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Micronutrient Deficiencies In Global Crop Production

Author: Brian J. Alloway
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402068607
Size: 62.17 MB
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A deficiency of one or more of the eight plant micronutrients (boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and zinc) will adversely affect both the yield and quality of crops. Micronutrient deficiencies in crops occur in many parts of the world, at various scales (from one to millions of hectares), but differences in soil conditions, climate, crop genotypes and management, result in marked variations in their occurrence. The causes, effects and alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies in crops in: Australia, India, China, Turkey, the Near East, Africa, Europe, South America and the United States of America, are covered, and these are representative of most of the different conditions under which crops are grown anywhere in the world. Links between low contents of iodine, iron and zinc (human micronutrients) in staple grains and the incidence of human health problems are discussed, together with the ways in which the micronutrient content of food crops can be increased and their bioavailability to humans improved. Detailed treatment of topics, such as: soil types associated with deficiencies, soil testing and plant analysis, field experiments, innovative treatments, micronutrients in the subsoil, nutrient interactions, effects of changing cropping systems, micronutrient budgets and hidden deficiencies in various chapters provides depth to the broad coverage of the book. This book provides a valuable guide to the requirements of crops for plant micronutrients and the causes, occurrence and treatment of deficiencies. It is essential reading for many agronomy, plant nutrition and agricultural extension professionals.

Mineral Nutrition Of Rice

Author: N.K. Fageria
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466558075
Size: 27.55 MB
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The third most important cereal crop after wheat and corn, rice is a staple food for more than half of the world’s population. This includes regions of high population density and rapid growth, indicating that rice will continue to be a major food crop in the next century. Mineral Nutrition of Rice brings together a wealth of information on the ecophysiology and nutrient requirements of rice. Compiling the latest scientific research, the book explains how to manage essential nutrients to maximize rice yield. The book examines 15 essential or beneficial nutrients used in irrigated, upland, and floating rice across a range of geographic regions. For each mineral, the text details the cycle in the soil–plant system as well as the mineral’s functions, deficiency symptoms, uptake in plants, harvest index, and use efficiency. It then outlines management practices, covering application methods and timing, adequate rates, the use of efficient genotypes, and more. The author, an internationally recognized expert in mineral nutrition for crop plants, also proposes recommendations for the judicious use of fertilizers to reduce the cost of crop production and the risk of environmental pollution. Color photographs help readers identify nutrient deficiency symptoms and take the necessary corrective measures. Packed with useful tables and illustrations, this comprehensive reference guides readers who want to know how to increase rice yield, reduce production costs, and avoid environmental pollution from fertilizers. It offers practical information for those working in agricultural research fields, in laboratories, and in classrooms around the world.

The Role Of Plant Roots In Crop Production

Author: Nand Kumar Fageria
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439867380
Size: 58.11 MB
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The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production presents the state of knowledge on environmental factors in root growth and development and their effect on the improvement of the yield of annual crops. This book addresses the role of roots in crop production and includes references to numerous annual crops. In addition, it brings together the issues and the state-of-the-art technologies that affect root growth, with comprehensive reviews to facilitate efficient, sustainable, economical, and environmentally responsible crop production. Written for plant scientists, crop scientists, horticulturalists, and soil scientists, plant physiologists, breeders, environmental scientists, agronomists, and undergraduate and graduate students in different disciplines of agricultural science, The Role of Plant Roots in Crop Production: Addresses root architecture and development dynamics to help users improve crop productivity Emphasizes crop production, plant nutrition, and soil chemistry relative to root growth and functions Covers root morphology, root functions, nutrient and water uptake by roots, root-soil interactions, root-environment interactions, root-microbe interactions, physiology of root crops, and management practices to improve root growth Supports content with experimental results, and additional data is presented with pictures Increasing food production worldwide has become a major issue in the 21st century. Stagnation in grain yield of important food crops in recent years in developed, as well as developing, countries has contributed to a sharp increase in food prices. Furthermore, higher grain yield will be needed in the future to feed a burgeoning world population with a rising standard of living that requires more grain per capita. Technologies that enhance productivity, ensure environmental safety, and conserve natural resources are required to meet this challenge.

Nitrogen Management In Crop Production

Author: Nand Kumar Fageria
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 148222285X
Size: 17.75 MB
Format: PDF
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One of the main approaches for safeguarding food security, sustainable development has increased demand for knowledge on fertilizer management in crop production. Among essential plant nutrients, nitrogen is one of the most important yield-limiting nutrients, mainly responsible for determining yield and yield components in cereals and legumes. It is also responsible for the activation of many enzymes and, of course, plays an important role in photosynthesis. With a recovery efficiency of less than 50 percent in most cropping systems, a large portion of the nitrogen applied as fertilizer is not used by plants, creating environmental and economic issues. Nitrogen Management in Crop Production covers the critical aspects for the judicious use of nitrogen in cropping systems. This includes appropriate methods of nitrogen application, effective source and timing of application during crop growth cycles, use of an adequate application rate to avoid loss and reduce cost, use of nitrogen-efficient crop genotypes, and use of legumes that fix sufficient amounts of atmospheric nitrogen. There is also a chapter on organic matter and its role in sustainability. This book presents recent information from the international literature, making it relevant for most agroecological regions. Chapters provide experimental results to aid in practical application of the information. The book contains color photos of nitrogen deficiency symptoms to serve as a guide for important crop species, such as rice, dry bean, wheat, soybean, and corn. It also includes numerous tables and figures, providing an easy-to-read reference.

Turfgrass

Author: John Clinton Stier
Publisher: Amer Society of Agronomy
ISBN: 9780891186137
Size: 57.28 MB
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Presents a comprehensive overview of current knowledge and issues in the field of turfgrass research and management, including the genetics and breeding, the diseases and pests, and the ecology of turfgrasses.

Legumes In The Omic Era

Author: Sanjeev Gupta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461483700
Size: 80.22 MB
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Legumes in the Omic Era provides a timely review of recent advances in legume genomics research and application. In this post-genomic era enormous amount of biological information is available which could be of huge potential use for crop improvement applications. This aspect of genomics assisted plant breeding is focused throughout the book for all the important grain legume crops. Role of functional genomics and importance of bioinformatics tools in present day genomics and molecular breeding research is also discussed in detail. Use of molecular tools for nutritional fortification of grain legume is briefly presented. A chapter also been contributed on fungal disease resistance to elucidate potential application of genomic tools in molecular breeding of grain legume species. The book contains fifteen chapters contributed by 50 scientists from different countries who are actively involved in analyzing and improving particular legume genome. This book will serve as reference resource to legumes researchers for use of genome information in improvement of major legume crops. Dr Sanjeev Gupta is Principal Scientist/Project Coordinator-All India Coordinated Research Project on Vigna Crops at Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR), Kanpur. He has more than two decades of research experience in grain legume breeding and developed a number of high yielding cultivars in grain legumes. He is authored numerous research papers published in peer-reviewed journals and edited several books in plant breeding aspects. He was the Organizing Secretary of the International Grain Legume Conference, 2009 held in the Indian Institute of Pulses Research, Kanpur, India. He has travelled across the continents to present his research several times. He is recipient of several awards for his research and literary contributions Dr. Nagasamy Nadarajan is the Director of the Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR), Kanpur. He has more than three decades of teaching and research experience and developed more than fifteen legume and cereal cultivars. He has to his credits more than 200 peer-reviewed research publications. He has guided several graduate students for Masters and Doctoral degrees in food legume breeding and genetics research. He has authored a book in biometrics which is one of the most popular books among the agriculture graduate students in India. He is the recipient of three international and six national awards and honours for his outstanding contributions Mr. Debjyoti Sen Gupta is the ICAR International Fellow and Ph.D. candidate at North Dakota State University (NDSU), Fargo, USA. Recently, he visited Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, USA for high throughput genotyping work. Before joining at NDSU he was serving as the Scientist in the Indian Institute of Pulses Research (IIPR). He has authored several research articles, review articles and book chapters in the peer-reviewed journals and books from reputed publishers like Springer, CABI etc. He is recipient of several fellowships like CSIR-JRF, New Delhi; ICAR-JRF, New Delhi throughout his graduate study programs.

Food Security And Soil Quality

Author: Rattan Lal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439800577
Size: 66.44 MB
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Just five years ago, it was generally believed that the number of food insecure people in the world was on continuous decline. Unfortunately, widespread soil degradation along with resistance to recommended agronomic practices, and little attempt to restore degraded soils have conspired with significant droughts (in regions that could least tolerate them) to swell the ranks of the food insecure to over a billion people. The U.N. Millennium Development Goals’ intent to halve hunger by 2015 will not be realized. Food Security and Soil Quality brings together leading experts from across the world to provide a concise and factually supported exploration of the problem at hand and the critical steps needed to reverse it. Edited by Rattan Lal, and B.A. Stewart, two of the world’s most respected soil scientists, this important work — Assesses farming systems and food security in Sub-Saharan Africa, with special emphasis on land degradation Examines concerns with and approaches to soil quality management in Brazil and China Details achievable methods for improving soil quality for sustainable production Provides an insightful comparison of temporal changes in agricultural systems productivity in Punjab, India and Ohio Discusses the human dimension of the crisis including the influence of culture and spiritual beliefs Dr. Lal himself writes that despite the existence of scientific data on sustainable management of soil and water resources, problems of soil and environmental degradation have persisted and have been aggravated. And that these problems are rooted in land misuse and soil mismanagement. This book does provide policymakers and others with an understanding of the depth, complexity, and immediacy of this crisis, but more than a call to action, it also offers soil scientists working in this area with an understanding of what is being done and what needs to be done. Most importantly, this book helps us understand that the situation is not beyond remediation were we to act with great resolve and a sense of urgency. A tree's leaves may be ever so good, So may its bark, so may its wood; But unless you put the right thing to its root, It never will show much flower or fruit. — from Leaves Compared With Flowers, by Robert Frost

Plant Micronutrients

Author: C P Sharma
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781578084166
Size: 68.63 MB
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Phenomenal progress has been made in our understanding of the several and diverse ways in which micronutrients alter or regulate the functioning of plants and produce a wide array of responses enabling quantitative and qualitative changes in plant yield. This book addresses biochemical and physiological roles of micronutrients in plants and the diverse ways in which they react to limitations in micronutrients supply, contributing to global constraints in crop production. The book is presented in two parts. Part I deals with roles of micronutrients and the changes induced in plants in response to their inadequate supply. Part II addresses the factors contributing to micronutrients deficiency, their diagnosis, evaluation and management through soil ? and plant ?based approaches.

Global Monitoring Report 2012

Author: World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821395238
Size: 32.17 MB
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This year's report summarizes the short- and long-term impact of food prices on several MDGs, explores future trends, and review policy responses, from domestic policies such as social safety nets, nutritional programs and agricultural policies, to regional trade policies to support by the international community.