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Mathematics Classrooms That Promote Understanding

Author: Elizabeth Fennema
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135676496
Size: 56.60 MB
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Mathematics Classrooms That Promote Understanding synthesizes the implications of research done by the National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences on integrating two somewhat diverse bodies of scholarly inquiry: the study of teaching and the study of learning mathematics. This research was organized around content domains and/or continuing issues of education, such as equity and assessment of learning, and was guided by two common goals--defining the mathematics content of the K-12 curriculum in light of the changing mathematical needs of citizens for the 21st century, and identifying common components of classrooms that enable students to learn the redefined mathematics with understanding. To accomplish these goals, classrooms in which instruction facilitated the growth of understanding were established and/or studied. This volume reports and discusses the findings which grew out of this research, and subsequent papers and discussions among the scholars engaged in the endeavor. Section I, "Setting the Stage," focuses on three major threads: What mathematics should be taught; how we should define and increase students' understanding of that mathematics; and how learning with understanding can be facilitated for all students. Section II, "Classrooms That Promote Understanding," includes vignettes from diverse classrooms that illustrate classroom discourse, student work, and student engagement in the mathematics described in Chapter 1 as well as the mental activities described in Chapter 2. These chapters also illustrate how teachers deal with the equity concerns described in Chapter 3. Section III addresses "Developing Classrooms That Promote Understanding." The knowledge of the teaching/learning process gained from the research reported in this volume is a necessary prerequisite for implementing the revisions called for in the current reform movement. The classrooms described show that innovative reform in teaching and learning mathematics is possible. Unlike many volumes reporting research, this book is written at a level appropriate for master's degree students. Very few references are included in the chapters themselves; instead, each chapter includes a short annotated list of articles for expanded reading which provides the scholarly basis and research substantiation for this volume.

Teachers Professional Development And The Elementary Mathematics Classroom

Author: Sophia Cohen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113563226X
Size: 17.45 MB
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This book illustrates the experiences of elementary school teachers across one year's time as they participated in a teacher development seminar focused on mathematics, and as a result changed their beliefs, their knowledge, and their practices. It explores these experiences as a means of understanding the learning that takes a teacher from a more traditional teaching practice to one that is focused on the ideas and understandings that students and teachers have of the subject matter. The work emerges from and reports on a unique data set from a two-year study of teacher learning that was funded by the Spencer and MacArthur foundations. The teachers, whose work is at the center of this study, were participants in the Developing Mathematical Ideas seminar (DMI), a mathematics teacher development seminar for elementary school teachers. This seminar is one example of intensive, domain-specific professional development. In this seminar teachers study elementary mathematics content to deepen their own understanding of it, they study the development among children of the ideas central to elementary mathematics, and they experience a teaching and learning environment consistent with the pedagogy envisioned by the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics' Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. The seminar is a nationally available teacher development curriculum, thus interested educators can gain access to the resources necessary to offer similar seminars in their own communities. Teachers' Professional Development and the Elementary Mathematics Classroom: Bringing Understandings to Light will be widely interesting to a broad audience, including mathematics teacher educators, teacher education researchers, policymakers, and classroom teachers. It will serve well as a text in a range of graduate courses dealing with teacher cognition/knowledge for teaching, mathematics methods, psychology of learning, and pedagogical theory.

Lesson Study

Author: Clea Fernandez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135644012
Size: 29.66 MB
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Lesson study is a popular professional development approach in Japan whereby teachers collaborate to study content, instruction, and how students solve problems and reach for understanding in order to improve elementary mathematics instruction and learning in the classroom. This book is the first comprehensive look at the system and process of lesson study in Japan. It describes in detail the process of how teachers conducted lesson study--how they collaborated in order to develop a lesson, what they talked about during the process, and what they looked at in order to understand deeply how students were learning. Readers see the planning of a mathematics lesson, as well as how much content knowledge the teachers have. They observe students' problem solving strategies and learn how Japanese teachers prepare themselves to identify those strategies and facilitate the students' discussion. Written for mathematics teachers, educational researchers, school administrators interested in teachers' professional development, and professional developers, this landmark volume provides an in-depth understanding of lesson study that can lead to positive changes in teachers' professional development and in teaching and learning in the United States.

Learning And Teaching Early Math

Author: Douglas H. Clements
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134080719
Size: 26.77 MB
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In this important book for pre- and in-service teachers, early math experts Douglas Clements and Julie Sarama show how "learning trajectories" help diagnose a child’s level of mathematical understanding and provide guidance for teaching. By focusing on the inherent delight and curiosity behind young children’s mathematical reasoning, learning trajectories ultimately make teaching more joyous. They help teachers understand the varying levels of knowledge exhibited by individual students, which in turn allows them to better meet the learning needs of all children. Using straightforward, no-nonsense language, this book summarizes the current research about how children learn mathematics, and how to build on what children already know to realize more effective teaching. This second edition of Learning and Teaching Early Math remains the definitive, research-based resource to help teachers understand the learning trajectories of early mathematics and become quintessential professionals. Updates to the new edition include: • Explicit connections between Learning Trajectories and the new Common Core State Standards. • New coverage of patterns and patterning. • Incorporation of hundreds of recent research studies.

Children S Mathematical Thinking In Primary Years

Author: Julia Anghileri
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 9780826479112
Size: 33.44 MB
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This popular Continuum series, intended chiefly for teachers and trainee teachers, places strong emphasis on practice but at the same time incorporates the latest research in the field. The book demonstrates a strong belief in the ability of children to learn, and in the ability of teachers to increase children's learning potential. The series authors are distinguished practitioners in their fields who write with authority, but without jargon. With the increasingly popular constructivist framework for learning, teachers are coming to recognize the limitations of taught procedures and to find ways to encourage children to generate their own knowledge and understanding in mathematics. The challenge for teachers is to promote an environment that encourages mathematical thinking in which pupils of all abilities are able to achieve their full potential. This text brings together experiences of teachers and researchers who examine the ways children work mathematically, in order to provide an enhanced learning environment within the classroom. It also addresses key issues in current maths teaching.

Mathematical And Analogical Reasoning Of Young Learners

Author: Lyn D. English
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135638705
Size: 34.23 MB
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Mathematical and Analogical Reasoning of Young Learners provides foundational knowledge of the nature, development, and assessment of mathematical and analogical reasoning in young children. Reasoning is fundamental to understanding mathematics and is identified as one of the 10 key standards for school mathematics for the new millennium. The book draws on longitudinal and cross-cultural studies, conducted in the United States and Australia, of children's reasoning development as they progressed from preschool through the end of second grade. The multifaceted analysis of young children's development of mathematical and analogical reasoning focuses on individual learners, their learning environments, and the interaction between the two. The multidisciplinary team of authors present multiple perspectives and multiple methodologies, and provide valuable information on organizing and sustaining interdisciplinary and cross-cultural inquiry. Key issues addressed include: *the relationship between mathematical and analogical reasoning; *how changes in children's reasoning relate to the implicit instruction they receive in their classrooms; *analyses of the participating teachers' knowledge, beliefs, and practices with respect to mathematical and analogical reasoning of young learners; and *ways in which we might promote development of mathematical and analogical reasoning in young children. This volume is highly relevant for mathematics educators, researchers in mathematics education, educational psychologists, early childhood teachers, and others interested in mathematical development of young children, in particular, the development of their reasoning processes.

Designing Learning Environments For Developing Understanding Of Geometry And Space

Author: Richard Lehrer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136490582
Size: 68.18 MB
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This volume reflects an appreciation of the interactive roles of subject matter, teacher, student, and technologies in designing classrooms that promote understanding of geometry and space. Although these elements of geometry education are mutually constituted, the book is organized to highlight, first, the editors' vision of a general geometry education; second, the development of student thinking in everyday and classroom contexts; and third, the role of technologies. Rather than looking to high school geometry as the locus--and all too often, the apex--of geometric reasoning, the contributors to this volume suggest that reasoning about space can and should be successfully integrated with other forms of mathematics, starting at the elementary level and continuing through high school. Reintegrating spatial reasoning into the mathematical mainstream--indeed, placing it at the core of K-12 mathematics environments that promote learning with understanding--will mean increased attention to problems in modeling, structure, and design and reinvigoration of traditional topics such as measure, dimension, and form. Further, the editors' position is that the teaching of geometry and spatial visualization in school should not be compressed into a characterization of Greek geometry, but should include attention to contributions to the mathematics of space that developed subsequent to those of the Greeks. This volume is essential reading for those involved in mathematics education at all levels, including university faculty, researchers, and graduate students.

Algebra In The Early Grades

Author: James J. Kaput
Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum
Size: 11.15 MB
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This volume is the first to offer a comprehensive, research-based, multi-faceted look at issues in early algebra. In recent years, the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics has recommended that algebra become a strand flowing throughout the K-12 curriculum, and the 2003 RAND Mathematics Study Panel has recommended that algebra be "the initial topical choice for focused and coordinated research and development [in K-12 mathematics]." The book provides a rationale for a stronger and more sustained approach to algebra in school, as well as concrete examples of how algebraic reasoning may be developed in the early grades. It is organized around three themes: *The Nature of Early Algebra *Students' Capacity for Algebraic Thinking *Issues of Implementation: Taking Early Algebra to the Classrooms The contributors to this landmark volume have been at the forefront of an effort to integrate algebra into the existing early grades mathematics curriculum. They include scholars who have been developing the conceptual foundations for such changes as well as researchers and developers who have led empirical investigations in school settings. Algebra in the Early Gradesaims to bridge the worlds of research, practice, design, and theory for educators, researchers, students, policy makers, and curriculum developers in mathematics education.