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Meanings Of Manhood In Early Modern England

Author: Alexandra Shepard
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199299348
Size: 40.15 MB
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This path-breaking study explores the diverse and varied meanings of manhood in early modern England and their complex, and often contested, relationship with patriarchal principles. Using social, political and medical commentary, alongside evidence of social practice derived from court records, Dr Shepard argues that patriarchal ideology contained numerous contradictions, and that, while males were its primary beneficiaries, it was undermined and opposed by men as well as women. Patriarchal concepts of manhood existed in tension both with anti-patriarchal forms of resistance and with alternative codes of manhood which were sometimes primarily defined independently of patriarchal imperatives. As a result the differences within each sex, as well as between them, were intrinsic to the practice of patriarchy and the social distribution of its dividends in early modern England.

Constructions Of Cancer In Early Modern England

Author: Alanna Skuse
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137487534
Size: 12.78 MB
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This book is open access under a CC-BY licence. Cancer is perhaps the modern world's most feared disease. Yet, we know relatively little about this malady's history before the nineteenth century. This book provides the first in-depth examination of perceptions of cancerous disease in early modern England. Looking to drama, poetry and polemic as well as medical texts and personal accounts, it contends that early modern people possessed an understanding of cancer which remains recognizable to us today. Many of the ways in which medical practitioners and lay people imagined cancer – as a 'woman's disease' or a 'beast' inside the body – remain strikingly familiar, and they helped to make this disease a byword for treachery and cruelty in discussions of religion, culture and politics. Equally, cancer treatments were among the era's most radical medical and surgical procedures. From buttered frog ointments to agonizing and dangerous surgeries, they raised abiding questions about the nature of disease and the proper role of the medical practitioner.

Das Milieu Des Verdachts

Author: Holger Zaunstöck
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3050056045
Size: 26.79 MB
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Die studentische Lebenswelt in Universitätsstädten der Frühen Neuzeit ist ein bislang nicht untersuchtes Feld im Rahmen der Forschungen zur Denunziation. Das Buch fragt vergleichend nach der Emergenz der Denunziation in mehreren Universitätsstädten zwischen dem Ende des 17. Jahrhunderts und dem Epochenumbruch im frühen 19. Jahrhundert, und es stellt der Denkfigur der Denunziation als anthropologischer Konstante einen interpretierenden Entwurf auf empirischer Basis entgegen: Wie und warum wird Denunziationsverhalten ermöglicht, wie sind die Menschen damit umgegangen, und welche Verhaltensweisen wurden entwickelt? Denunziatorisches Verhalten im engeren Sinne wird dabei in einen Gesamtverbund informationeller Kommunikation im Spannungsfeld von Herrschaft und Gesellschaft gestellt. Konzeptionell ist die Arbeit so im Bezugsfeld von politischer Kulturgeschichte, Kommunikationsgeschichte, Stadtgeschichte und der Kulturgeschichte der frühneuzeitlichen Universität verankert. Das Buch stellt die Merkmale denunziatorischen Verhaltens in sozialen, politischen und mentalen Handlungsfeldern dar. Auf diese Weise wird ein Bild des Denunziationsverhaltens in der Frühen Neuzeit entworfen, dass weitergehende Anknüpfungspunkte zur Verfügung stellt: Denn die strukturellen und mentalen Handlungsoptionen eines denunziatorischen Feldes waren Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts bereits voll ausgebildet und boten sich für spätere politische Kulturen der Neuzeit zur Adaption an.

Parenting In England 1760 1830

Author: Joanne Bailey
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191623717
Size: 12.86 MB
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Parenting in England is the first study of the world of parenting in late Georgian England. The author, Joanne Bailey, traces ideas about parenthood in a Christian society that was responding to new cultural trends of sensibility, romanticism and domesticity, along with Enlightenment ideas about childhood and self. All these shaped how people, from the poor to the genteel, thought about themselves as parents, and remembered their own parents. With meticulous attention to detail, Bailey illuminates the range of intense emotions provoked by parenthood by investigating a rich array of sources from memoirs and correspondence, to advice literature, fiction, and court records, to prints, engravings, and ballads. Parenting was also a profoundly embodied experience, and the book captures the effort, labour, and hard work it entailed. Such parental investment meant that the experience was fundamental to the forging of national, familial, and personal identities. It also needed more than two parents and this book uncovers the hitherto hidden world of shared parenting. At all levels of society, household and kinship ties were drawn upon to lighten the labours of parenting. By revealing these emotional and material parental worlds, what emerges is the centrality of parenthood to mental and physical well-being, reputation, public and personal identities, and to transmitting prized values across generations. Yet being a parent was a contingent experience adapting from hour to hour, year to year, and child to child. It was at once precarious, as children and parents succumbed to fatal diseases and accidents, yet it was also enduring because parent-child relationships were not ended by death: lost children and parents lived on in memory.

Accounting For Oneself

Author: Alexandra Shepard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192552422
Size: 28.23 MB
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Accounting for Oneself is a major new study of the social order in early modern England, as viewed and articulated from the bottom up. Engaging with how people from across the social spectrum placed themselves within the social order, it pieces together the language of self-description deployed by over 13,500 witnesses in English courts when answering questions designed to assess their creditworthiness. Spanning the period between 1550 and 1728, and with a broad geographical coverage, this study explores how men and women accounted for their 'worth' and described what they did for a living at differing points in the life-cycle. A corrective to top-down, male-centric accounts of the social order penned by elite observers, the perspective from below testifies to an intricate hierarchy based on sophisticated forms of social reckoning that were articulated throughout the social scale. A culture of appraisal was central to the competitive processes whereby people judged their own and others' social positions. For the majority it was not land that was the yardstick of status but moveable property-the goods and chattels in people's possession ranging from livestock to linens, tools to trading goods, tables to tubs, clothes to cushions. Such items were repositories of wealth and the security for the credit on which the bulk of early modern exchange depended. Accounting for Oneself also sheds new light on women's relationship to property, on gendered divisions of labour, and on early modern understandings of work which were linked as much to having as to getting a living. The view from below was not unchanging, but bears witness to the profound impact of widening social inequality that opened up a chasm between the middle ranks and the labouring poor between the mid-sixteenth and mid-seventeenth centuries. As a result, not only was the social hierarchy distorted beyond recognition, from the later-seventeenth century there was also a gradual yet fundamental reworking of the criteria informing the calculus of esteem.

Women And Shakespeare S Cuckoldry Plays

Author: Cristina León Alfar
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1134773382
Size: 49.40 MB
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How does a woman become a whore? What are the discursive dynamics making a woman a whore? And, more importantly, what are the discursive mechanics of unmaking? In Women and Shakespeare’s Cuckoldry Plays: Shifting Narratives of Marital Betrayal, Cristina León Alfar pursues these questions to tease out familiar cultural stories about female sexuality that recur in the form of a slander narrative throughout William Shakespeare’s work. She argues that the plays stage a structure of accusation and defense that unravels the authority of husbands to make and unmake wives. While men’s accusations are built on a foundation of political, religious, legal, and domestic discourses about men’s superiority to, and rule over, women, whose weaker natures render them perpetually suspect, women’s bonds with other women animate defenses of virtue and obedience, fidelity and love, work loose the fabric of patrilineal power that undergirds masculine privileges in marriage, and signify a discursive shift that constitutes the site of agency within a system of oppression that ought to prohibit such agency. That women’s agency in the early modern period must be tied to the formations of power that officially demand their subjection need not undermine their acts. In what Alfar calls Shakespeare’s cuckoldry plays, women’s rhetoric of defense is both subject to the discourse of sexual honor and finds a ground on which to “shift it” as women take control of and replace sexual slander with their own narratives of marital betrayal.

Faithful Bodies

Author: Heather Miyano Kopelson
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479852341
Size: 12.66 MB
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In the seventeenth-century English Atlantic, religious beliefs and practices played a central role in creating racial identity. English Protestantism provided a vocabulary and structure to describe and maintain boundaries between insider and outsider. In this path-breaking study, Heather Miyano Kopelson peels back the layers of conflicting definitions of bodies and competing practices of faith in the puritan Atlantic, demonstrating how the categories of “white,” “black,” and “Indian” developed alongside religious boundaries between “Christian” and “heathen” and between “Catholic” and “Protestant.” Faithful Bodies focuses on three communities of Protestant dissent in the Atlantic World: Bermuda, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island. In this “puritan Atlantic,” religion determined insider and outsider status: at times Africans and Natives could belong as long as they embraced the Protestant faith, while Irish Catholics and English Quakers remained suspect. Colonists’ interactions with indigenous peoples of the Americas and with West Central Africans shaped their understandings of human difference and its acceptable boundaries. Prayer, religious instruction, sexual behavior, and other public and private acts became markers of whether or not blacks and Indians were sinning Christians or godless heathens. As slavery became law, transgressing people of color counted less and less as sinners in English puritans’ eyes, even as some of them made Christianity an integral part of their communities. As Kopelson shows, this transformation proceeded unevenly but inexorably during the long seventeenth century.

What Is Masculinity

Author: J. Arnold
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230307256
Size: 60.99 MB
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Across history, the ideas and practices of male identity have varied much between time and place: masculinity proves to be a slippery concept, not available to all men, sometimes even applied to women. This book analyses the dynamics of 'masculinity' as both an ideology and lived experience - how men have tried, and failed, to be 'Real Men'.

Fr Hneuzeitliche Universit Tskulturen

Author: Barbara Krug-Richter
Publisher: Böhlau Verlag Köln Weimar
ISBN: 9783412229061
Size: 12.40 MB
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"Universitätsgeschichte wird nach wie vor vielfach als Wissenschafts- bzw. Institutionengeschichte betrieben. Entsprechend wenige fundierte wissenschaftliche Untersuchungen liegen bisher zum Alltagsleben im frühneuzeitlichen Studenten- und Gelehrtenmilieu vor. Ausgehend von diesem Forschungsdesiderat thematisieren die Beiträge des Bandes zentrale Aspekte des Lebens an den vormodernen Universitäten in europäischer Perspektive. Im Blickfeld der Betrachtungen stehen Phänomene wie Musik und Tanz in der studentischen Kultur, das Leben in den Colleges der Universität Krakau im 16. Jahrhundert oder die Männlichkeitskonzepte von Studenten an der frühneuzeitlichen Universitat Cambridge. Einen anderen Blick auf die professorale Lebensrealität werfen Beitrage zur gelehrten Kleiderordnung als Medium sozialer Distinktion, zu Professorengrabmälern in Oxford, Leiden und Tübingen als symbolische Markierungen des gelehrten Milieus sowie zu Orten und Praktiken der Gelehrtenkultur am Beispiel der Gastfreundschaft."--Publisher's website.

Working Subjects In Early Modern English Drama

Author: Dr Michelle M Dowd
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 1409478378
Size: 18.56 MB
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Working Subjects in Early Modern English Drama investigates the ways in which work became a subject of inquiry on the early modern stage and the processes by which the drama began to forge new connections between labor and subjectivity in the period. The essays assembled here address fascinating and hitherto unexplored questions raised by the subject of labor as it was taken up in the drama of the period: How were laboring bodies and the goods they produced, marketed and consumed represented onstage through speech, action, gesture, costumes and properties? How did plays participate in shaping the identities that situated laboring subjects within the social hierarchy? In what ways did the drama engage with contemporary discourses (social, political, economic, religious, etc.) that defined the cultural meanings of work? How did players and playwrights define their own status with respect to the shifting boundaries between high status/low status, legitimate/illegitimate, profitable/unprofitable, skilled/unskilled, formal/informal, male/female, free/bound, paid/unpaid forms of work? Merchants, usurers, clothworkers, cooks, confectioners, shopkeepers, shoemakers, sheepshearers, shipbuilders, sailors, perfumers, players, magicians, servants and slaves are among the many workers examined in this collection. Offering compelling new readings of both canonical and lesser-known plays in a broad range of genres (including history plays, comedies, tragedies, tragi-comedies, travel plays and civic pageants), this collection considers how early modern drama actively participated in a burgeoning, proto-capitalist economy by staging England's newly diverse workforce and exploring the subject of work itself.