reveals the sources of such problems as airplane safety, global warming, and pollution, and examines what can be done by providing proposals for social reform and risk regulation.

Fowler S Zoo And Wild Animal Medicine Current Therapy Volume 7 E Book

Author: R. Eric Miller
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 1437719856
Size: 36.69 MB
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With coverage of current issues and emerging trends, Fowler's Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Volume 7 provides a comprehensive, all-new reference for the management of zoo and wildlife diseases. A Current Therapy format emphasizes the latest advances in the field, including nutrition, diagnosis, and treatment protocols. Cutting-edge coverage includes topics such as the "One Medicine" concept, laparoscopic surgery in elephants and rhinoceros, amphibian viral diseases, and advanced water quality evaluation for zoos. Editors R. Eric Miller and Murray E. Fowler promote a philosophy of animal conservation, bridging the gap between captive and free-ranging wild animal medicine with chapters contributed by more than 100 international experts. The Current Therapy format focuses on emerging trends, treatment protocols, and diagnostic updates new to the field, providing timely information on the latest advances in zoo and wild animal medicine. Content ranges from drug treatment, nutrition, husbandry, surgery, and imaging to behavioral training. Coverage of species ranges from giraffes, elephants, lions, and orangutans to sea turtles, hellbenders, bats, kakapos, and more. An extensive list of contributors includes recognized authors from around the world, offering expert information with chapters focusing on the latest research and clinical management of captive and free-ranging wild animals. A philosophy of animal conservation helps zoo and wildlife veterinarians fulfill not only the technical aspects of veterinary medicine, but contribute to the overall biological teams needed to rescue many threatened and endangered species from extinction. All content is new, with coverage including coverage of cutting-edge issues such as white-nose disease in bats, updates on Ebola virus in wild great apes, and chytrid fungus in amphibians. Full-color photographs depict external clinical signs for more accurate clinical recognition. Discussions of the "One Medicine" concept include chapters addressing the interface between wildlife, livestock, human, and ecosystem health. New sections cover Edentates, Marsupials, Carnivores, Perrissodactyla, and Camelids. Over 100 new tables provide a quick reference to a wide range of topics. An emphasis on conserving threatened and endangered species globally involves 102 expert authors representing 12 different countries.

Uncertainty And Risk

Author: Gabriele Bammer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136549854
Size: 43.79 MB
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This is a major, and deeply thoughtful, contribution to understanding uncertainty and risk. Our world and its unprecedented challenges need such ways of thinking! Much more than a set of contributions from different disciplines, this book leads you to explore your own way of perceiving your own area of work. An outstanding contribution that will stay on my shelves for many years. Dr Neil T. M. Hamilton, Director, WWF International Arctic Programme This collection of essays provides a unique and fascinating overview of perspectives on uncertainty and risk across a wide variety of disciplines. It is a valuable and accessible sourcebook for specialists and laypeople alike. Professor Renate Schubert, Head of the Institute for Environmental Decisions and Chair of Economics at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology This comprehensive collection of disciplinary perspectives on uncertainty is a definitive guide to contemporary insights into this Achilles heel of modernity and the endemic hubris of institutional science in its role as public authority. It gives firm foundations to the fundamental historic shift now underway in the world, towards normalizing acceptance of the immanent condition of ignorance and of its practical corollaries: contingency, uncontrol, and respect for difference. Brian Wynne, Professor of Science Studies, Lancaster University Bammer and Smithson have assembled a fascinating, important collection of papers on uncertainty and its management. The integrative nature of Uncertainty and Risk makes it a landmark in the intellectual history of this vital cross-disciplinary concept. George Cvetkovich, Director, Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University Uncertainty governs our lives. From the unknowns of living with the risks of terrorism to developing policies on genetically modified foods, or disaster planning for catastrophic climate change, how we conceptualize, evaluate and cope with uncertainty drives our actions and deployment of resources, decisions and priorities. In this thorough and wide-ranging volume, theoretical perspectives are drawn from art history, complexity science, economics, futures, history, law, philosophy, physics, psychology, statistics and theology. On a practical level, uncertainty is examined in emergency management, intelligence, law enforcement, music, policy and politics. Key problems that are a subject of focus are environmental management, communicable diseases and illicit drugs. Opening and closing sections of the book provide major conceptual strands in uncertainty thinking and develop an integrated view of the nature of uncertainty, uncertainty as a motivating or de-motivating force, and strategies for coping and managing under uncertainty.

Coping With Risk In Agriculture 3rd Edition

Author: J Brian Hardaker
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1780645740
Size: 21.87 MB
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Risk and uncertainty are inescapable factors in agriculture which require careful management. Farmers face production risks from the weather, crop and livestock performance, and pests and diseases, as well as institutional, personal and business risks. This revised third edition of the popular textbook includes updated chapters on theory and methods and contains a new chapter discussing the state-contingent approach to the analysis of production and the use of copulas to better model stochastic dependency. Aiming to introduce agricultural decision making, probability and risk preference, this book is an indispensable guide for students and researchers of agriculture and agribusiness management.

Emerging Pathogens An Issue Of Clinics In Laboratory Medicine E Book

Author: Nahed Ismail
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323530168
Size: 40.79 MB
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This issue of Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, edited by Drs. Nahed Ismail, A. William Pasculle, and James Snyder, will cover a wide variety of Emerging Pathogens. Topics covered in this issue include, but are not limited to West Nile Virus; Zika Virus; Ebola and Marburg Heamorrhagic Fever; Rift Valley Fever; Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriacae; Closteridium Difficuile; and Chikungunya, among others.

Environmental Decisions In The Face Of Uncertainty

Author: Committee on Decision Making Under Uncertainty
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309130344
Size: 47.48 MB
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is one of several federal agencies responsible for protecting Americans against significant risks to human health and the environment. As part of that mission, EPA estimates the nature, magnitude, and likelihood of risks to human health and the environment; identifies the potential regulatory actions that will mitigate those risks and protect public health1 and the environment; and uses that information to decide on appropriate regulatory action. Uncertainties, both qualitative and quantitative, in the data and analyses on which these decisions are based enter into the process at each step. As a result, the informed identification and use of the uncertainties inherent in the process is an essential feature of environmental decision making. EPA requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convene a committee to provide guidance to its decision makers and their partners in states and localities on approaches to managing risk in different contexts when uncertainty is present. It also sought guidance on how information on uncertainty should be presented to help risk managers make sound decisions and to increase transparency in its communications with the public about those decisions. Given that its charge is not limited to human health risk assessment and includes broad questions about managing risks and decision making, in this report the committee examines the analysis of uncertainty in those other areas in addition to human health risks. Environmental Decisions in the Face of Uncertainty explains the statement of task and summarizes the findings of the committee.

Risky Medicine

Author: Robert Aronowitz
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 022604985X
Size: 49.37 MB
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Will ever-more sensitive screening tests for cancer lead to longer, better lives? Will anticipating and trying to prevent the future complications of chronic disease lead to better health? Not always, says Robert Aronowitz in Risky Medicine. In fact, it often is hurting us. Exploring the transformation of health care over the last several decades that has led doctors to become more attentive to treating risk than treating symptoms or curing disease, Aronowitz shows how many aspects of the health system and clinical practice are now aimed at risk reduction and risk control. He argues that this transformation has been driven in part by the pharmaceutical industry, which benefits by promoting its products to the larger percentage of the population at risk for a particular illness, rather than the smaller percentage who are actually affected by it. Meanwhile, for those suffering from chronic illness, the experience of risk and disease has been conflated by medical practitioners who focus on anticipatory treatment as much if not more than on relieving suffering caused by disease. Drawing on such controversial examples as HPV vaccines, cancer screening programs, and the cancer survivorship movement, Aronowitz argues that patients and their doctors have come to believe, perilously, that far too many medical interventions are worthwhile because they promise to control our fears and reduce uncertainty. Risky Medicine is a timely call for a skeptical response to medicine’s obsession with risk, as well as for higher standards of evidence for risk-reducing interventions and a rebalancing of health care to restore an emphasis on the actual curing of and caring for people suffering from disease.

Dental Management Of The Medically Compromised Patient E Book

Author: James W. Little
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0323088015
Size: 19.29 MB
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Learn how common medical conditions can affect the course of the dental treatment a patient receives. This updated, concise reference provides the information you need to provide appropriate dental care to any patient, regardless of existing medical conditions. Featuring vivid illustrations and well-organized tables in each chapter, this text gives you the in-depth details and the overall summaries you need to get to the root of your patients’ needs. Organization of medical conditions provides a brief overview of the basic disease process, epidemiology, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, laboratory findings, and currently accepted medical therapy of each disorder. This is followed by a detailed explanation and recommendations for specific dental management. Coverage of dosages, side effects, and drug interactions with medications used in dentistry, including those used during pregnancy. Chapters focusing on major health problems in the US and other nations include, ischemic hearth disease, smoking and tobacco use cessation, sleep-related breathing disorders, sexually transmitted diseases, diabetes mellitus, and psychiatric disorders. Dental management summary table summarizes important factors for consideration in the dental management of medically compromised patients. Appendix on the therapeutic management of common oral lesions provides a quick reference to the causative factors, clinical description, currently accepted therapeutic management, and patient education regarding common oral conditions. Appendix on alternative and complementary drugs looks at herbal remedies, specifically efficacy, adverse effects/reactions, medical problems, drug interactions, and dental implications. NEW! Chapter on drug and alcohol abuse discusses the effects of marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines/methamphetamine, and alcohol, along with considerations for both medical and dental management. NEW! 2009 AAOS statement on Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Bacteremia in Patients with Joint Replacements provides recommendations to supplement practitioners in their clinical judgment regarding antibiotic prophylaxis for patients with a joint prosthesis.