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Methods Of Non Amino Acid Synthesis Second Edition

Author: Michael Bryant Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466577894
Size: 23.92 MB
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Although less common than α-amino acids, non-α-amino acids—where the amino group is not on the carbon immediately adjacent to the carboxyl group but is attached to another carbon in the chain (for example, the β, γ, δ carbon)—are components of biologically important molecules, are significant in the pharmaceutical industry, and are useful starting materials for many areas of organic chemistry. Since the publication of the first edition of this book nearly 20 years ago, synthetic work devoted to the preparation of non- α-amino acids has expanded greatly. Methods of Non-α-Amino Acid Synthesis, Second Edition has been extensively rewritten and reorganized, providing an up-to-date review of strategies and methods for non-α-amino acid synthesis, particularly those amino acids that are key synthetic intermediates or important compounds in their own right. It focuses on acyclic amino acids of C3–C10, but also aminoalkanoic carboxylic acids, aminoalkenoic acids, and aminoalkynoic acids. The new edition contains many updated references and has a greater emphasis on the biological importance of non-α-amino acids. In addition to an array of synthetic methods, the book offers discussions on why non-α-amino acids are important. The book covers synthetic methods that rely on substituent refunctionalization, the conversion of cyclic precursors to acyclic amino acids, conjugate addition reactions, and enolate anion reactions and condensation reactions that lead to non-α-amino acids. It also examines reactions and strategies that lead to good diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity during synthesis. A chapter devoted to biologically important amino acids includes separate sections on GABA, GABOB, carnitine, DAVA, statine, and other significant amino acids as well as a new section on peptides and proteins that contain non-α-amino acids. The final chapter addresses aminocyclic and heterocyclic amino acids.

Enantioselective Synthesis Of Beta Amino Acids

Author: Eusebio Juaristi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471698474
Size: 78.17 MB
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Covers all facets of the synthesis of ß-amino acids As evidenced by an exponential increase in the literature published on the subject, interest in ß-amino acids has grown over the past several years. With major pharmaceutical applications, these amino acids are now studied across multiple lines of research, including combinatorial chemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular design, proteomics, and others. This Second Edition of Enantioselective Synthesis of ß-Amino Acids updates reviews included in the First Edition while also covering new developments since its publication. The book presents detailed discussions of the most important methods for the synthesis of ß-amino acids. In most cases, the lead chemist who originally developed a method provides an authoritative description of it. In addition, Enantioselective Synthesis of ß-Amino Acids, Second Edition: * Features introductory overviews on the structural types of relevant ß-amino acid targets and salient ß-amino acids present in natural products * Dedicates several chapters to advances in the synthesis of oligomers from ß-amino acids * Includes general and practical procedures for the preparation of ß-amino acids in each chapter * Discusses the most important methods that have been recently developed for the asymmetric synthesis of cyclic and open-chain ß-amino acids * Includes a report on the preparation of libraries of enantiopure ß-amino acids using combinatorial approaches The only book of its kind available today, Enantioselective Synthesis of ß-Amino Acids, Second Edition offers upper-level students and professionals an essential resource for pharmaceutical development, medicinal chemistry, and biochemistry.

Biochemistry Of The Amino Acids

Author: Alton Meister
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323161472
Size: 74.30 MB
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Biochemistry of the Amino Acids, Second Edition, Volume II focuses on the trends in research on amino acids and biochemistry. Given considerations are incorporation of amino acids into proteins, amino acid sequences, and discovery of amino acids. The first part of the book deals with intermediary metabolism of amino acids. Particularly noted are alanine, aspartic, adenylosuccinic, hydroxyaspartic acids, and asparagine. The book also has discussions on glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, serine, and sarcosine. The processes and syntheses involved in these acids are noted. Another part of the book focuses on the formation, degradation, reactions, and conversion of acids. The processes and experiments discussed are supported by numerical analysis, and the biosynthesis of acids in microorganisms is also considered. The book also notes some disorders of amino acid metabolism in humans. These disorders include cystinuria, glycinuria, ammonemia, prolinemia, maple syrup urine disease, and homocystinuria. Discussions focus on how these diseases develop and the symptoms associated with them. The book is a vital source of data for readers interested in the study of amino acids.

Amino Acids In Animal Nutrition

Author: J. P. Felix D'Mello
Publisher: Cabi
ISBN: 9780851996547
Size: 47.68 MB
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Amino acid metabolism and nutrition of farm animals continues to be an active area of research. However, since the publication of the first edition, as Amino Acids in Farm Animal Nutrition (1994), there is now a need to take into account advances in the amino acid nutrition of a wider range of animals, including companion animals. In this new edition, the editor has attempted to retain chapter imparting strength to the first version, while introducing authors with new ideas and vision, as well as chapters on other animals such as cats and dogs. The book is thematically structured. Part 1 includes chapter of an introductory and general nature with applications to a wide range of animal species. The next four parts are species-related sections, including pigs, poultry, ruminants and other animals. The chapters in the final section cover applications and perspectives. The book has been written as a reference work for advanced students as well as researchers in animal nutrition.

Pharmaceutical Formulation Development Of Peptides And Proteins Second Edition

Author: Lars Hovgaard
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439853886
Size: 40.38 MB
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The rapid advances in recombinant DNA technology and the increasing availability of peptides and proteins with therapeutic potential are a challenge for pharmaceutical scientists who have to formulate these compounds as drug products. Pharmaceutical Formulation Development of Peptides and Proteins, Second Edition discusses the development of therapeutic peptides and proteins, from the production of active compounds via basic pre-formulation and formulation to the registration of the final product. Providing integrated solutions, this book discusses: The synthesis of peptides and the biotechnological production of proteins through recombinant DNA technology The physicochemical characteristics and stability of peptides and proteins The formulation of proteins as suspensions, solutions, and (mostly freeze-dried) solids The opportunities and challenges of non-parenteral delivery of peptides and proteins Risk factors, specifically the development of an unwanted immune response A simulation approach to describe the fate of peptides and proteins upon administration to a biological system The documentation required to register a protein-based drug Scientists in the pharmaceutical industry and academia as well as postgraduate students in pharmaceutical science will find this a valuable resource.

Metabolic Therapeutic Aspects Of Amino Acids In Clinical Nutrition Second Edition

Author: Luc A. Cynober
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203010266
Size: 39.66 MB
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The first edition of this innovative book brought a new perspective to the metabolic and therapeutic aspects of amino acids in clinical nutrition. Since its publication, a number of very important advances have been made in the field and interesting new findings have emerged. Until now, no reference has fully explored the promising new developments and applications in this key area of clinical nutrition. Completely revised and updated, Metabolic and Therapeutic Aspects of Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition, Second Edition presents current information and discussions on amino acid metabolism in various health and nutritional states. Chapters cover amino acid uptake routes, physiology, requirements, metabolism, and applications. Written by an international group of experts, the text re-evaluates data and hypotheses in light of the most recent discoveries in genomics and proteomics research. Building on the solid foundation of the original reference, the second edition refines much of the previous information and features the fresh insight and ideas of new authors. These timely additions on the role of amino acids in the future of human health and disease ensure that this book will continue to be a standard resource for researchers in this field.

The Proteins

Author: Hans Neurath
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323162037
Size: 65.32 MB
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The Proteins, Third Edition, Volume V discusses the unifying concepts of protein chemistry. This volume contains three chapters that cover specific protein classes, namely, glycoproteins and cyclopeptides. Chapter 1 deals first with the purification and characterization of the N- and O-linked glycosidic groups of glycoproteins. This chapter then describes the oligosaccharide catabolism and the roles of lysosomal hydrolases, and of functions of glycoproteins as mediated by their oligosaccharide groups. Chapter 2 begins with a detailed review of ultraviolet and visible spectroscopic techniques along with their basic principles, as well as theoretical calculations of peptide spectra. This chapter then considers absorption spectroscopy, optical rotary dispersion, and circular dichroism, followed by a discussion on the use of these methods on the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins in solution. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy and their applications to secondary structure analysis of proteins are also included in this chapter. Chapter 3 provides a critical review of naturally occurring and synthetic cyclopeptides, a unique group of molecules that include diverse biological compounds such as toxins, hormones, regulators of ion transport, and antibiotics. Organic chemists and researchers, teachers and undergraduate students will find this book invaluable.

Analytical And Instrumental Techniques In Agriculture Environmental And Food Engineering Second Edition

Author: NAG, A.
Publisher: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
ISBN: 8120351185
Size: 72.67 MB
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The book, in its second edition, discusses the methodology usually adopted to determine different types of parameters necessary for the design, analysis and monitoring of various activities in agricultural and environmental engineering. With the advancement in the food science, the development of concepts for analysis, techniques and instrumentation has become essential for the field of food engineering. Thus, the text includes different experiments and instrumentation techniques for analysis of food and its preservation in an easy-to-follow style for the students, researchers, practicing engineers and food industrialists, besides agricultural and environmental engineering. The text also describes in detail modern instrumental techniques such as Chromatographic methods, IR, UV, NMR, Mass spectroscopy, Circular dichroism, Thermogravimetric analysis and gives many solved problems based on those instruments. The compact and concise book dealing with different analytical and instrumental techniques used in agriculture, environmental and food engineering is of immense value to undergraduate and postgraduate students in these disciplines as well as for the researchers. FEATURES OF THE NEW EDITION 1. Different experiments for analysis of food and its preservation have been incorporated for helping students of food engineering which reflects in the title of the book. 2. Different types of instrumental techniques such as NMR, Flame Photometry, Circular Dichroism and Thermogravimetric analysis have been added in the chapter on Instrumental Techniques so that the students and researchers of different branches are benefited from the book. 3. Solved problems have been provided to strengthen students’ skills in solving numerical problems.

Molecular Biology Of The Cell

Author: Bruce Alberts
Publisher: Garland Science
ISBN: 1317563743
Size: 19.69 MB
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As the amount of information in biology expands dramatically, it becomes increasingly important for textbooks to distill the vast amount of scientific knowledge into concise principles and enduring concepts.As with previous editions, Molecular Biology of the Cell, Sixth Edition accomplishes this goal with clear writing and beautiful illustrations. The Sixth Edition has been extensively revised and updated with the latest research in the field of cell biology, and it provides an exceptional framework for teaching and learning. The entire illustration program has been greatly enhanced.Protein structures better illustrate structure–function relationships, icons are simpler and more consistent within and between chapters, and micrographs have been refreshed and updated with newer, clearer, or better images. As a new feature, each chapter now contains intriguing openended questions highlighting “What We Don’t Know,” introducing students to challenging areas of future research. Updated end-of-chapter problems reflect new research discussed in the text, and these problems have been expanded to all chapters by adding questions on developmental biology, tissues and stem cells, pathogens, and the immune system.