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Mass Action In The Nervous System

Author: Gerard Meurant
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323140203
Size: 37.61 MB
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Mass Action in the Nervous System: Examination of the Neurophysiological Basis of Adaptive Behavior through the EEG focuses on the neural mechanisms and the behavioral significance of the electroencephalogram, with emphasis on observations made on the mammalian olfactory system. Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with a brief nonmathematical review of the concept of the neuron and the interrelations among neurons that lead to the formation of interactive masses. Some chapters follow on the linear properties of neurons and their parts; the ionic hypothesis; the nonlinear input-output relations of neurons in masses expressed in terms of amplitude-dependent coefficients in linear differential equations; and the relations between the states of activity of neurons. Subsequent chapters describe the properties resulting from feedback within neural masses; the effects of the nonlinearities in the input-output relations of neurons on the behavior of masses; and some inferences concerning the mechanisms of neural signal processing at the level of neural masses. The book is a model for an advanced text in neurophysiology, and some understanding is assumed of the elements of the fields of linear analysis, probability, statistics, theory of potential, neuroanatomy, electrophysiology, neuropharmacology, and experimental psychology.

Self Organization In The Nervous System

Author: Yan M. Yufik
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889453405
Size: 52.43 MB
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This special issue reviews state-of-the-art approaches to the biophysical roots of cognition. These approaches appeal to the notion that cognitive capacities serve to optimize responses to changing external conditions. Crucially, this optimisation rests on the ability to predict changes in the environment, thus allowing organisms to respond pre-emptively to changes before their onset. The biophysical mechanisms that underwrite these cognitive capacities remain largely unknown; although a number of hypotheses has been advanced in systems neuroscience, biophysics and other disciplines. These hypotheses converge on the intersection of thermodynamic and information-theoretic formulations of self-organization in the brain. The latter perspective emerged when Shannon’s theory of message transmission in communication systems was used to characterise message passing between neurons. In its subsequent incarnations, the information theory approach has been integrated into computational neuroscience and the Bayesian brain framework. The thermodynamic formulation rests on a view of the brain as an aggregation of stochastic microprocessors (neurons), with subsequent appeal to the constructs of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. In particular, the use of ensemble dynamics to elucidate the relationship between micro-scale parameters and those of the macro-scale aggregation (the brain). In general, the thermodynamic approach treats the brain as a dissipative system and seeks to represent the development and functioning of cognitive mechanisms as collective capacities that emerge in the course of self-organization. Its explicanda include energy efficiency; enabling progressively more complex cognitive operations such as long-term prediction and anticipatory planning. A cardinal example of the Bayesian brain approach is the free energy principle that explains self-organizing dynamics in the brain in terms of its predictive capabilities – and selective sampling of sensory inputs that optimise variational free energy as a proxy for Bayesian model evidence. An example of thermodynamically grounded proposals, in this issue, associates self-organization with phase transitions in neuronal state-spaces; resulting in the formation of bounded neuronal assemblies (neuronal packets). This special issue seeks a discourse between thermodynamic and informational formulations of the self-organising and self-evidencing brain. For example, could minimization of thermodynamic free energy during the formation of neuronal packets underlie minimization of variational free energy?

Mechanisms Of Drug Action On The Nervous System

Author: R. W. Ryall
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521274371
Size: 63.42 MB
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Drugs affecting the nerves and the brain are among the most commonly used in contemporary medicine. This book examines the mechanism by which such substances cause their therapeutic effects or undesirable side-effects, in relation to underlying physiological and pathological processes. This new edition has been extensively revised and reorganised; the section on the autonomic system has been greatly expanded. Other changes reflect the significant advances in our understanding of drug action in the peripheral and central nervous systems which have arisen through the application of new electrophysiological and computer techniques. The volume summarises the explosion of information concerning endogenous opioids, other peptides, the benzodiazepines and their receptors. Later chapters deal with the activity and role of drugs in a number of disorders including epilepsy, schizophrenia and depression. This textbook is suitable for undergraduates in pre-clinical medical sciences, pharmaceutical and natural sciences; and for post-graduates and trainees in neuroscience, psychiatry and anaesthesia.

The Human Central Nervous System

Author: Rudolf Nieuwenhuys
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540346864
Size: 32.44 MB
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The present edition of The Human Central Nervous System differs considerably from its predecessors. In previous editions, the text was essentially confined to a section dealing with the various functional systems of the brain. This section, which has been rewritten and updated, is now preceded by 15 newly written chapters, which introduce the pictorial material of the gross anatomy, the blood vessels and meninges and the microstructure of its various parts and deal with the development, topography and functional anatomy of the spinal cord, the brain stem and the cerebellum, the diencephalon and the telencephalon. Great pains have been taken to cover the most recent concepts and data. As suggested by the front cover, there is a focus on the evolutionary development of the human brain. Throughout the text numerous correlations with neuropathology and clinical n- rology have been made. After much thought, we decided to replace the full Latin terminology, cherished in all previous editions, with English and Anglicized Latin terms. It has been an emotional farewell from beautiful terms such as decussatio hipposideriformis W- nekinkii and pontes grisei caudatolenticulares. Not only the text, but also the p- torial material has been extended and brought into harmony with the present state of knowledge. More than 230 new illustrations have been added and many others have been revised. The number of macroscopical sections through the brain has been extended considerably. Together, these illustrations now comprise a complete and convenient atlas for interpreting neuroimaging studies.

Clinical Neuroanatomy 26th Edition

Author: Stephen G. Waxman
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071604006
Size: 68.14 MB
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Learn the essential aspects of neuroanatomy and its clinical relevance with the field's most concise, trusted, and effective text "...an excellent update of the neuroanatomy text that has become a standard since its first publication in 1938....The strengths of the book include the hundreds of easy to understand color line illustrations, the clear and concise language of the text and the many tables of summarized information....It could be highly recommended to and would be enjoyed by medical students and trainees in internal medicine, neurology, and neurosurgery, and also as a reference for clinicians in these fields, particularly those teaching students and trainees."--World Neurosurgery For more than seventy years, Clinical Neuroanatomy has delivered a streamlined, comprehensive, and easy-to-remember synopsis of neuroanatomy and its functional and clinical applications. Emphasizing the most important concepts, facts, and structures, this well-illustrated and enjoyable-to-read text reflects the state-of-the-art in pathophysiology and the diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders. Features that make Clinical Neuroanatomy perfect for board review or as a clinical refresher: Discussion of the latest advances in molecular and cellular biology in the context of neuroanatomy Clinical correlations to help you interpret and remember essential neuroanatomic concepts in terms of function and clinical application Numerous computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the normal brain and spinal cord; functional magnetic resonance images that provide a noninvasive window on brain function; and neuroimaging studies that illustrate common pathological entities that affect the nervous system An Introduction to Clinical Thinking section that puts neuroanatomy in a unique clinical perspective Numerous tables that make the information clear and easy to remember A complete practice exam to test your knowledge Coverage of the basic structure and function of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves as well as clinical presentations of disease processes involving specific structures NEW full-color illustrations

Clinical Neuroanatomy 27 E

Author: Stephen G. Waxman
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 007179798X
Size: 25.66 MB
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A streamlined, comprehensive synopsis of neuroanatomy and its functional and clinical applications For more than seventy years, Clinical Neuroanatomy has been the best way for medical students, residents, trainees in health-related fields, and clinicians in practice to gain an understanding of neuroanatomy, its functional underpinnings, and its relationship to the clinic. Emphasizing the important concepts, facts, and structures, this full-color and engagingly written text includes clear, memorable tables and diagrams, and is state of the art in pathophysiology and diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders. Here's why Clinical Neuroanatomy is essential for board review or as a clinical refresher: More than 300 full-color illustrations Clinical correlations help you interpret and remember essential neuroanatomic concepts in terms of function and clinical application Numerous computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of the normal brain and spinal cord; functional magnetic resonance images that provide a noninvasive window on brain function; and neuroimaging studies that illustrate common pathological entities that affect the nervous system Coverage of the latest advances in molecular and cellular biology in the context of neuroanatomy A unique Introduction to Clinical Thinking section that puts neuroanatomy in a clinical perspective Clear, easy-to-read tables that encapsulate important information A complete practice exam to test your knowledge Coverage of the basic structure and function of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves as well as clinical presentations of disease processes involving specific structures

Contemporary Theories And Systems In Psychology

Author: Benjamin B. Wolman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146843800X
Size: 17.49 MB
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Twenty years is a long time in the life of a science. While the historical roots of psychology have not changed since the first edition of this book, some of the offshoots of the various theories and systems discussed have been crit ically reexamined and have undergone far-reaching modifications. New and bold research has led to a broadening of perspectives, and recent devel opments in several areas required a considerable amount of rewriting. I have been fortunate in the last fifteen years to have worked with about 2,000 psychologists and other behavioral scientists who contributed to several collected volumes I have edited. As the editor-in-chief of the In ternational Encyclopedia of Psychiatry, Psychology, Psychoanalysis and Neurol ogy, I have had the privilege of reading, scrutinizing, and editing the work of 1,500 experts in psychology and related disciplines. In addition, I have written several books and monographs and over one hundred scientific papers. Armed with all that experience, I have carefully examined the pages of the first edition. Chapter 8 required substantial rewriting and several new sections have been added to other chapters: "Current Soviet Psychol ogy" (Chapter 2, Section 7); "New Ideas on Purposivism" (Chapter 5, Sec tion 4); "Recent Developments in the Sociological School of Psychoanalysis" (Chapter 9, Section 4); and "Present Status of Gestalt Psychology" (Chapter 12, Section 4). Chapter 15 was omitted, and two new chapters were added: Chapter 14 ("Humanistic Psychology") and Chapter 16 ("Selected Research Areas").

Self Organizing Complexity In Psychological Systems

Author: Craig Piers
Publisher: Jason Aronson, Incorporated
ISBN: 1461630657
Size: 16.54 MB
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Self-Organizing Complexity in Psychological Systems offers a contemporary perspective on the mind through a compilation of original chapters written by some of the leading researchers in the area of complexity theory. In each of the chapters, the authors attempt to use complexity theory to inform and in some cases reformulate existing theories of brain function (Freeman; Grigsby & Osuch), personality (Grigsby & Osuch), psychic organization and structure (Goldstein; Piers), human development (Demos), psychopathology (Palombo; Piers) and psychotherapeutic change (Palombo).