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Melanins And Melanosomes

Author: Jan Borovansky
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527644555
Size: 38.60 MB
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The surface pigmentation of vertebrates is controlled by specialized cells able to synthesize a variety of pigments collectively known as melanins. Recent research has shown that melanins are produced not only in the skin but also in many other sites such as the eye, inner ear, muscles, etc., - where they are engaged in some unanticipated roles. The details of the synthetic pathway, the complexities of its regulation and biological significance that have been unravelled in recent research comprise a fascinating story and are of key importance in understanding the nature of diseases, including malignant melanoma one of the most rapidly spreading cancers.

The Colors Of Mice

Author: M. Lynn Lamoreux
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444319663
Size: 29.47 MB
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Serving the needs of pigment cell biologists, cellular physiologists, developmental geneticists, researchers interested in melanoma and more, this new book showcases a blend of new technologies and new insights in the field of pigmantary genetics of mice, with comparative information on other animals. Graduate students can learn here the terminology and scope of the field, and animal fanciers can discover the genetics behind common color variants of mammals. The book is hailed for being written by four of the premier scientists in the field. These authors aim to present the molecular /cellular work in the context of phenotype and the interacting functions of genes that direct the development and function of one biological system. For other researchers, the depth of genetic knowledge on the pigmantary system makes it a valuable model for the study of other systems.

Melanins And Melanogenesis

Author: Giuseppe Prota
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0323139396
Size: 23.44 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This volume covers all aspects of melanin pigmentation, providing a concise, comprehensive picture of new knowledge gained at the frontiers of research. It draws heavily on the author's 30-year activity in the field and his continuing work with specialists of widely diverse disciplines. The core of the volume deals with the structure, physicochemical properties, and biosynthesis of the major classes of melanin pigments, including neuromelanins. Further discussions include the biology of the various types of pigment-producing cells, the structure and mode of action of tyrosinase, and the chemistry of urinary melanogens and their biomedical applications as metabolic markers of melanocyte activity, especially for the follow-up of malignant melanoma. Finally, the volume considers progress in the photobiology and photochemistry of melanins, with special emphasis on the controversial role of these pigments in skin photoprotection. Melanins and Melanogenesis is ideally suited as a basic guide for newcomers, and a handy source of specific information for practitioners in academic, medical, and industrial settings.

Sensing The Environment Regulation Of Local And Global Homeostasis By The Skin S Neuroendocrine System

Author: Andrzej T. Slominski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642196837
Size: 38.75 MB
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The skin, the body’s largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates and responds to a diverse range of stressors, including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuroendocrine-immune organ that is closely networked with central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones, production which is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and non-infectious) and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, b-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones, as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-δ steroids), secosteroids, opioids and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid and endocannabinoid systems. Disruptions of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks also serve to limit the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve endings to alert the brain to changes in the epidermal or dermal environments, or alternatively to activate other coordinating centers by direct (spinal cord) neurotransmission without brain involvement. Furthermore, rapid and reciprocal communications between epidermal and dermal and adnexal compartments are also mediated by neurotransmission including antidromic modes of conduction. Lastly, skin cells and the skin as an organ coordinate and/or regulate not only peripheral but also global homeostasis.

Nutrition And The Eye

Author: Frank Eperjesi
Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences
ISBN: 0750688165
Size: 43.15 MB
Format: PDF
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This title is directed primarily towards health care professionals outside of the United States. This timely new reference provides up-to-date information on the effects of nutrition on vision for eye care specialists. It offers practical assistance in clinical procedure with essential nutritional information backed up by evidence-based research. Contributors include specialists in the fields of nutrition, vision research, and life sciences. Practical, evidence-based advice throughout. Strong emphasis on basic sciences provides the reader with a solid foundation of understanding. Highlighted advice sections for patients and handy tables make it quick and easy to use. Full color throughout, with an easy-to-read, "how-to" approach. Recommendations for practice are included, as are discussions of future developments in the field.

Hair And Hair Diseases

Author: Constantin E. Orfanos
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642746128
Size: 46.58 MB
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Hair is the subject of this book, including the anatomy of the hair follicle, developmental stages, analyzed by light and electron microscopy, hair ultrastructure, nerve and blood supply, specialized hairs and hair organs, and a review of the present techniques to cultivate hair follicle cells in vitro. In the clinical part several chapters describe the most important diseases and possibilities for treatment. Hair care products and their toxicology are the subject of further sections. Extensive reviews of the antiandrogens, a most important group of drugs influencing hair growth, and of their clinical use in conditions such as androgenetic alopecias and hirsutism are included as well. Finally, surgical techniques for hair transplantation are discussed. This book is a standard textbook for everything pertaining to hair under normal and pathological conditions.

Photosensitisation

Author: Giuliana Moreno
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642731511
Size: 67.56 MB
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Radiation induces a variety of chemical processes in biological tissues. This volume is a synthesis of up-to-the-minute reviews on such photochemical and photobiological sensitized reactions with particular relevance to photomedicine. The first part gives a description of experimental techniques for the study of the primary processes after radiation absorption by biological systems. It is followed by chapters on singlet oxygen and photomedicine, considering both phototherapy and photochemotherapy. These sections also discuss the next generation of potential photosensitizing drugs.

Textbook Of Aging Skin

Author: Miranda A. Farage
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540896554
Size: 60.26 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This comprehensive ‘Major Reference Book’ compiles all current and latest information on aging skin in a two-volume set. Highly structured with a reader-friendly format, it covers a wide range of areas such as basic sciences, the different diseases and conditions which occur with aging (from malignant to non-malignant), the latest techniques and methods being used such as bioengineering methods and biometrics as well as toxicological and safety considerations for the elderly population. It also illustrates the global consumers’ sociological and psychological implications, ethnicity and gender differences and includes marketing considerations for this elderly group. This unique and comprehensive guide will become the main reference textbook on this topic.

Nutritional Cosmetics

Author: Aaron Tabor
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0815520301
Size: 29.20 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Nutritional cosmetics is an emerging area of intense research and marketing and encompasses the concept that orally consumed dietary products can support healthier and more beautiful skin. There are numerous dietary ingredients now being marketed for their potential skin health and beauty benefits and many of these are supported by growing scientific evidence. The purpose of this book is to compile the scientific evidence showing the potential benefits of some of the more extensively researched ingredients. As far as possible, information about the benefits of ingredients consumed orally for skin health is presented. The information contained in this book will help provide insights into an emerging research area and provide scientific background for the potential clinical effectiveness for some of the better researched nutricosmetic ingredients. ABOUT THE EDITORS Aaron Tabor, M.D. is the CEO of Physicians Pharmaceuticals and author of The Revival Slim & Beautiful Diet. A graduate of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Dr. Tabor oversees all clinical research on the Revival Slim & Beautiful Diet plan, conducting randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled studies at leading hospitals in the U.S. Areas of note include weight loss, skin/hair/nail appearance, energy, menopause, PMS, cholesterol, memory, and diabetic health. He is also responsible for directing new Revival product development based on clinical research results. Robert M. Blair, Ph.D. is the Research Manager for Physicians Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and manages the daily activities of the Research and Nutrition departments. Dr. Blair received his Ph.D. from Oklahoma State University in the field of Reproductive Physiology. Before joining Physicians Pharmaceuticals, Inc., he worked as an Assistant Professor of Comparative Medicine at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine where he examined the effects of dietary soy on cardiovascular health and cognitive function. Reviews the most-popular and most-researched nutricosmetic ingredients Presents information specifically about the benefits of ingredients consumed orally for skin health Considers the benefits of whey protein, rosemary, soy – and green tea and milk thistle, specifically, for protection against sun damage and photocarcinogenesis Provides information on antioxidants, incl: potential benefits of botanical antioxidants; carotenoids; coenzyme Q10; healthy fruits; olive fruit; and natural enzymes

Chemical And Physical Behavior Of Human Hair

Author: Clarence R. Robbins
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475738986
Size: 14.45 MB
Format: PDF
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Human hair is the subject of a remarkably wide range of scientific investigations, and the third edition of this book confirms its position as the definitive monograph on the subject. The chemical and physical properties of hair are of importance to the cosmetics industry, forensic scientists, and biomedical researchers. As such, Chemical and Physical Behavior of Human Hair is both a teaching guide and a reference volume for cosmetic chemists and other scientists in the hair products industry, academic researchers studying hair and hair growth, textile scientists, and forensic specialists.