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Methods Of Non Amino Acid Synthesis Second Edition

Author: Michael Bryant Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466577894
Size: 40.23 MB
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Although less common than α-amino acids, non-α-amino acids—where the amino group is not on the carbon immediately adjacent to the carboxyl group but is attached to another carbon in the chain (for example, the β, γ, δ carbon)—are components of biologically important molecules, are significant in the pharmaceutical industry, and are useful starting materials for many areas of organic chemistry. Since the publication of the first edition of this book nearly 20 years ago, synthetic work devoted to the preparation of non- α-amino acids has expanded greatly. Methods of Non-α-Amino Acid Synthesis, Second Edition has been extensively rewritten and reorganized, providing an up-to-date review of strategies and methods for non-α-amino acid synthesis, particularly those amino acids that are key synthetic intermediates or important compounds in their own right. It focuses on acyclic amino acids of C3–C10, but also aminoalkanoic carboxylic acids, aminoalkenoic acids, and aminoalkynoic acids. The new edition contains many updated references and has a greater emphasis on the biological importance of non-α-amino acids. In addition to an array of synthetic methods, the book offers discussions on why non-α-amino acids are important. The book covers synthetic methods that rely on substituent refunctionalization, the conversion of cyclic precursors to acyclic amino acids, conjugate addition reactions, and enolate anion reactions and condensation reactions that lead to non-α-amino acids. It also examines reactions and strategies that lead to good diastereoselectivity and enantioselectivity during synthesis. A chapter devoted to biologically important amino acids includes separate sections on GABA, GABOB, carnitine, DAVA, statine, and other significant amino acids as well as a new section on peptides and proteins that contain non-α-amino acids. The final chapter addresses aminocyclic and heterocyclic amino acids.

Methods Of Non A Amino Acid Synthesis

Author: Michael Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824796044
Size: 76.31 MB
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This work provides a comprehensive overview of, and the most common and useful methods for, the synthesis of non-alpha-amino acids, particularly amino acids that are key synthetic intermediates or important compounds in their own right. Attention is paid to acyclic amino acids C3-C10 including amino alkanoic carboxylic acids, aminoalkenoic acids and aminoalkynoic acids.

Enantioselective Synthesis Of Beta Amino Acids

Author: Eusebio Juaristi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0471698474
Size: 76.46 MB
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Covers all facets of the synthesis of ß-amino acids As evidenced by an exponential increase in the literature published on the subject, interest in ß-amino acids has grown over the past several years. With major pharmaceutical applications, these amino acids are now studied across multiple lines of research, including combinatorial chemistry, medicinal chemistry, molecular design, proteomics, and others. This Second Edition of Enantioselective Synthesis of ß-Amino Acids updates reviews included in the First Edition while also covering new developments since its publication. The book presents detailed discussions of the most important methods for the synthesis of ß-amino acids. In most cases, the lead chemist who originally developed a method provides an authoritative description of it. In addition, Enantioselective Synthesis of ß-Amino Acids, Second Edition: * Features introductory overviews on the structural types of relevant ß-amino acid targets and salient ß-amino acids present in natural products * Dedicates several chapters to advances in the synthesis of oligomers from ß-amino acids * Includes general and practical procedures for the preparation of ß-amino acids in each chapter * Discusses the most important methods that have been recently developed for the asymmetric synthesis of cyclic and open-chain ß-amino acids * Includes a report on the preparation of libraries of enantiopure ß-amino acids using combinatorial approaches The only book of its kind available today, Enantioselective Synthesis of ß-Amino Acids, Second Edition offers upper-level students and professionals an essential resource for pharmaceutical development, medicinal chemistry, and biochemistry.

Biochemistry Of The Amino Acids

Author: Alton Meister
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0323161472
Size: 50.40 MB
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Biochemistry of the Amino Acids, Second Edition, Volume II focuses on the trends in research on amino acids and biochemistry. Given considerations are incorporation of amino acids into proteins, amino acid sequences, and discovery of amino acids. The first part of the book deals with intermediary metabolism of amino acids. Particularly noted are alanine, aspartic, adenylosuccinic, hydroxyaspartic acids, and asparagine. The book also has discussions on glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, serine, and sarcosine. The processes and syntheses involved in these acids are noted. Another part of the book focuses on the formation, degradation, reactions, and conversion of acids. The processes and experiments discussed are supported by numerical analysis, and the biosynthesis of acids in microorganisms is also considered. The book also notes some disorders of amino acid metabolism in humans. These disorders include cystinuria, glycinuria, ammonemia, prolinemia, maple syrup urine disease, and homocystinuria. Discussions focus on how these diseases develop and the symptoms associated with them. The book is a vital source of data for readers interested in the study of amino acids.

Insect Physiology And Biochemistry Second Edition

Author: James L. Nation
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 142006178X
Size: 73.46 MB
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Expanded and updated, this second edition of a bestselling book challenges conventional entomological wisdom with the latest research and analytical interpretations. Encouraging independent evaluation of the data and allowing for the extrapolation of major concepts across species, this indispensable text establishes a thorough understanding of the physiological and biochemical functions and adaptations that have made insects one of the most successful groups of living organisms on the planet. Comprehensive in scope, yet organized to provide immediate access to specific information, Insect Physiology and Biochemistry, Second Edition — Features new chapters on insect immunity and diapause Expands information on the dynamics and mechanics of flight and on color vision Details all major physiological functions Examines all stages of the lifecycle and development Highlights the relationship of insect physiology and behavior Discusses environment and ecology as determinants in physiological and biochemical adaptations Supplies more than 250 illustrations, including electron and transmission electron micrographs Contains nearly 2000 references and Websites Includes a new, four page color insert Following the tradition of its bestselling predecessor, this edition provides working scientists and students with an engaging and authoritative guide to the most current findings in the field. James L. Nation is Professor Emeritus in the Entomology and Nematology Department at the University of Florida at Gainesville. He taught insect physiology at the graduate level for 42 years. His research includes nitrogen excretion, pheromones, cuticular hydrocarbons, and insect nutrition. He is currently editor of Florida Entomologist.

Encyclopedia Of Biomaterials And Biomedical Engineering Second Edition

Author: Gary E. Wnek
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498761437
Size: 21.35 MB
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Written by more than 400 subject experts representing diverse academic and applied domains, this multidisciplinary resource surveys the vanguard of biomaterials and biomedical engineering technologies utilizing biomaterials that lead to quality-of-life improvements. Building on traditional engineering principles, it serves to bridge advances in materials science, life sciences, nanotechnology, and cell biology to innovations in solving medical problems with applications in tissue engineering, prosthetics, drug delivery, biosensors, and medical devices. In nearly 300 entries, this four-volume Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, Second Edition covers: essential topics integral to tissue engineering research: bioreactors, scaffolding materials and fabrication, tissue mechanics, cellular interaction, and development of major tissues and organs being attempted by researchers worldwide artificial lungs and muscles, bio-artificial livers, and corneal, dental, inner ear, and total hip implants tissue engineering of blood vessels, heart valves, ligaments, microvascular networks, skeletal muscle, and skin bone remodeling, bone cement, and bioabsorbable bone plates and screws controlled drug delivery, insulin delivery, and transdermal and ocular implant-based drug delivery endovascular stent grafts, vascular grafts, and xenografts 3-D medical imaging, electrical impedance imaging, and intravascular ultrasound biomedical, protein adsorption, and in vivo cardiovascular modeling polymer foams, biofunctional and conductive polymers, and electroactive polymeric materials blood–material interactions, the bone–implant interface, host reactions, and foreign body responses and much more Also Available Online This Taylor & Francis encyclopedia is also available through online subscription, offering a variety of extra benefits for researchers, students, and librarians, including:  Citation tracking and alerts  Active reference linking  Saved searches and marked lists  HTML and PDF format options Contact Taylor and Francis for more information or to inquire about subscription options and print/online combination packages. US: (Tel) 1.888.318.2367; (E-mail) [email protected] International: (Tel) +44 (0) 20 7017 6062; (E-mail) [email protected]

Amino Acids In Animal Nutrition

Author: J. P. Felix D'Mello
Publisher: Cabi
ISBN: 9780851996547
Size: 26.55 MB
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Amino acid metabolism and nutrition of farm animals continues to be an active area of research. However, since the publication of the first edition, as Amino Acids in Farm Animal Nutrition (1994), there is now a need to take into account advances in the amino acid nutrition of a wider range of animals, including companion animals. In this new edition, the editor has attempted to retain chapter imparting strength to the first version, while introducing authors with new ideas and vision, as well as chapters on other animals such as cats and dogs. The book is thematically structured. Part 1 includes chapter of an introductory and general nature with applications to a wide range of animal species. The next four parts are species-related sections, including pigs, poultry, ruminants and other animals. The chapters in the final section cover applications and perspectives. The book has been written as a reference work for advanced students as well as researchers in animal nutrition.

Metabolic Therapeutic Aspects Of Amino Acids In Clinical Nutrition Second Edition

Author: Luc A. Cynober
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203010266
Size: 21.81 MB
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The first edition of this innovative book brought a new perspective to the metabolic and therapeutic aspects of amino acids in clinical nutrition. Since its publication, a number of very important advances have been made in the field and interesting new findings have emerged. Until now, no reference has fully explored the promising new developments and applications in this key area of clinical nutrition. Completely revised and updated, Metabolic and Therapeutic Aspects of Amino Acids in Clinical Nutrition, Second Edition presents current information and discussions on amino acid metabolism in various health and nutritional states. Chapters cover amino acid uptake routes, physiology, requirements, metabolism, and applications. Written by an international group of experts, the text re-evaluates data and hypotheses in light of the most recent discoveries in genomics and proteomics research. Building on the solid foundation of the original reference, the second edition refines much of the previous information and features the fresh insight and ideas of new authors. These timely additions on the role of amino acids in the future of human health and disease ensure that this book will continue to be a standard resource for researchers in this field.

Handbook Of Chiral Chemicals Second Edition

Author: David Ager
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420027303
Size: 32.76 MB
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As pharmaceutical companies look to develop single enantiomers as drug candidates, chemists are increasingly faced with the problems associated with this subclass of organic synthesis. "The Handbook of Chiral Chemicals, Second Edition" highlights the problems associated with the production of chiral compounds on a commercial scale. The handbook first elaborates upon starting materials obtained from a 'chiral pool', which can be derived from natural products. Then it explains methods and reactions that can introduce or influence stereogenic centers, particularly asymmetric hydrogenations, oxidations, pericyclic reactions, and enzymatic methods.While hydrogenations have been the most widely employed approach for the large-scale synthesis of several commercial compounds, the search for the ideal catalyst has consistently led researchers to enzymes present in biological systems. Several chapters concentrate on understanding how to manipulate enzymes for catalyzing new reactions for taking new substrates. Other significant topics include chiral auxiliaries, chromatographic techniques, enantiomers-specific reactions, and resolution. This second edition updates all its chapters, illustrating the speed of development in this field, and features new chapters that highlight successful approaches in an industrial setting. "The Handbook of Chiral Chemicals, Second Edition" is a guide to advances in the field that result in more efficient and cost-effective synthesis of chiral chemicals.