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Mathematics Classrooms That Promote Understanding

Author: Elizabeth Fennema
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1410602613
Size: 40.28 MB
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Mathematics Classrooms That Promote Understanding synthesizes the implications of research done by the National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences on integrating two somewhat diverse bodies of scholarly inquiry: the study of teaching and the study of learning mathematics. This research was organized around content domains and/or continuing issues of education, such as equity and assessment of learning, and was guided by two common goals--defining the mathematics content of the K-12 curriculum in light of the changing mathematical needs of citizens for the 21st century, and identifying common components of classrooms that enable students to learn the redefined mathematics with understanding. To accomplish these goals, classrooms in which instruction facilitated the growth of understanding were established and/or studied. This volume reports and discusses the findings which grew out of this research, and subsequent papers and discussions among the scholars engaged in the endeavor. Section I, "Setting the Stage," focuses on three major threads: What mathematics should be taught; how we should define and increase students' understanding of that mathematics; and how learning with understanding can be facilitated for all students. Section II, "Classrooms That Promote Understanding," includes vignettes from diverse classrooms that illustrate classroom discourse, student work, and student engagement in the mathematics described in Chapter 1 as well as the mental activities described in Chapter 2. These chapters also illustrate how teachers deal with the equity concerns described in Chapter 3. Section III addresses "Developing Classrooms That Promote Understanding." The knowledge of the teaching/learning process gained from the research reported in this volume is a necessary prerequisite for implementing the revisions called for in the current reform movement. The classrooms described show that innovative reform in teaching and learning mathematics is possible. Unlike many volumes reporting research, this book is written at a level appropriate for master's degree students. Very few references are included in the chapters themselves; instead, each chapter includes a short annotated list of articles for expanded reading which provides the scholarly basis and research substantiation for this volume.

Understanding Mathematics And Science Matters

Author: Thomas A. Romberg
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135620210
Size: 58.60 MB
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The research reported in this book provides reliable evidence on and knowledge about mathematics and science instruction that emphasizes student understanding--instruction consistent with the needs of students who will be citizens in an increasingly demanding technological world. The National Center for Improving Student Learning in Mathematics and Science--established in 1996 as a research center and funded by the U.S. Department of Education--was instrumental in developing instructional practices supportive of high student achievement in and understanding of mathematics and science concepts. NCISLA researchers worked with teachers, students, and administrators to construct learning environments that exemplify current research and theory about effective learning of mathematics and science. The careful programs of research conducted examined how instructional content and design, assessment, professional development, and organizational support can be designed, implemented, and orchestrated to support the learning of all students. This book presents a summary of the concepts, findings, and conclusions of the Center's research from 1996-2001. In the Introduction, the chapters in Understanding Mathematics and Science Matters are situated in terms of the reform movement in school mathematics and school science. Three thematically structured sections focus on, respectively, research directed toward what is involved when students learn mathematics and science with understanding; research on the role of teachers and the problems they face when attempting to teach their students mathematics and science with understanding; and a collaboration among some of the contributors to this volume to gather information about classroom assessment practices and organizational support for reform. The goal of this book is to help educational practitioners, policymakers, and the general public to see the validity of the reform recommendations, understand the recommended guidelines, and to use these to transform teaching and learning of mathematics and science in U.S. classrooms.

Teachers Professional Development And The Elementary Mathematics Classroom

Author: Sophia Cohen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113563226X
Size: 39.25 MB
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This book illustrates the experiences of elementary school teachers across one year's time as they participated in a teacher development seminar focused on mathematics, and as a result changed their beliefs, their knowledge, and their practices. It explores these experiences as a means of understanding the learning that takes a teacher from a more traditional teaching practice to one that is focused on the ideas and understandings that students and teachers have of the subject matter. The work emerges from and reports on a unique data set from a two-year study of teacher learning that was funded by the Spencer and MacArthur foundations. The teachers, whose work is at the center of this study, were participants in the Developing Mathematical Ideas seminar (DMI), a mathematics teacher development seminar for elementary school teachers. This seminar is one example of intensive, domain-specific professional development. In this seminar teachers study elementary mathematics content to deepen their own understanding of it, they study the development among children of the ideas central to elementary mathematics, and they experience a teaching and learning environment consistent with the pedagogy envisioned by the National Council for Teachers of Mathematics' Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. The seminar is a nationally available teacher development curriculum, thus interested educators can gain access to the resources necessary to offer similar seminars in their own communities. Teachers' Professional Development and the Elementary Mathematics Classroom: Bringing Understandings to Light will be widely interesting to a broad audience, including mathematics teacher educators, teacher education researchers, policymakers, and classroom teachers. It will serve well as a text in a range of graduate courses dealing with teacher cognition/knowledge for teaching, mathematics methods, psychology of learning, and pedagogical theory.

Forms Of Mathematical Knowledge

Author: Dina Tirosh
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792359951
Size: 43.90 MB
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What mathematics is entailed in knowing to act in a moment? Is tacit, rhetorical knowledge significant in mathematics education? What is the role of intuitive models in understanding, learning and teaching mathematics? Are there differences between elementary and advanced mathematical thinking? Why can't students prove? What are the characteristics of teachers' ways of knowing? This book focuses on various types of knowledge that are significant for learning and teaching mathematics. The first part defines, discusses and contrasts psychological, philosophical and didactical issues related to various types of knowledge involved in the learning of mathematics. The second part describes ideas about forms of mathematical knowledge that are important for teachers to know and ways of implementing such ideas in preservice and in-service education. The chapters provide a wide overview of current thinking about mathematics learning and teaching which is of interest for researchers in mathematics education and mathematics educators. Topics covered include the role of intuition in mathematics learning and teaching, the growth from elementary to advanced mathematical thinking, the significance of genres and rhetoric for the learning of mathematics and the characterization of teachers' ways of knowing.

Lesson Study

Author: Clea Fernandez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135644012
Size: 63.32 MB
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Lesson study is a popular professional development approach in Japan whereby teachers collaborate to study content, instruction, and how students solve problems and reach for understanding in order to improve elementary mathematics instruction and learning in the classroom. This book is the first comprehensive look at the system and process of lesson study in Japan. It describes in detail the process of how teachers conducted lesson study--how they collaborated in order to develop a lesson, what they talked about during the process, and what they looked at in order to understand deeply how students were learning. Readers see the planning of a mathematics lesson, as well as how much content knowledge the teachers have. They observe students' problem solving strategies and learn how Japanese teachers prepare themselves to identify those strategies and facilitate the students' discussion. Written for mathematics teachers, educational researchers, school administrators interested in teachers' professional development, and professional developers, this landmark volume provides an in-depth understanding of lesson study that can lead to positive changes in teachers' professional development and in teaching and learning in the United States.

Learning And Teaching Early Math

Author: Douglas H. Clements
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134080719
Size: 42.96 MB
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In this important book for pre- and in-service teachers, early math experts Douglas Clements and Julie Sarama show how "learning trajectories" help diagnose a child’s level of mathematical understanding and provide guidance for teaching. By focusing on the inherent delight and curiosity behind young children’s mathematical reasoning, learning trajectories ultimately make teaching more joyous. They help teachers understand the varying levels of knowledge exhibited by individual students, which in turn allows them to better meet the learning needs of all children. Using straightforward, no-nonsense language, this book summarizes the current research about how children learn mathematics, and how to build on what children already know to realize more effective teaching. This second edition of Learning and Teaching Early Math remains the definitive, research-based resource to help teachers understand the learning trajectories of early mathematics and become quintessential professionals. Updates to the new edition include: • Explicit connections between Learning Trajectories and the new Common Core State Standards. • New coverage of patterns and patterning. • Incorporation of hundreds of recent research studies.

Designing Learning Environments For Developing Understanding Of Geometry And Space

Author: Richard Lehrer
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136490582
Size: 10.29 MB
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This volume reflects an appreciation of the interactive roles of subject matter, teacher, student, and technologies in designing classrooms that promote understanding of geometry and space. Although these elements of geometry education are mutually constituted, the book is organized to highlight, first, the editors' vision of a general geometry education; second, the development of student thinking in everyday and classroom contexts; and third, the role of technologies. Rather than looking to high school geometry as the locus--and all too often, the apex--of geometric reasoning, the contributors to this volume suggest that reasoning about space can and should be successfully integrated with other forms of mathematics, starting at the elementary level and continuing through high school. Reintegrating spatial reasoning into the mathematical mainstream--indeed, placing it at the core of K-12 mathematics environments that promote learning with understanding--will mean increased attention to problems in modeling, structure, and design and reinvigoration of traditional topics such as measure, dimension, and form. Further, the editors' position is that the teaching of geometry and spatial visualization in school should not be compressed into a characterization of Greek geometry, but should include attention to contributions to the mathematics of space that developed subsequent to those of the Greeks. This volume is essential reading for those involved in mathematics education at all levels, including university faculty, researchers, and graduate students.

Children S Mathematical Thinking In Primary Years

Author: Julia Anghileri
Publisher: A&C Black
ISBN: 9780826479112
Size: 30.68 MB
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This popular Continuum series, intended chiefly for teachers and trainee teachers, places strong emphasis on practice but at the same time incorporates the latest research in the field. The book demonstrates a strong belief in the ability of children to learn, and in the ability of teachers to increase children's learning potential. The series authors are distinguished practitioners in their fields who write with authority, but without jargon. With the increasingly popular constructivist framework for learning, teachers are coming to recognize the limitations of taught procedures and to find ways to encourage children to generate their own knowledge and understanding in mathematics. The challenge for teachers is to promote an environment that encourages mathematical thinking in which pupils of all abilities are able to achieve their full potential. This text brings together experiences of teachers and researchers who examine the ways children work mathematically, in order to provide an enhanced learning environment within the classroom. It also addresses key issues in current maths teaching.

Mathematics Teachers In Transition

Author: Elizabeth Fennema
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136496394
Size: 68.40 MB
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This book addresses the need of professional development leaders and policymakers for scholarly knowledge about influencing teachers to modify mathematical instruction to bring it more in alignment with the recommendations of the current reform movement initiated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The book presents: * theoretical perspectives for studying, analyzing, and understanding teacher change; * descriptions of contextual variables to be considered as one studies and attempts to understand teacher change; and * descriptions of professional development programs that resulted in teacher change. One chapter builds a rationale for looking to developmental psychology for guidance in constructing models of reconstructing new forms of mathematical instruction. Another highlights the relevance to mathematics teacher development of research-based knowledge about how children construct mathematical ideas. Other chapters explore the relationships between the various contexts of schooling and instructional change. Included also are chapters that describe and analyze major reform efforts designed to assist teachers in modifying their instructional practices (Cognitively Guided Instruction, Math-Cubed, Project Impact, Mathematics in Context, and the Case-Based Project). Finally, the current state of knowledge about encouraging teachers to modify their instruction is discussed, the implications of major research and implementation findings are suggested, and some of the major questions that need to be addressed are identified, such as what we have learned about teacher change.