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Micronutrient Deficiencies In Global Crop Production

Author: Brian J. Alloway
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402068607
Size: 22.64 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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A deficiency of one or more of the eight plant micronutrients (boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and zinc) will adversely affect both the yield and quality of crops. Micronutrient deficiencies in crops occur in many parts of the world, at various scales (from one to millions of hectares), but differences in soil conditions, climate, crop genotypes and management, result in marked variations in their occurrence. The causes, effects and alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies in crops in: Australia, India, China, Turkey, the Near East, Africa, Europe, South America and the United States of America, are covered, and these are representative of most of the different conditions under which crops are grown anywhere in the world. Links between low contents of iodine, iron and zinc (human micronutrients) in staple grains and the incidence of human health problems are discussed, together with the ways in which the micronutrient content of food crops can be increased and their bioavailability to humans improved. Detailed treatment of topics, such as: soil types associated with deficiencies, soil testing and plant analysis, field experiments, innovative treatments, micronutrients in the subsoil, nutrient interactions, effects of changing cropping systems, micronutrient budgets and hidden deficiencies in various chapters provides depth to the broad coverage of the book. This book provides a valuable guide to the requirements of crops for plant micronutrients and the causes, occurrence and treatment of deficiencies. It is essential reading for many agronomy, plant nutrition and agricultural extension professionals.

Micronutrient Deficiencies In Global Crop Production

Author: Brian J. Alloway
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9789048177417
Size: 62.56 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 6751
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A deficiency of one or more of the eight plant micronutrients (boron, chlorine, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel and zinc) will adversely affect both the yield and quality of crops. Micronutrient deficiencies in crops occur in many parts of the world, at various scales (from one to millions of hectares), but differences in soil conditions, climate, crop genotypes and management, result in marked variations in their occurrence. The causes, effects and alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies in crops in: Australia, India, China, Turkey, the Near East, Africa, Europe, South America and the United States of America, are covered, and these are representative of most of the different conditions under which crops are grown anywhere in the world. Links between low contents of iodine, iron and zinc (human micronutrients) in staple grains and the incidence of human health problems are discussed, together with the ways in which the micronutrient content of food crops can be increased and their bioavailability to humans improved. Detailed treatment of topics, such as: soil types associated with deficiencies, soil testing and plant analysis, field experiments, innovative treatments, micronutrients in the subsoil, nutrient interactions, effects of changing cropping systems, micronutrient budgets and hidden deficiencies in various chapters provides depth to the broad coverage of the book. This book provides a valuable guide to the requirements of crops for plant micronutrients and the causes, occurrence and treatment of deficiencies. It is essential reading for many agronomy, plant nutrition and agricultural extension professionals.

Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency

Author: Mohammad Anwar Hossain
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128112948
Size: 80.26 MB
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Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency presents an up-to-date overview of the latest research on the molecular and genetic basis of macro-nutrient use efficiency (NUE) in plants, and strategies that can be used to improve NUE and nutrient-associated stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant NUE is a measure of how efficiently plants use available nutrients and an understanding of plant NUE has the potential to help improve the use of limited natural resources and to help achieve global food security. This book presents information important for the development of crop plants with improved macro-NUE, a prerequisite to reducing production costs, expanding crop production into noncompetitive marginal lands with low nutrient resources, and for helping to prevent environmental contamination. Plant Macronutrient Use Efficiency provides a comprehensive overview of the complex mechanisms regulating macro-NUE in crop plants, which is required if plant breeders are to develop modern crop varieties that are more resilient to nutrient-associated stress. Identification of genes responsible for macro-NUE and nutrient-related stress tolerance in crop plants will help us to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with the responses of crop plants to nutrient stress. This volume contains both fundamental and advanced information, and critical commentaries useful for those in all fields of plant science research. Provides details of molecular and genetic aspects of NUE in crop plants and model plant systems Presents information on major macronutrients, nutrient sensing and signaling, and the molecular and genomic issues associated with primary and secondary macronutrients Delivers information on how molecular genetic information associated with NUE can be used to develop plant breeding programs Includes contributions from world-leading plant nutrition research groups

Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies

Author: Brian Thompson
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845937147
Size: 51.39 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book, inclusive of 19 chapters, provides discussions on the benefits and limitations of food-based approaches for the prevention and control of micronutrient malnutrition. Different chapters focus on specific relevant topics, including current developments in food-based approaches and their program applications, relevance of agricultural interventions to nutrition, impact of multi-sectoral programmes with food-based approaches components in alleviating undernutrition and micronutrient malnutrition, animal-source foods as a food-based approach to address nutrient deficiencies, aquaculture's role in improving food and nutrition security, benefits of vegetables and fruits in preventing and combating micronutrient malnutrition, benefits of food-based approaches for overcoming single specific micronutrient deficiencies, and food fortification. This book will be of great use to professionals interested in public health, human nutrition, micronutrient deficiency interventions, food and nutrition security policy interventions, and agricultural research.

Hidden Hunger

Author: Aya Hirata Kimura
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 0801467683
Size: 68.16 MB
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For decades, NGOs targeting world hunger focused on ensuring that adequate quantities of food were being sent to those in need. In the 1990s, the international food policy community turned its focus to the "hidden hunger" of micronutrient deficiencies, a problem that resulted in two scientific solutions: fortification, the addition of nutrients to processed foods, and biofortification, the modification of crops to produce more nutritious yields. This hidden hunger was presented as a scientific problem to be solved by "experts" and scientifically engineered smart foods rather than through local knowledge, which was deemed unscientific and, hence, irrelevant. In Hidden Hunger, Aya Hirata Kimura explores this recent emphasis on micronutrients and smart foods within the international development community and, in particular, how the voices of women were silenced despite their expertise in food purchasing and preparation. Kimura grounds her analysis in case studies of attempts to enrich and market three basic foods-rice, wheat flour, and baby food-in Indonesia. She shows the power of nutritionism and how its technical focus enhanced the power of corporations as a government partner while restricting public participation in the making of policy for public health and food. She also analyzes the role of advertising to promote fortified foodstuffs and traces the history of Golden Rice, a crop genetically engineered to alleviate vitamin A deficiencies. Situating the recent turn to smart food in Indonesia and elsewhere as part of a long history of technical attempts to solve the Third World food problem, Kimura deftly analyzes the intersection of scientific expertise, market forces, and gendered knowledge to illuminate how hidden hunger ultimately defined women as victims rather than as active agents.

Micronutrients In Tropical Food Crop Production

Author: Paul Vlek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400950551
Size: 74.61 MB
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The mission of the International Fertilizer Development Center is to increase food production through the improvement of fertilizers and fertilizer practices for the developing countries with special emphasis on tropical and subtropical agriculture. The principal aim is to ensure that fertilizer technology is not a limiting factor to food production in those regions. Although the full extent to which deficiency of micronutrients hampers food production is yet un known, there is ample evidence that problem areas exist and more will be identified as crop production is intensified and marginal lands are exploited. Therefore, it seems fully appropriate at this time that IFDC, as an international organization, take a leadership role in developing micronutrient fertilizer technology appropriate for the tropics and subtropics. The gravity of micronutrient deficiency as a limiting factor to crop pro duction varies from crop to crop and from soil to soil. The effects may range from slight yield reductions to complete crop failure. While the economic impact of omitting micronutrients in seriously affected areas (e.g., Zn in Brazilian Cerrado) is convincing, it is difficult to estimate the yearly loss in crop production due to unsuspected micronutrient deficiency. Active soil and crop testing programs in regions with advanced agricultural systems are aimed at recognizing micronutrients as a limiting plant nutrient in time to allow corrective measures and prevent yield loss. Successful micronutrient monitoring systems are generally limited to developed economies or to developing economies producing export cash crops.

Genetic Engineering Of Horticultural Crops

Author: Gyana Ranjan Rout
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128104406
Size: 40.85 MB
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Genetic Engineering of Horticultural Crops provides key insights into commercialized crops, their improved productivity, disease and pest resistance, and enhanced nutritional or medicinal benefits. It includes insights into key technologies, such as marker traits identification and genetic traits transfer for increased productivity, examining the latest transgenic advances in a variety of crops and providing foundational information that can be applied to new areas of study. As modern biotechnology has helped to increase crop productivity by introducing novel gene(s) with high quality disease resistance and increased drought tolerance, this is an ideal resource for researchers and industry professionals. Provides examples of current technologies and methodologies, addressing abiotic and biotic stresses, pest resistance and yield improvement Presents protocols on plant genetic engineering in a variety of wide-use crops Includes biosafety rule regulation of genetically modified crops in the USA and third world countries

Nourishing Millions Stories Of Change In Nutrition Synopsis

Author: Yosef, Sivan
Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst
ISBN: 0896299902
Size: 52.67 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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In recent years, the world has seen unprecedented attention and political commitment to addressing malnutrition. Milestones such as the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) Movement, the Lancet Maternal and Child Nutrition Series, and the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2) have marked the rapid rise of nutrition on the global policy and research agenda. These developments reverse years of relative neglect for nutrition. Undernutrition is a global challenge with huge social and economic costs. It kills millions of young children annually, stunts growth, erodes child development, reduces the amount of schooling children attain, and increases the likelihood of their being poor as adults, if they survive. Stunting persists through a lifetime and beyond—underweight mothers are more likely to give birth to underweight children, perpetuating undernutrition across generations. Undernutrition reduces global gross domestic product by US$1.4–$2.1 trillion a year—the size of the total economy of Africa south of the Sahara.