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Membrane And Desalination Technologies

Author: Lawrence K. Wang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781597452786
Size: 63.23 MB
Format: PDF
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In this essential new volume, Volume 13: Membrane and Desalination Technologies, a panel of expert researchers provide a wealth of information on membrane and desalination technologies. An advanced chemical and environmental engineering textbook as well as a comprehensive reference book, this volume is of high value to advanced graduate and undergraduate students, researchers, scientists, and designers of water and wastewater treatment systems. This is an essential part of the Handbook of Environmental Engineering series, an incredible collection of methodologies that study the effects of pollution and waste in their three basic forms: gas, solid, and liquid. Chapters adopt the series format, employing methods of practical design and calculation illustrated by numerical examples, including pertinent cost data whenever possible, and exploring in great detail the fundamental principles of the field. Volume 13: Membrane and Desalination Technologies is an essential guide for researchers, highlighting the latest developments in principles of membrane technology, membrane systems planning and design, industrial and municipal waste treatments, desalination requirements, wastewater reclamation, biofiltration, and more.

Membrane Technologies For Water Treatment

Author: Alberto Figoli
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315735237
Size: 56.43 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Focuses on the application of membrane technologies in removing toxic metals\metalloids from water. Particular attention is devoted to the removal of arsenic, uranium, and fluoride. These compounds are all existing in the earth’s crust at levels between two and five thousands micrograms per kg (parts per million) on average and these compounds can be considered highly toxic to humans, who are exposed to them primarily from air, food and water. In order to comply with the new maximum contaminant level, numerous studies have been undertaken to improve established treatments or to develop novel treatment technologies for removing toxic metals from contaminated surface and groundwater. Among the technologies available, applicable for water treatment, membrane technology has been identified as a promising technology to remove such toxic metals from water. The book describes both pressure driven (traditional processes, such as Nanofiltration, Reverse Osmosis, Ultrafiltration,etc) and more advanced membrane processes (such as forward osmosis, membrane distillation, and membrane bio-reactors) employed in the application of interest. Key aspect of this book is to provide information on both the basics of membrane technologies and on the results depending on the type of technology employed.

Biomimetic Membranes For Sensor And Separation Applications

Author: Claus Hélix-Nielsen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400721838
Size: 42.50 MB
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This book addresses the possibilities and challenges in mimicking biological membranes and creating membrane-based sensor and separation devices. Recent advances in developing biomimetic membranes for technological applications will be presented with focus on the use of integral membrane protein mediated transport for sensing and separation. It describes the fundamentals of biosensing as well as separation and shows how the two processes are working in a cooperative manner in biological systems. Biomimetics is a truly cross-disciplinary approach and this is exemplified using the process of forward osmosis will be presented as an illustration of how advances in membrane technology may be directly stimulated by an increased understanding of biological membrane transport. In the development of a biomimetic sensor/separation technology, both channels (ion and water channels) and carriers (transporters) are important. An ideal sensor/separation device requires the supporting biomimetic matrix to be virtually impermeable to anything but the solute in question. In practice, however, a biomimetic support matrix will generally have finite permeabilities to water, electrolytes, and non-electrolytes. These non-protein mediated membrane transport contributions will be presented and the implications for biomimetic device construction will be discussed. New developments in our understanding of the reciprocal coupling between the material properties of the biomimetic matrix and the embedded proteins will be presented and strategies for inducing biomimetic matrix stability will be discussed. Once reconstituted in its final host biomimetic matrix the protein stability also needs to be maintained and controlled. Beta-barrel proteins exemplified by the E. Coli outer membrane channels or small peptides are inherently more stable than alpha-helical bundle proteins which may require additional stabilizing modifications. The challenges associated with insertion and stabilization of alpha-helical bundle proteins including many carriers and ligand and voltage gated ion (and water) channels will be discussed and exemplified using the aquaporin protein. Many biomimetic membrane applications require that the final device can be used in the macroscopic realm. Thus a biomimetic separation device must have the ability to process hundred of liters of permeate in hours – effectively demanding square-meter size membranes. Scalability is a general issue for all nano-inspired technology developments and will be addressed here in the context biomimetic membrane array fabrication. Finally a robust working biomimetic device based on membrane transport must be encapsulated and protected yet allowing massive transport though the encapsulation material. This challenge will be discussed using microfluidic design strategies as examples of how to use microfluidic systems to create and encapsulate biomimetic membranes. The book provides an overview of what is known in the field, where additional research is needed, and where the field is heading.

Natural Organic Matter In Water

Author: Mika Sillanpää
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128017198
Size: 75.56 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Approximately 77 percent of the freshwater used in the United States comes from surface-water sources and is subject to natural organic matter contamination according to the United States Geological Survey. This presents a distinct challenge to water treatment engineers. An essential resource to the latest breakthroughs in the characterization, treatment and removal of natural organic matter (NOM) from drinking water, Natural Organic Matter in Waters: Characterization and Treatment Methods focuses on advance filtration and treatment options, and processes for reducing disinfection byproducts. Based on the author’s years of research and field experience, this book begins with the characterization of NOM including: general parameters, isolation and concentration, fractionation, composition and structural analysis and biological testing. This is followed by removal methods such as inorganic coagulants, polyelectrolytes and composite coagulants. Electrochemical and membranes removal methods such as: electrocoagulation, electrochemical oxidation, microfiltration and ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and membrane fouling. Covers conventional as well as advanced NOM removal methods Includes characterization methods of NOM Explains removal methods such as: removal by coagulation, electrochemical, advanced oxidation, and integrated methods

Desalination Engineering Planning And Design

Author: Nikolay Voutchkov
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 0071777164
Size: 78.32 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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An in-depth guide to reverse osmosis desalination This Water Environment Federation and WateReuse Association publication provides comprehensive information on the planning and engineering of brackish and seawater desalination projects for municipal water supplies. After a brief overview of widely used desalination technologies, Desalination Engineering focuses on reverse osmosis desalination. The book discusses basic principles, planning and environmental review of projects, design and selection of key desalination plant components, desalinated water posttreatment, and concentrate management. Guidelines on sizing and cost estimation of desalination plant facilities are also included in this practical resource. COVERAGE INCLUDES: Source water quality characterization Fundamentals of reverse osmosis desalination Planning considerations Environmental review and permitting Intakes for source water collection Intake pump stations Source water screening and conditioning Sand removal, sedimentation, and dissolved air flotation Pretreatment by granular media filtration Pretreatment by membrane filtration Comparison of granular media and membrane pretreatment Reverse osmosis separation Post-treatment of desalinated water Desalination plant discharge management Desalination project cost estimates

The Boundary Flux Handbook

Author: Marco Stoller
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128015993
Size: 19.73 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Boundary Flux Handbook summarizes over 100 chemical compounds (single compounds, in mixed solution) and different feed streams from industry (complex streams exiting the agricultural, biological, pharmaceutical, food, dye, textile, and other industries) and the respective critical and threshold fluxes (or boundary flux), together with data on rejection and permeabilities. It gives the reader valuable data to quickly estimate membrane performances in respect to productivity, selectivity, and longevity, and aids in estimating capital and operating costs of membrane processes during the plant design operations. The book is valuable for scientific researchers and chemical engineers working with membrane technology as a reference for lab work, membrane process design, and control. For each specific feedstock, only the best performing membranes are listed. At least one commercial membrane module and a maximum of four different choices are reported, in order to assure easy integration of the proposed membranes into the systems by contacting the relevant commercial partner, and to define the best choice of the pretreatment steps, permitting quick membrane process optimization or revamping operations. This text summarizes over 100 chemical compounds, different feed streams from industry, and the respective critical and threshold fluxes. It gives the reader valuable data to quickly estimate membrane performances in respect to productivity, selectivity and longevity. For each studied feedstock, only the best performing membrane(s) are listed, including one commercial and a maximum of four different choices, to assure the possibility to easily integrate the proposed membranes into the systems by contacting the relevant commercial partner.

Handbook Of Environmental Engineering

Author: Rao Surampalli
Publisher: McGraw Hill Professional
ISBN: 125986023X
Size: 25.25 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A complete guide to environmental remediation technologies, techniques, and regulations This practical resource offers comprehensive coverage of the latest environmental codes alongside step-by-step remediation procedures. The book features information on all segments of the market, including water, air quality, and hazardous wastes, and enables you to ensure compliance with federal regulations. Handbook of Environmental Engineering fully explains engineering methods and technologies and directly connects them to applicable standards. You will get details on environmental tools such as sensors and monitoring, toxicity controls and treatments, and waste disposal. Measurement data, environmental impact assessments, and real-world examples demonstrate how to apply each technique in the field.

Mwh S Water Treatment

Author: John C. Crittenden
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118103777
Size: 29.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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the definitive guide to the theory and practice of water treatment engineering THIS NEWLY REVISED EDITION of the classic reference provides complete, up-to-date coverage of both theory and practice of water treatment system design. The Third Edition brings the field up to date, addressing new regulatory requirements, ongoing environmental concerns, and the emergence of pharmacological agents and other new chemical constituents in water. Written by some of the foremost experts in the field of public water supply, Water Treatment, Third Edition maintains the book's broad scope and reach, while reorganizing the material for even greater clarity and readability. Topics span from the fundamentals of water chemistry and microbiology to the latest methods for detecting constituents in water, leading-edge technologies for implementing water treatment processes, and the increasingly important topic of managing residuals from water treatment plants. Along with hundreds of illustrations, photographs, and extensive tables listing chemical properties and design data, this volume: Introduces a number of new topics such as advanced oxidation and enhanced coagulation Discusses treatment strategies for removing pharmaceuticals and personal care products Examines advanced treatment technologies such as membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, and ozone addition Details reverse osmosis applications for brackish groundwater, wastewater, and other water sources Provides new case studies demonstrating the synthesis of full-scale treatment trains A must-have resource for engineers designing or operating water treatment plants, Water Treatment, Third Edition is also useful for students of civil, environmental, and water resources engineering.

Environmental Engineering Science

Author: W. W. Nazaroff
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc
ISBN: 9780471144946
Size: 65.11 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book covers the fundamentals of environmental engineering and applications in water quality, air quality, and hazardous waste management. It begins by describing the fundamental principles that serve as the foundation of the entire field of environmental engineering. Readers are then systematically reintroduced to these fundamentals in a manner that is tailored to the needs of environmental engineers, and that is not too closely tied to any specific application.

Membrane Fabrication

Author: Nidal Hilal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482210460
Size: 62.99 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Membranes play a crucial role in ensuring the optimum use and recovery of materials in manufacturing. In the process industries, they are required for efficient production and minimization of environmental impact. They are also essential for the efficient production of clean water, a significant global issue. Membrane Fabrication brings together experts from various disciplines who discuss current membrane fabrication methods and how they are used in the optimization of membrane applications. They present innovative ideas on the development of membrane science and technology with a view toward efficient application of membrane separation processes. Exploring fabrication processes for polymeric, inorganic, and composite membranes, the book details the effects of different fabrication conditions and how these conditions can be controlled to optimize membrane construction and the subsequent application of the membrane system. It examines the advantages and disadvantages of each type of membrane, including the malleable yet vulnerable polymeric membranes, the robust yet costly inorganic membranes, and composite membranes, constructed with a blend of inorganic and organic materials. Offering a comprehensive survey of a range of fabrication methods, the book is essential reading for those engaged in the R & D activities of the field, as well as those interested in the sustainable development of membranes for various applications. It is also an important resource for industrialists and others charged with developing and introducing membrane processes into production or waste management.