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Milestones In Microwave Chemistry

Author: György Keglevich
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319306324
Size: 80.10 MB
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This book looks back on thirty-five years of microwave (MW) chemistry and explains how the application of the MW technique became an integral part of R&D, eventually becoming recognized in industry. Further, it details how MW chemistry has undergone a dynamic development in the past three decades, one driven by the advent of increasingly sophisticated professional MW reactors in place of the kitchen MW ovens used in earlier years. A major part of the book shows how substitutions, esterifications, amidations, hydrolyses, alkylations, eliminations, dehydrations, condensations, cyclizations, C–C couplings and the modification of heterocycles can be performed advantageously under MW irradiation, as the reaction times are shorter, while the selectivity and yields are higher; it also explains why in most cases, the reactions can be performed under solvent-free conditions. MW irradiation within the sphere of organophosphorus chemistry is showcased and typical reactions, such as the direct derivatization of phosphinic acids, alkylating esterifications, Diels–Alder reactions, the inverse Wittig-type reaction, fragmentations, the Arbuzov reaction, the synthesis of α-hydroxyphosphonates and α-aminophosphonates (the Kabachnik–Fields condensation), deoxygenations and P–C coupling reactions are described under MW conditions. In closing, the advantages of MW chemistry such as faster reactions and the possibility of simplifying the catalytic systems are addressed.

Microwave Chemistry

Author: Giancarlo Cravotto
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110479931
Size: 29.17 MB
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Microwave Chemistry has changed the way to work in chemical laboratories and is an established state-of-the-art technology to accelarate and enhance chemical processes. This book not only gives an overview of the technology, its historical development and theoretical background, but also presents its exceptionally broad spectrum of applications. Microwave Chemistry enables graduate students and scientist to learn and apply its methods successfully.

Organophosphorus Chemistry

Author: John C. Tebby
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1788011678
Size: 45.26 MB
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Coverage in this annual review of the literature presents a comprehensive and critical survey of the vast field of study involving organophosphorus compounds. From phosphines and related P-C bonded compounds through tervalent phosphorus acid derivatives, phosphine chalcogenides, and recent developments in green synthetic approaches in organophosphorus chemistry, the volume reflects established and current interests in the area. With an emphasis on interdisciplinary content, this book is aimed at the worldwide organic chemistry and engineering research communities.

Sustainable C Sp3 H Bond Functionalization

Author: Jin Xie
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662494965
Size: 34.38 MB
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This book highlights major achievements made in the last five years concerning sustainable C(sp3)-H bond functionalization and offers a promising and emerging tool-kit for organic synthesis. The book is divided into three chapters demonstrating key advances in C(sp3)-H bond functionalization. Chapter 1 reviews transition-metal-catalyzed C(sp3)-H bond functionalization using different directing groups, while Chapter 2 addresses the new methods of transition-metal-catalyzed and metal-free C(sp3)-H bond functionalization without directing groups, in addition to briefly highlighting redox-neutral C(sp3)-H bond functionalization. In closing, Chapter 3 examines visible-light photoredox catalysis, an emerging and highly sustainable C(sp3)-H bond functionalization strategy. The book offers an intriguing and useful reference guide for a broad readership working and/or interested in the fields of organic, organometallic, and green chemistry.

Green Synthetic Approaches For Biologically Relevant Heterocycles

Author: Goutam Brahmachari
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128005904
Size: 31.90 MB
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Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles reviews this significant group of organic compounds within the context of sustainable methods and processes. Each clearly structured chapter features in-depth coverage of various green protocols for the synthesis of a wide variety of bioactive heterocycles classified on the basis of ring-size and/or presence of heteratoms(s). Techniques covered include microwave heating, ultrasound, ionic liquids, solid phase, solvent-free, heterogeneous catalysis, and aqueous media, along with multi-component reaction strategies. This book also integrates advances in green chemistry research into industrial applications and process developments. Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles is an essential resource on green chemistry technologies for academic researchers, R&D professionals, and students working in medicinal, organic, natural product, and agricultural chemistry. Includes global coverage of a wide variety of green synthetic techniques Features cutting-edge research in the field of bioactive heterocyclic compounds Focuses extensively on applications, with numerous examples of biologically relevant heterocycles

Nanophysics For Energy Efficiency

Author: Rui Filipe Lobo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319170074
Size: 28.75 MB
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This book provides a succinct account of the ways in which nano technology is being applied to improve energy efficiency. The coverage includes current scanning probe techniques for electrical energy storage, energy harvesting systems and local electrochemistry as well as emerging techniques of relevance to diverse materials and devices, including advanced scanning probes for nano fabrication and nano tribology. The tools of nanotechnology, such as scanning probe microscopes and micro machines, can provide important information about the fundamental nature of space, especially the zero-point electromagnetic field. An exciting aspect of this subject is that a better understanding of the force that arises from the zero-point field, i.e., the Casimir force, may enable its control to some extent, impacting on the development of nano electromechanical systems. Readers will find this book to be a clear and concise summary of the state of the art in nanophysics and nanotechnology as they relate to energy efficiency.

High Energy Charged Particles

Author: Shu Seki
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431556842
Size: 27.39 MB
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This book features comprehensive explanations from the classical theory of high-energy particle interactions with matter to their use for a novel nanofabrication technique for various organic soft materials. Potential readers include scientists and engineers in both academia and industry, as well as students of materials science, nanotechnology, and nuclear power engineering. Readers will learn about the historical research background of radiation chemistry and interactions of an accelerated particle with matter, and then move on to recent research topics having to do with nanofabrication of soft materials by using single charged particles with high energy. Target materials of the highlighted novel technique include proteins, thermo-responsive and photo-responsive polymers, semiconducting polymers, and even small organic molecules. The descriptions of these various newly developed nanomaterials will interest a broad spectrum of readers and provide them with a new perspective. The many conceptual illustrations and microscopic images of nanomaterials that are included will help readers to easily understand the contents of the book.

Pharmacological Potential Of Selected Natural Compounds In The Control Of Parasitic Diseases

Author: Gabriela Hrckova
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3709113253
Size: 24.57 MB
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The natural world with a large number of terrestrial and marine plants and lower organisms is a great source of bioactive compounds historically used as remedies in various diseases. Within the last decade, such compounds became more attractive targets for pharmacologists and the pharmaceutical industry in drug development projects. This volume presents the pharmacological potential of chemically defined natural compounds obtained from plants, fungi, algae and cyanobacteria with antiparasitic activity, that have been tested against various endo-parasitic protozoan and helminth species. Additionally, the advantages of combined therapy using antiparasitic drugs and natural compounds with selected specific activity are reviewed and explained in the context of host pathology and immunosuppression induced by the parasites. The conclusions of this new book give suggestions for further non-empirical drug development and discuss perspectives of alternative approaches to therapy of parasitic diseases. ​

Organometallic Flow Chemistry

Author: Timothy Noël
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319332430
Size: 69.46 MB
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The series Topics in Organometallic Chemistry presents critical overviews of research results in organometallic chemistry. As our understanding of organometallic structure, properties and mechanisms increases, new ways are opened for the design of organometallic compounds and reactions tailored to the needs of such diverse areas as organic synthesis, medical research, biology and materials science. Thus the scope of coverage includes a broad range of topics of pure and applied organometallic chemistry, where new breakthroughs are being achieved that are of significance to a larger scientific audience. The individual volumes of Topics in Organometallic Chemistry are thematic. Review articles are generally invited by the volume editors. All chapters from Topics in Organometallic Chemistry are published OnlineFirst with an individual DOI. In references, Topics in Organometallic Chemistry is abbreviated as Top Organomet Chem and cited as a journal

A National Strategy For Advancing Climate Modeling

Author: Committee on a National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309259770
Size: 10.26 MB
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As climate change has pushed climate patterns outside of historic norms, the need for detailed projections is growing across all sectors, including agriculture, insurance, and emergency preparedness planning. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling emphasizes the needs for climate models to evolve substantially in order to deliver climate projections at the scale and level of detail desired by decision makers, this report finds. Despite much recent progress in developing reliable climate models, there are still efficiencies to be gained across the large and diverse U.S. climate modeling community. Evolving to a more unified climate modeling enterprise-in particular by developing a common software infrastructure shared by all climate researchers and holding an annual climate modeling forum-could help speed progress. Throughout this report, several recommendations and guidelines are outlined to accelerate progress in climate modeling. The U.S. supports several climate models, each conceptually similar but with components assembled with slightly different software and data output standards. If all U.S. climate models employed a single software system, it could simplify testing and migration to new computing hardware, and allow scientists to compare and interchange climate model components, such as land surface or ocean models. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling recommends an annual U.S. climate modeling forum be held to help bring the nation's diverse modeling communities together with the users of climate data. This would provide climate model data users with an opportunity to learn more about the strengths and limitations of models and provide input to modelers on their needs and provide a venue for discussions of priorities for the national modeling enterprise, and bring disparate climate science communities together to design common modeling experiments. In addition, A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling explains that U.S. climate modelers will need to address an expanding breadth of scientific problems while striving to make predictions and projections more accurate. Progress toward this goal can be made through a combination of increasing model resolution, advances in observations, improved model physics, and more complete representations of the Earth system. To address the computing needs of the climate modeling community, the report suggests a two-pronged approach that involves the continued use and upgrading of existing climate-dedicated computing resources at modeling centers, together with research on how to effectively exploit the more complex computer hardware systems expected over the next 10 to 20 years.