: International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF)
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The second edition ofMicrobiologyofFoods6:MicrobialEcologyofFoodCommodities was written by the ICMSF, comprising 16 scientists from 11 countries, plus consultants and other contributors to chapters. The intention of the second edition was to bring the ?rst edition (published in 1996) up to date, taking into account developments in food processing and packaging, new products, and recognition of new pathogens and their control acquired since the ?rst edition. Theoverallstructure ofthechapters hasbeen retained,vizeachcovers(i)theimportantpropertiesof thefoodcommoditythataffectitsmicrobialcontentandecology,(ii)theinitialmicro?oraatslaughteror harvest, (iii) the effects of harvesting, transportation, processing, and storage on the microbial content, and (iv) an assessment of the hazards and risks of the food commodities and (v) the processes applied to control the microbial load. In 1980s, control of food safety was largely by inspection and compliance with hygiene regulations, together with end-product testing.MicroorganismsinFoods2:SamplingforMicrobiologicalAnalysis: PrinciplesandSpeci?cApplications(2nded.1986)putsuchtestingonasounderstatisticalbasisthrough samplingplans,whichremainusefulwhenthereisnoinformationontheconditionsunderwhichafood has been produced or processed, e.g. at port-of-entry. At an early stage, the Commission recognized that no sampling plan can ensure the absence of a pathogen in food. Testing foods at ports of entry, or elsewhere in the food chain, cannot guarantee food safety.