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Melanins And Melanosomes

Author: Jan Borovansky
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527328920
Size: 13.52 MB
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The surface pigmentation of vertebrates is controlled by specialized cells able to synthesize a variety of pigments collectively known as melanins. Recent research has shown that melanins are produced not only in the skin but also in many other sites such as the eye, inner ear, muscles, etc., - where they are engaged in some unanticipated roles. The details of the synthetic pathway, the complexities of its regulation and biological significance that have been unravelled in recent research comprise a fascinating story and are of key importance in understanding the nature of diseases, including malignant melanoma one of the most rapidly spreading cancers.

Sensing The Environment Regulation Of Local And Global Homeostasis By The Skin S Neuroendocrine System

Author: Andrzej T. Slominski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642196837
Size: 53.79 MB
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The skin, the body’s largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates and responds to a diverse range of stressors, including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuroendocrine-immune organ that is closely networked with central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones, production which is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and non-infectious) and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, b-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones, as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-δ steroids), secosteroids, opioids and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid and endocannabinoid systems. Disruptions of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks also serve to limit the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve endings to alert the brain to changes in the epidermal or dermal environments, or alternatively to activate other coordinating centers by direct (spinal cord) neurotransmission without brain involvement. Furthermore, rapid and reciprocal communications between epidermal and dermal and adnexal compartments are also mediated by neurotransmission including antidromic modes of conduction. Lastly, skin cells and the skin as an organ coordinate and/or regulate not only peripheral but also global homeostasis.

Melanins And Melanogenesis

Author: Giuseppe Prota
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0323139396
Size: 33.68 MB
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This volume covers all aspects of melanin pigmentation, providing a concise, comprehensive picture of new knowledge gained at the frontiers of research. It draws heavily on the author's 30-year activity in the field and his continuing work with specialists of widely diverse disciplines. The core of the volume deals with the structure, physicochemical properties, and biosynthesis of the major classes of melanin pigments, including neuromelanins. Further discussions include the biology of the various types of pigment-producing cells, the structure and mode of action of tyrosinase, and the chemistry of urinary melanogens and their biomedical applications as metabolic markers of melanocyte activity, especially for the follow-up of malignant melanoma. Finally, the volume considers progress in the photobiology and photochemistry of melanins, with special emphasis on the controversial role of these pigments in skin photoprotection. Melanins and Melanogenesis is ideally suited as a basic guide for newcomers, and a handy source of specific information for practitioners in academic, medical, and industrial settings.

The Colors Of Mice

Author: M. Lynn Lamoreux
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444319663
Size: 31.22 MB
Format: PDF
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Serving the needs of pigment cell biologists, cellular physiologists, developmental geneticists, researchers interested in melanoma and more, this new book showcases a blend of new technologies and new insights in the field of pigmantary genetics of mice, with comparative information on other animals. Graduate students can learn here the terminology and scope of the field, and animal fanciers can discover the genetics behind common color variants of mammals. The book is hailed for being written by four of the premier scientists in the field. These authors aim to present the molecular /cellular work in the context of phenotype and the interacting functions of genes that direct the development and function of one biological system. For other researchers, the depth of genetic knowledge on the pigmantary system makes it a valuable model for the study of other systems.

The Colors Of Mice

Author: M. Lynn Lamoreux
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444319663
Size: 36.19 MB
Format: PDF
View: 6022
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Serving the needs of pigment cell biologists, cellular physiologists, developmental geneticists, researchers interested in melanoma and more, this new book showcases a blend of new technologies and new insights in the field of pigmantary genetics of mice, with comparative information on other animals. Graduate students can learn here the terminology and scope of the field, and animal fanciers can discover the genetics behind common color variants of mammals. The book is hailed for being written by four of the premier scientists in the field. These authors aim to present the molecular /cellular work in the context of phenotype and the interacting functions of genes that direct the development and function of one biological system. For other researchers, the depth of genetic knowledge on the pigmantary system makes it a valuable model for the study of other systems.

The Pigmentary System

Author: James J. Nordlund
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 140515733X
Size: 59.70 MB
Format: PDF
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The most comprehensive and integrated book on pigmentation The Pigmentary System, Second Edition, gathers into one convenient, all-inclusive volume a wealth of information about the science of pigmentation and all the common and rare clinical disorders that affect skin color. The two parts, physiology (science) and pathophysiology (clinical disorders), are complementary and annotated so that those reading one part can easily refer to relevant sections in the other. For the clinician interested in common or rare pigment disorders or the principles of teaching about such disorders, this book provides an immediate and complete resource on the biologic bases for these disorders. For the scientist studying the biology of melanocyte function, the book provides a list of disorders that are related to basic biological functions of melanocytes. New features of this Second Edition include: Completely new section on the basic science of pigmentation – explaining the integration of melanocyte functions with other epidermal cells and with various organ systems like the immune system New chapters on pigmentary disorders related to intestinal diseases, the malignant melanocyte, benign proliferations of melanocytes (nevi) and phototherapy with narrow band UV All clinical chapters include the latest genetic findings and advances in therapy More than 400 color images of virtually all clinical disorders The book is ideal for all dermatologists and especially those interested in disorders of pigmentation. It is of particular use for pediatric dermatologists and medical geneticists caring for patients with congenital and genetic pigmentary disorders. This authoritative volume will fill the gap for dermatology training programs that do not have local experts on pigmentation. Basic and cosmetic scientists studying pigmentation and melanocytes will find the science and clinical correlations very useful in showing human significance and relevance to the results of their studies.

Hyperpigmentation

Author: Dimitris Rigopoulos
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351668315
Size: 34.23 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Darkening patches on the skin can result in great distress for the patient. However, definitive diagnosis between the many possible causes and effective treatment can be very hard for the medical practitioner to achieve. This is the first major professional reference with systematic coverage of diagnosis and the various treatment options, and it will be an indispensable clinical reference.

Cell Biology Protocols

Author: J. Robin Harris
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN:
Size: 44.54 MB
Format: PDF
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As a modern composite scientific discipline, Cell Biology has expanded and moved forward rapidly in recent years. Cell Biologists now require a wide range of techniques, including those of analytical biochemistry and microscopy in all its diverse forms. These are often used alongside the techniques of molecular biology and molecular genetics. This book contains numerous useful protocols, covering light and electron microscopy, cell culture, cell separation, subcellular fractionation, organelle and membrane isolation, and the use of in vitro reassembly systems in Cell Biology. Many of these protocols feature helpful notes and safety information for practical application. The format favours easy use at the bench with space for notes and important safety information. An appendix contains essential analytical information that will prove invaluable to those working on all aspects of cell biology. This book will be of interest to students and more experienced cell biologists, as well as molecular biologists and those working in genomics and proteomics who are looking for cellular techniques to validate their findings within intact cells.

Pigment Cell Biology

Author: Myron Gordon
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 148327442X
Size: 26.16 MB
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Pigment Cell Biology provides information on the growth of the pigment cell throughout its life cycle. This book explains how the pigment cell synthesizes its melanin. Organized into 34 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the factors that involved in governing the unique color pattern formation for three species of salamander. This text then explores the cranial and the caudal sections of the medullary plate that contribute to the pigment development of the head and the tail of amphibians. Other chapters consider the difference in the pituitary output of black and white axolotls. This book discusses as well the slow progress in the definition of the roles of the pituitary hormones in melanogenesis. The final chapter deals with a group of pigments that are derived by oxidation from tryptophan. This book is a valuable resource for embryologists, geneticists, histologists, physiologists, cytochemists, and endocrinologists. Comparative pathologists, biophysicists, and biochemists will also find this book useful.