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Materials For Energy Conversion Devices

Author: C. C. Sorrell
Publisher: Taylor & Francis US
ISBN: 9781855739321
Size: 25.28 MB
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This book opens with a detailed exploration of the fields of solar energy and thermoelectric conversion. Beginning with chapters on photoelectrochemical devices, properties and uses of photosensitive materials and solar cells, it then moves its focus on thermoelectricity, starting with an introduction to the subject and then explaining the field of thermoelectricity measurement. The book goes on to discuss the field of chemical and nuclear energy conversion and monitoring, including chapters on fast ionic conductors, oxygen ionic conductors and high-level radioactive waste and electrochemical gas sensors for emission control. This innovative new study is the first comprehensive survey of major new developments in energy conversion devices, with contributions from an international group of leading innovators.

Luminescence Thermometry

Author: Miroslav Dramićanin
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081020309
Size: 69.53 MB
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Luminescence Thermometry: Methods, Materials, and Applications presents the state-of-the art applications of luminescence thermometry, giving a detailed explanation of luminescence spectroscopic schemes for the read-out of temperature, while also describing the diverse materials that are capable of sensing temperature via luminescence. Chapters cover the fundamentals of temperature, traditional thermometers and their figures of merit, a concise description of optical thermometry methods, luminescence and instrumentation, and an explanation of the ways in which increases in temperature quench luminescence. Additional sections focus on materials utilized for luminescence thermometry and the broad range of applications for luminescence thermometry, including temperature measurement at the nanoscale and the application of multifunctional luminescent materials. Provides an overview of luminescence thermometry applications, including high-temperature, biomedical, nanoscale and multifunctional Delves into luminescence thermometry by materials group, including Rare-earth and transition Metal Ion Doped, Semiconductors, Quantum Dots and Organic materials Gives a concise introduction of the latest methods of temperature measurement, including luminescence spectroscopic schemes and methods of analysis

Smart Sensors And Mems

Author: S Nihtianov
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0857099299
Size: 47.21 MB
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Smart sensors and MEMS can include a variety of devices and systems that have a high level of functionality. They do this either by integrating multiple sensing and actuating modes into one device, or else by integrating sensing and actuating with information processing, analog-to-digital conversion and memory functions. Part one outlines the industrial applications for smart sensors, covering direct interface circuits for sensors, capacitive sensors for displacement measurement in the sub-nanometer range, integrated inductive displacement sensors for harsh industrial environments, advanced silicon radiation detectors in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral range, and advanced optical incremental sensors (encoders and interferometers), among other topics. The second part of the book describes the industrial applications of smart micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). Some of the topics covered in this section include microfabrication technologies used for creating smart devices for industrial applications, microactuators, dynamic behaviour of smart MEMS in industrial applications, MEMS integrating motion and displacement sensors, MEMS print heads for industrial printing, Photovoltaic and fuel cells in power MEMS for smart energy management, and radio frequency (RF)-MEMS for smart communication microsystems. Smart sensors and MEMS is invaluable reference for academics, materials scientists and electrical engineers working in the microelectronics, sensors and micromechanics industry, and engineers looking for industrial sensing, monitoring and automation solutions. Outlines industrial applications for smart sensors and smart MEMS Covers smart sensors including capacitive, inductive, resistive and magnetic sensors and sensors to detect radiation and measure temperature Covers smart MEMS including power MEMS, radio frequency MEMS, optical MEMS, inertial MEMS, and microreaction chambers

Handbook Of Organic Materials For Optical And Opto Electronic Devices

Author: Oksana Ostroverkhova
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857098764
Size: 35.55 MB
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Small molecules and conjugated polymers, the two main types of organic materials used for optoelectronic and photonic devices, can be used in a number of applications including organic light-emitting diodes, photovoltaic devices, photorefractive devices and waveguides. Organic materials are attractive due to their low cost, the possibility of their deposition from solution onto large-area substrates, and the ability to tailor their properties. The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices provides an overview of the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials, and explains how these materials can be used across a range of applications. Parts one and two explore the materials used for organic optoelectronics and nonlinear optics, their properties, and methods of their characterization illustrated by physical studies. Part three moves on to discuss the applications of optoelectronic and nonlinear optical organic materials in devices and includes chapters on organic solar cells, electronic memory devices, and electronic chemical sensors, electro-optic devices. The Handbook of organic materials for optical and (opto)electronic devices is a technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists involved in research and development of organic semiconductor and nonlinear optical materials and devices. Comprehensively examines the properties of organic optoelectronic and nonlinear optical materials Discusses their applications in different devices including solar cells, LEDs and electronic memory devices An essential technical resource for physicists, chemists, electrical engineers and materials scientists

Solid State Hydrogen Storage

Author: Gavin Walker
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1845694945
Size: 68.70 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Hydrogen fuel cells are emerging as a major alternative energy source in transportation and other applications. Central to the development of the hydrogen economy is safe, efficient and viable storage of hydrogen. Solid-state hydrogen storage: Materials and chemistry reviews the latest developments in solid-state hydrogen storage. Part one discusses hydrogen storage technologies, hydrogen futures, hydrogen containment materials and solid-state hydrogen storage system design. Part two reviews the analysis of hydrogen interactions including structural characterisation of hydride materials, neutron scattering techniques, reliably measuring hydrogen uptake in storage materials and modelling of carbon-based materials for hydrogen storage. Part three analyses physically-bound hydrogen storage with chapters on zeolites, carbon nanostructures and metal-organic framework materials. Part four examines chemically-bound hydrogen storage including intermetallics, magnesium hydride, alanates, borohydrides, imides and amides, multicomponent hydrogen storage systems, organic liquid carriers, indirect hydrogen storage in metal ammines and technological challenges in hydrogen storage. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Solid-state hydrogen storage: Materials and chemistry is a standard reference for researchers and professionals in the field of renewable energy, hydrogen fuel cells and hydrogen storage. Assesses hydrogen fuel cells as a major alternative energy source Discusses hydrogen storage technologies and solid-state hydrogen storage system design Explores the analysis of hydrogen interactions including reliably measuring hydrogen uptake in storage materials

Applications Of Atila Fem Software To Smart Materials

Author: Kenji Uchino
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857096311
Size: 71.86 MB
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ATILA Finite Element Method (FEM) software facilitates the modelling and analysis of applications using piezoelectric, magnetostrictor and shape memory materials. It allows entire designs to be constructed, refined and optimized before production begins. Through a range of instructive case studies, Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials provides an indispensable guide to the use of this software in the design of effective products. Part one provides an introduction to ATILA FEM software, beginning with an overview of the software code. New capabilities and loss integration are discussed, before part two goes on to present case studies of finite element modelling using ATILA. The use of ATILA in finite element analysis, piezoelectric polarization, time domain analysis of piezoelectric devices and the design of ultrasonic motors is considered, before piezo-composite and photonic crystal applications are reviewed. The behaviour of piezoelectric single crystals for sonar and thermal analysis in piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials is also discussed, before a final reflection on the use of ATILA in modelling the damping of piezoelectric structures and the behaviour of single crystal devices. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Applications of ATILA FEM software to smart materials is a key reference work for all those involved in the research, design, development and application of smart materials, including electrical and mechanical engineers, academics and scientists working in piezoelectrics, magenetostrictors and shape memory materials. Provides an indispensable guide to the use of ATILA FEM software in the design of effective products Discusses new capabilities and loss integration of the software code, before presenting case studies of finite element modelling using ATILA Discusses the behaviour of piezoelectric single crystals for sonar and thermal analysis in piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials, before a reflection on the use of ATILA in modelling the damping of piezoelectric structures

Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides For The Next Generation Of Electronics And Functional Devices

Author: Serge Zhuiykov
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 1782422242
Size: 13.67 MB
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Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors. Semiconductor oxides are used in electronics, optics, catalysts, sensors, and other functional devices. In their 2D form, the reduction in size confers exceptional properties, useful for creating faster electronics and more efficient catalysts. After explaining the physics affecting the conductivity and electron arrangement of nanostructured semiconductors, the book addresses the structural and chemical modification of semiconductor nanocrystals during material growth. It then covers their use in nanoscale functional devices, particularly in electronic devices and carbon nanotubes. It explores the impact of 2D nanocrystals, such as graphene, chalcogenides, and oxide nanostructures, on research and technology, leading to a discussion of incorporating graphene and semiconductor nanostructures into composites for use in energy storage. The final three chapters focus on the applications of these functional materials in photovoltaic cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and in environmental sensors including pH, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved metal ion sensors. Nanostructured Semiconductor Oxides for the Next Generation of Electronics and Functional Devices is a crucial resource for scientists, applied researchers, and production engineers working in the fabrication, design, testing, characterization, and analysis of new semiconductor materials. This book is a valuable reference for those working in the analysis and characterization of new nanomaterials, and for those who develop technologies for practical devices fabrication. Focuses on the development of semiconductor nanocrystals, their technologies and applications, including energy harvesting, solar cells, solid oxide fuel cells, and chemical sensors Reviews fundamental physics of conductivity and electron arrangement before proceeding to practical applications A vital resource for applied researchers and production engineers working with new semiconductor materials

Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Packaging

Author: Katsuaki Suganuma
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081020953
Size: 20.24 MB
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Wide Bandgap Power Semiconductor Packaging: Materials, Components, and Reliability addresses the key challenges that WBG power semiconductors face during integration, including heat resistance, heat dissipation and thermal stress, noise reduction at high frequency and discrete components, and challenges in interfacing, metallization, plating, bonding and wiring. Experts on the topic present the latest research on materials, components and methods of reliability and evaluation for WBG power semiconductors and suggest solutions to pave the way for integration. As wide bandgap (WBG) power semiconductors, SiC and GaN, are the latest promising electric conversion devices because of their excellent features, such as high breakdown voltage, high frequency capability, and high heat-resistance beyond 200 C, this book is a timely resource on the topic. Examines the key challenges of wide bandgap power semiconductor packaging at various levels, including materials, components and device performance Provides the latest research on potential solutions, with an eye towards the end goal of system integration Discusses key problems, such as thermal management, noise reduction, challenges in interconnects and substrates

Metallic Films For Electronic Optical And Magnetic Applications

Author: Katayun Barmak
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 085709629X
Size: 65.83 MB
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Metallic films play an important role in modern technologies such as integrated circuits, information storage, displays, sensors, and coatings. Metallic Films for Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Applications reviews the structure, processing and properties of metallic films. Part one explores the structure of metallic films using characterization methods such as x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. This part also encompasses the processing of metallic films, including structure formation during deposition and post-deposition reactions and phase transformations. Chapters in part two focus on the properties of metallic films, including mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and thermal properties. Metallic Films for Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Applications is a technical resource for electronics components manufacturers, scientists, and engineers working in the semiconductor industry, product developers of sensors, displays, and other optoelectronic devices, and academics working in the field. Explores the structure of metallic films using characterization methods such as x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy Discusses processing of metallic films, including structure formation during deposition and post-deposition reactions and phase transformations Focuses on the properties of metallic films, including mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and thermal properties

Ultrasonic Transducers

Author: K Nakamura
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857096303
Size: 27.60 MB
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Ultrasonic transducers are key components in sensors for distance, flow and level measurement as well as in power, biomedical and other applications of ultrasound. Ultrasonic transducers reviews recent research in the design and application of this important technology. Part one provides an overview of materials and design of ultrasonic transducers. Piezoelectricity and basic configurations are explored in depth, along with electromagnetic acoustic transducers, and the use of ceramics, thin film and single crystals in ultrasonic transducers. Part two goes on to investigate modelling and characterisation, with performance modelling, electrical evaluation, laser Doppler vibrometry and optical visualisation all considered in detail. Applications of ultrasonic transducers are the focus of part three, beginning with a review of surface acoustic wave devices and air-borne ultrasound transducers, and going on to consider ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems, power, biomedical and micro-scale ultrasonics, therapeutic ultrasound devices, piezoelectric and fibre optic hydrophones, and ultrasonic motors are also described. With its distinguished editor and expert team of international contributors,Ultrasonic transducers is an authoritative review of key developments for engineers and materials scientists involved in this area of technology as well as in its applications in sectors as diverse as electronics, wireless communication and medical diagnostics. Reviews recent research in the design and application of ultrasonic transducers Provides an overview of the materials and design of ultrasonic transducers, with an in-depth exploration of piezoelectricity and basic configurations Investigates modelling and characterisation, applications of ultrasonic transducers, and ultrasonic transducers for use at high temperature and in flaw detection systems