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Microbial Metal Respiration

Author: Johannes Gescher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642328679
Size: 36.53 MB
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Microbes can respire on metals. This seemingly simple finding is one of the major discoveries that were made in the field of microbiology in the last few decades. The importance of this observation is evident. Metals are highly abundant on our planet. Iron is even the most abundant element on Earth and the forth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. Hence, in some environments iron, but also other metals or metalloids, are the dominant respiratory electron acceptors. Their reduction massively drives the carbon cycle in these environments and establishes redox cycles of the metallic electron acceptors themselves. These redox cycles are not only a driving force for other biotic reactions but are furthermore necessary for initiating a number of geochemically relevant abiotic redox conversions. Although widespread and ecologically influential, electron transfer onto metals like ferric iron or manganese is biochemically challenging. The challenge is to transfer respiratory electrons onto metals that occur in nature at neutral pH in the form of metal oxides or oxihydroxides that are effectively insoluble. Obviously, it is necessary that the microbes specially adapt in order to catalyze the electron transfer onto insoluble electron acceptors. The elucidation of these adaptations is an exciting ongoing process. To sum it up, dissimilatory metal reduction has wide-spread implications in the field of microbiology, biochemistry and geochemistry and its discovery was one of the major reasons to establish a novel scientific field called geomicrobiology. Recently, the discovery of potential applications of dissimilatory metal reducers in bioremediation or current production in a microbial fuel cell further increased the interest in studying microbial metal reduction.

Advances In Bacterial Electron Transport Systems And Their Regulation

Author: Robert K. Poole
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128052392
Size: 73.28 MB
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Advances in Microbial Physiology: Advances in Bacterial Electron Transport Systems and Their Regulation, the latest volume in the Advances in Microbial Physiology series, continues the long tradition of topical and important reviews in microbiology, with this latest volume focusing on the advances in bacterial electron transport systems and their regulation. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field of microbial physiology Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field Presents a primary focus for this edition on the advances made in bacterial electron transport systems and their regulation

Microbial Metal And Metalloid Metabolism

Author: John F. Stolz
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press
ISBN: 1555815367
Size: 65.72 MB
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The ideal reference for novice and experienced investigators interested in environmental biogeochemistry and bioremediation. • Offers a broad range of current topics and approaches in microbe-metal research, including microbial fuel cells, unique microbial physiology, genomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics. • Reviews the current state of the science in the field, and examines emerging developments and applications and forecasts future research directions. • The book is also recommended as a text for graduate courses in microbial physiology, microbial ecology, and applied and environmental microbiology.

Introduction To Geochemistry

Author: Kula C. Misra
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444350951
Size: 29.18 MB
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This book is intended to serve as a text for an introductory course in geochemistry for undergraduate/graduate students with at least an elementary?level background in earth sciences, chemistry, and mathematics. The text, containing 83 tables and 181 figures, covers a wide variety of topics ? ranging from atomic structure to chemical and isotopic equilibria to modern biogeochemical cycles ? which are divided into four interrelated parts: Crystal Chemistry; Chemical Reactions (and biochemical reactions involving bacteria); Isotope Geochemistry (radiogenic and stable isotopes); and The Earth Supersystem, which includes discussions pertinent to the evolution of the solid Earth, the atmosphere, and the hydrosphere. In keeping with the modern trend in the field of geochemistry, the book emphasizes computational techniques by developing appropriate mathematical relations, solving a variety of problems to illustrate application of the mathematical relations, and leaving a set of questions at the end of each chapter to be solved by students. However, so as not to interrupt the flow of the text, involved chemical concepts and mathematical derivations are separated in the form of boxes. Supplementary materials are packaged into ten appendixes that include a standard?state (298.15 K, 1 bar) thermodynamic data table and a listing of answers to selected chapter?end questions. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/misra/geochemistry.

Cold Aqueous Planetary Geochemistry With Frezchem

Author: Giles M. Marion
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540756798
Size: 76.41 MB
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Written by two of the best US researchers in the field, this text investigates issues of astrobiological relevance in the context of cold aqueous planetary geochemistry. At the core of the technical chapters is the FREZCHEM model, initially developed over many years by one of the authors to quantify aqueous electrolyte properties and chemical thermodynamics at subzero temperatures. FREZCHEM is of huge relevance to scientists in a number of fields, including biogeochemists.

Environmental Microbiology

Author: Ian L. Pepper
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080919409
Size: 13.87 MB
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For microbiology and environmental microbiology courses, this leading textbook builds on the academic success of the previous edition by including a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of environmental microbiology as a discipline that has grown in scope and interest in recent years. From environmental science and microbial ecology to topics in molecular genetics, this edition relates environmental microbiology to the work of a variety of life science, ecology, and environmental science investigators. The authors and editors have taken the care to highlight links between environmental microbiology and topics important to our changing world such as bioterrorism and national security with sections on practical issues such as bioremediation, waterborne pathogens, microbial risk assessment, and environmental biotechnology. WHY ADOPT THIS EDITION? New chapters on: • Urban Environmental Microbiology • Bacterial Communities in Natural Ecosystems • Global Change and Microbial Infectious Disease • Microorganisms and Bioterrorism • Extreme Environments (emphasizing the ecology of these environments) • Aquatic Environments (now devoted to its own chapter- was combined with Extreme Environments) Updates to Methodologies: • Nucleic Acid -Based Methods: microarrays, phyloarrays, real-time PCR, metagomics, and comparative genomics • Physiological Methods: stable isotope fingerprinting and functional genomics and proteomics-based approaches • Microscopic Techniques: FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and atomic force microscopy • Cultural Methods: new approaches to enhanced cultivation of environmental bacteria • Environmental Sample Collection and Processing: added section on air sampling

Environmental Geochemistry

Author: Barbara Sherwood Lollar
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080446431
Size: 64.43 MB
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The Treatise on Geochemistry is the first work providing a comprehensive, integrated summary of the present state of geochemistry. It deals with all the major subjects in the field, ranging from the chemistry of the solar system to environmental geochemistry. The Treatise on Geochemistry has drawn on the expertise of outstanding scientists throughout the world, creating the reference work in geochemistry for the next decade. Each volume consists of fifteen to twenty-five chapters written by recognized authorities in their fields, and chosen by the Volume Editors in consultation with the Executive Editors. Particular emphasis has been placed on integrating the subject matter of the individual chapters and volumes. Elsevier also offers the Treatise on Geochemistry in electronic format via the online platform ScienceDirect, the most comprehensive database of academic research on the Internet today, enhanced by a suite of sophisticated linking, searching and retrieval tools.

Thermophilic Microbes In Environmental And Industrial Biotechnology

Author: Tulasi Satyanarayana
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400758995
Size: 41.59 MB
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The existence of life at high temperatures is quiet fascinating. At elevated temperatures, only microorganisms are capable of growth and survival. Many thermophilic microbial genera have been isolated from man-made (washing machines, factory effluents, waste streams and acid mine effluents) and natural (volcanic areas, geothermal areas, terrestrial hot springs, submarine hydrothermal vents, geothermally heated oil reserves and oil wells, sun-heated litter and soils/sediments) thermal habitats throughout the world. Both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches have been employed for understanding the diversity of microbes in hot environments. Interest in their diversity, ecology, and physiology has increased enormously during the past few decades as indicated by the deliberations in international conferences on extremophiles and thermophiles held every alternate year and papers published in journals such as Extremophiles. Thermophilic moulds and bacteria have been extensively studied in plant biomass bioconversion processes as sources of industrial enzymes and as gene donors. In the development of third generation biofuels such as bioethanol, thermophilic fungal and bacterial enzymes are of particular interest. The book is aimed at bringing together scattered up-to-date information on various aspects of thermophiles such as the diversity of thermophiles and viruses of thermophiles, their potential roles in pollution control and bioremediation, and composting.