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Measure Topology And Fractal Geometry

Author: Gerald A Edgar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475741340
Size: 38.80 MB
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From the reviews: "In the world of mathematics, the 1980's might well be described as the "decade of the fractal". Starting with Benoit Mandelbrot's remarkable text The Fractal Geometry of Nature, there has been a deluge of books, articles and television programmes about the beautiful mathematical objects, drawn by computers using recursive or iterative algorithms, which Mandelbrot christened fractals. Gerald Edgar's book is a significant addition to this deluge. Based on a course given to talented high- school students at Ohio University in 1988, it is, in fact, an advanced undergraduate textbook about the mathematics of fractal geometry, treating such topics as metric spaces, measure theory, dimension theory, and even some algebraic topology. However, the book also contains many good illustrations of fractals (including 16 color plates), together with Logo programs which were used to generate them. ... Here then, at last, is an answer to the question on the lips of so many: 'What exactly is a fractal?' I do not expect many of this book's readers to achieve a mature understanding of this answer to the question, but anyone interested in finding out about the mathematics of fractal geometry could not choose a better place to start looking." #Mathematics Teaching#1

Lectures On Fractal Geometry And Dynamical Systems

Author: Ya. B. Pesin
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821848895
Size: 56.45 MB
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Both fractal geometry and dynamical systems have a long history of development and have provided fertile ground for many great mathematicians and much deep and important mathematics. These two areas interact with each other and with the theory of chaos in a fundamental way: many dynamical systems (even some very simple ones) produce fractal sets, which are in turn a source of irregular 'chaotic' motions in the system. This book is an introduction to these two fields, with an emphasis on the relationship between them. The first half of the book introduces some of the key ideas in fractal geometry and dimension theory - Cantor sets, Hausdorff dimension, box dimension - using dynamical notions whenever possible, particularly one-dimensional Markov maps and symbolic dynamics. Various techniques for computing Hausdorff dimension are shown, leading to a discussion of Bernoulli and Markov measures and of the relationship between dimension, entropy, and Lyapunov exponents. In the second half of the book some examples of dynamical systems are considered and various phenomena of chaotic behaviour are discussed, including bifurcations, hyperbolicity, attractors, horseshoes, and intermittent and persistent chaos. These phenomena are naturally revealed in the course of our study of two real models from science - the FitzHugh - Nagumo model and the Lorenz system of differential equations. This book is accessible to undergraduate students and requires only standard knowledge in calculus, linear algebra, and differential equations. Elements of point set topology and measure theory are introduced as needed. This book is a result of the MASS course in analysis at Penn State University in the fall semester of 2008.

Groups And Symmetry

Author: Mark A. Armstrong
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475740344
Size: 21.69 MB
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This is a gentle introduction to the vocabulary and many of the highlights of elementary group theory. Written in an informal style, the material is divided into short sections, each of which deals with an important result or a new idea. Includes more than 300 exercises and approximately 60 illustrations.

Mathematical Analysis

Author: Andrew Browder
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461207150
Size: 16.10 MB
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Among the traditional purposes of such an introductory course is the training of a student in the conventions of pure mathematics: acquiring a feeling for what is considered a proof, and supplying literate written arguments to support mathematical propositions. To this extent, more than one proof is included for a theorem - where this is considered beneficial - so as to stimulate the students' reasoning for alternate approaches and ideas. The second half of this book, and consequently the second semester, covers differentiation and integration, as well as the connection between these concepts, as displayed in the general theorem of Stokes. Also included are some beautiful applications of this theory, such as Brouwer's fixed point theorem, and the Dirichlet principle for harmonic functions. Throughout, reference is made to earlier sections, so as to reinforce the main ideas by repetition. Unique in its applications to some topics not usually covered at this level.

An Introduction To Measure Theory

Author: Terence Tao
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821869191
Size: 30.13 MB
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This is a graduate text introducing the fundamentals of measure theory and integration theory, which is the foundation of modern real analysis. The text focuses first on the concrete setting of Lebesgue measure and the Lebesgue integral (which in turn is motivated by the more classical concepts of Jordan measure and the Riemann integral), before moving on to abstract measure and integration theory, including the standard convergence theorems, Fubini's theorem, and the Caratheodory extension theorem. Classical differentiation theorems, such as the Lebesgue and Rademacher differentiation theorems, are also covered, as are connections with probability theory. The material is intended to cover a quarter or semester's worth of material for a first graduate course in real analysis. There is an emphasis in the text on tying together the abstract and the concrete sides of the subject, using the latter to illustrate and motivate the former. The central role of key principles (such as Littlewood's three principles) as providing guiding intuition to the subject is also emphasized. There are a large number of exercises throughout that develop key aspects of the theory, and are thus an integral component of the text. As a supplementary section, a discussion of general problem-solving strategies in analysis is also given. The last three sections discuss optional topics related to the main matter of the book.

Techniques In Fractal Geometry

Author: Kenneth Falconer
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9780471957249
Size: 48.16 MB
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Following on from the success of Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications, this new sequel presents a variety of techniques in current use for studying the mathematics of fractals. Much of the material presented in this book has come to the fore in recent years. This includes methods for studying dimensions and other parameters of fractal sets and measures, as well as more sophisticated techniques such as thermodynamic formalism and tangent measures. In addition to general theory, many examples and applications are described, in areas such as differential equations and harmonic analysis. This book is mathematically precise, but aims to give an intuitive feel for the subject, with underlying concepts described in a clear and accessible manner. The reader is assumed to be familiar with material from Fractal Geometry, but the main ideas and notation are reviewed in the first two chapters. Each chapter ends with brief notes on the development and current state of the subject. Exercises are included to reinforce the concepts. The author's clear style and up-to-date coverage of the subject make this book essential reading for all those who with to develop their understanding of fractal geometry.

An Introduction To Mathematical Cryptography

Author: Jeffrey Hoffstein
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493917110
Size: 20.28 MB
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This self-contained introduction to modern cryptography emphasizes the mathematics behind the theory of public key cryptosystems and digital signature schemes. The book focuses on these key topics while developing the mathematical tools needed for the construction and security analysis of diverse cryptosystems. Only basic linear algebra is required of the reader; techniques from algebra, number theory, and probability are introduced and developed as required. This text provides an ideal introduction for mathematics and computer science students to the mathematical foundations of modern cryptography. The book includes an extensive bibliography and index; supplementary materials are available online. The book covers a variety of topics that are considered central to mathematical cryptography. Key topics include: classical cryptographic constructions, such as Diffie–Hellmann key exchange, discrete logarithm-based cryptosystems, the RSA cryptosystem, and digital signatures; fundamental mathematical tools for cryptography, including primality testing, factorization algorithms, probability theory, information theory, and collision algorithms; an in-depth treatment of important cryptographic innovations, such as elliptic curves, elliptic curve and pairing-based cryptography, lattices, lattice-based cryptography, and the NTRU cryptosystem. The second edition of An Introduction to Mathematical Cryptography includes a significant revision of the material on digital signatures, including an earlier introduction to RSA, Elgamal, and DSA signatures, and new material on lattice-based signatures and rejection sampling. Many sections have been rewritten or expanded for clarity, especially in the chapters on information theory, elliptic curves, and lattices, and the chapter of additional topics has been expanded to include sections on digital cash and homomorphic encryption. Numerous new exercises have been included.

Integral Probability And Fractal Measures

Author: Gerald A Edgar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475729588
Size: 64.17 MB
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Providing the mathematical background required for the study of fractal topics, this book deals with integration in the modern sense, together with mathematical probability. The emphasis is on the particular results that aid the discussion of fractals, and follows Edgars Measure, Topology, and Fractal Geometry. With exercises throughout, this is and ideal text for beginning graduate students both in the classroom and for self-study.

Lindenmayer Systems Fractals And Plants

Author: Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475714289
Size: 14.31 MB
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1-systems are a mathematical formalism which was proposed by Aristid 1indenmayer in 1968 as a foundation for an axiomatic theory of develop ment. The notion promptly attracted the attention of computer scientists, who investigated 1-systems from the viewpoint of formal language theory. This theoretical line of research was pursued very actively in the seventies, resulting in over one thousand publications. A different research direction was taken in 1984 by Alvy Ray Smith, who proposed 1-systems as a tool for synthesizing realistic images of plants and pointed out the relationship between 1-systems and the concept of fractals introduced by Benoit Mandel brot. The work by Smith inspired our studies of the application of 1-systems to computer graphics. Originally, we were interested in two problems: • Can 1-systems be used as a realistic model of plant species found in nature? • Can 1-systems be applied to generate images of a wide class of fractals? It turned out that both questions had affirmative answers. Subsequently we found that 1-systems could be applied to other areas, such as the generation of tilings, reproduction of a geometric art form from East India, and synthesis of musical scores based on an interpretation of fractals. This book collects our results related to the graphical applications of- systems. It is a corrected version of the notes which we prepared for the ACM SIGGRAPH '88 course on fractals.

Conics And Cubics

Author: Robert Bix
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475729758
Size: 62.94 MB
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Algebraic curves are the graphs of polynomial equations in two vari 3 ables, such as y3 + 5xy2 = x + 2xy. By focusing on curves of degree at most 3-lines, conics, and cubics-this book aims to fill the gap between the familiar subject of analytic geometry and the general study of alge braic curves. This text is designed for a one-semester class that serves both as a a geometry course for mathematics majors in general and as a sequel to college geometry for teachers of secondary school mathe matics. The only prerequisite is first-year calculus. On the one hand, this book can serve as a text for an undergraduate geometry course for all mathematics majors. Algebraic geometry unites algebra, geometry, topology, and analysis, and it is one of the most exciting areas of modem mathematics. Unfortunately, the subject is not easily accessible, and most introductory courses require a prohibitive amount of mathematical machinery. We avoid this problem by focusing on curves of degree at most 3. This keeps the results tangible and the proofs natural. It lets us emphasize the power of two fundamental ideas, homogeneous coordinates and intersection multiplicities.