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Milestones In Microwave Chemistry

Author: György Keglevich
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319306324
Size: 31.82 MB
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This book looks back on thirty-five years of microwave (MW) chemistry and explains how the application of the MW technique became an integral part of R&D, eventually becoming recognized in industry. Further, it details how MW chemistry has undergone a dynamic development in the past three decades, one driven by the advent of increasingly sophisticated professional MW reactors in place of the kitchen MW ovens used in earlier years. A major part of the book shows how substitutions, esterifications, amidations, hydrolyses, alkylations, eliminations, dehydrations, condensations, cyclizations, C–C couplings and the modification of heterocycles can be performed advantageously under MW irradiation, as the reaction times are shorter, while the selectivity and yields are higher; it also explains why in most cases, the reactions can be performed under solvent-free conditions. MW irradiation within the sphere of organophosphorus chemistry is showcased and typical reactions, such as the direct derivatization of phosphinic acids, alkylating esterifications, Diels–Alder reactions, the inverse Wittig-type reaction, fragmentations, the Arbuzov reaction, the synthesis of α-hydroxyphosphonates and α-aminophosphonates (the Kabachnik–Fields condensation), deoxygenations and P–C coupling reactions are described under MW conditions. In closing, the advantages of MW chemistry such as faster reactions and the possibility of simplifying the catalytic systems are addressed.

Microwave Chemistry

Author: Giancarlo Cravotto
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110479931
Size: 53.52 MB
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Microwave Chemistry has changed the way to work in chemical laboratories and is an established state-of-the-art technology to accelarate and enhance chemical processes. This book not only gives an overview of the technology, its historical development and theoretical background, but also presents its exceptionally broad spectrum of applications. Microwave Chemistry enables graduate students and scientist to learn and apply its methods successfully.

Organophosphorus Chemistry

Author: John C. Tebby
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1788011678
Size: 28.27 MB
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Coverage in this annual review of the literature presents a comprehensive and critical survey of the vast field of study involving organophosphorus compounds. From phosphines and related P-C bonded compounds through tervalent phosphorus acid derivatives, phosphine chalcogenides, and recent developments in green synthetic approaches in organophosphorus chemistry, the volume reflects established and current interests in the area. With an emphasis on interdisciplinary content, this book is aimed at the worldwide organic chemistry and engineering research communities.

The Chemistry And Applications Of Sustainable Natural Hair Products

Author: Kalyani Barve
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319294199
Size: 31.18 MB
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This book investigates the relationship between phytoconstituents and properties in specific plants, such as Hibiscus rosa sinesis, Cuscuta reflexa, Citrullus colocynthis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Ocimum gratissimum, that are used in hair care products including shampoos, conditioners, dyes, and oils. It explains the impact of these materials on the growth, structure, appearance, and health of hair. It also explores how the chemistry of certain plants from sustainable sources is exploited for use in hair products and nutraceuticals. Additionally, the authors include information on ingredients used for formulating 'green' hair products that treat common conditions such as canities, dandruff and alopecia.

Sustainable C Sp3 H Bond Functionalization

Author: Jin Xie
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662494965
Size: 24.91 MB
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This book highlights major achievements made in the last five years concerning sustainable C(sp3)-H bond functionalization and offers a promising and emerging tool-kit for organic synthesis. The book is divided into three chapters demonstrating key advances in C(sp3)-H bond functionalization. Chapter 1 reviews transition-metal-catalyzed C(sp3)-H bond functionalization using different directing groups, while Chapter 2 addresses the new methods of transition-metal-catalyzed and metal-free C(sp3)-H bond functionalization without directing groups, in addition to briefly highlighting redox-neutral C(sp3)-H bond functionalization. In closing, Chapter 3 examines visible-light photoredox catalysis, an emerging and highly sustainable C(sp3)-H bond functionalization strategy. The book offers an intriguing and useful reference guide for a broad readership working and/or interested in the fields of organic, organometallic, and green chemistry.

Advances In Health And Environment Safety

Author: N. A. Siddiqui
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811071225
Size: 21.57 MB
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This book comprises selected papers on advances in the field of health and environment safety that were presented at the leading international conference on advances in the field of health, safety, fire, environment, allied sciences and engineering (HSFEA 2016). The book focuses on the latest developments in the field of health and environment safety, and highlights related opportunities and challenges. The book also presents methods that can be used to effectively monitor and measure climate change and global warming. Further, the contents of this work stress the importance of maintaining safety and healthy work environments that are free of occupational health hazards. This book will be of interest to researchers, professionals, and policy makers alike.

Green Synthetic Approaches For Biologically Relevant Heterocycles

Author: Goutam Brahmachari
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128005904
Size: 72.65 MB
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Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles reviews this significant group of organic compounds within the context of sustainable methods and processes. Each clearly structured chapter features in-depth coverage of various green protocols for the synthesis of a wide variety of bioactive heterocycles classified on the basis of ring-size and/or presence of heteratoms(s). Techniques covered include microwave heating, ultrasound, ionic liquids, solid phase, solvent-free, heterogeneous catalysis, and aqueous media, along with multi-component reaction strategies. This book also integrates advances in green chemistry research into industrial applications and process developments. Green Synthetic Approaches for Biologically Relevant Heterocycles is an essential resource on green chemistry technologies for academic researchers, R&D professionals, and students working in medicinal, organic, natural product, and agricultural chemistry. Includes global coverage of a wide variety of green synthetic techniques Features cutting-edge research in the field of bioactive heterocyclic compounds Focuses extensively on applications, with numerous examples of biologically relevant heterocycles

Polysaccharides

Author: Kishan Gopal Ramawat
Publisher: Springer
ISBN:
Size: 45.50 MB
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This reference work presents comprehensive information about one of the most important and most wide-spread classes of (bio)organic compounds: the polysaccharides. The comprehensive and thoroughly up-to-date handbook presents the sources, identification, analysis, biosynthesis, biotechnology and applications of important polysaccharides likes starches, cellulose, chitin, gum and microbial polysaccharides. Polysaccharides can exhibit complex structure and various functional activities. These biomacromolecules can therefore serve as raw materials for various different materials, e.g. rayon, cellulose acetate, celluloid, and nitrocellulose; and they find multiple applications, for instance as surgical threads (chitin), as sources of energy, dietary fibers, as blood flow adjuvants, in cosmetics, emulsion stabilizers, film formers, binders, viscosity increasing agents, or skin conditioning agenta, as food additives in gums, chewing gum bases, and as vaccines. Polysaccharides form the basis for useful products, like xanthan gum, dextran, welan gum, gellan gum, diutan gum and pullulan. Some of the polysaccharide-derived products have interesting and useful properties and show biological activities, such as immunomodulatory, antibacterial, anti-mutagenic, radioprotective, anti-oxidative, anti-ulcer, antidepressant, anti-septicaemic or anti-inflammatory activities. All these applications and properties of polysaccharides are for the first time compiled in a thorough and comprehensive overview in the present work. This reference work is organized thematically in four parts: Part I. Polysaccharides: Occurrence, Structure, Distribution and Biotechnology. Part II. Methods. Part III. Bioactive Polysaccharides. Part IV. Polysaccharides as Food. This authoritative reference work is edited by experienced experts, all chapters are written by well recognized international specialists. It is useful to all those working in the field of botany, phytochemistry, pharmacy, drug delivery, molecular biology, metabolomics, forestry, environment, conservation, biotechnology and NGOs working for forest protection.

Climate Fire And Human Evolution

Author: Andrew Y. Glikson
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331922512X
Size: 67.96 MB
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The book outlines principal milestones in the evolution of the atmosphere, oceans and biosphere during the last 4 million years in relation with the evolution from primates to the genus Homo – which uniquely mastered the ignition and transfer of fire. The advent of land plants since about 420 million years ago ensued in flammable carbon-rich biosphere interfaced with an oxygen-rich atmosphere. Born on a flammable Earth surface, under increasingly unstable climates descending from the warmer Pliocene into the deepest ice ages of the Pleistocene, human survival depended on both—biological adaptations and cultural evolution, mastering fire as a necessity. This allowed the genus to increase entropy in nature by orders of magnitude. Gathered around camp fires during long nights for hundreds of thousandth of years, captivated by the flickering life-like dance of the flames, humans developed imagination, insights, cravings, fears, premonitions of death and thereby aspiration for immortality, omniscience, omnipotence and the concept of god. Inherent in pantheism was the reverence of the Earth, its rocks and its living creatures, contrasted by the subsequent rise of monotheistic sky-god creeds which regard Earth as but a corridor to heaven. Once the climate stabilized in the early Holocene, since about ~7000 years-ago production of excess food by Neolithic civilization along the Great River Valleys has allowed human imagination and dreams to express themselves through the construction of monuments to immortality. Further to burning large part of the forests, the discovery of combustion and exhumation of carbon from the Earth’s hundreds of millions of years-old fossil biospheres set the stage for an anthropogenic oxidation event, affecting an abrupt shift in state of the atmosphere-ocean-cryosphere system. The consequent ongoing extinction equals the past five great mass extinctions of species—constituting a geological event horizon in the history of planet Earth.

A National Strategy For Advancing Climate Modeling

Author: Committee on a National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309259770
Size: 49.70 MB
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As climate change has pushed climate patterns outside of historic norms, the need for detailed projections is growing across all sectors, including agriculture, insurance, and emergency preparedness planning. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling emphasizes the needs for climate models to evolve substantially in order to deliver climate projections at the scale and level of detail desired by decision makers, this report finds. Despite much recent progress in developing reliable climate models, there are still efficiencies to be gained across the large and diverse U.S. climate modeling community. Evolving to a more unified climate modeling enterprise-in particular by developing a common software infrastructure shared by all climate researchers and holding an annual climate modeling forum-could help speed progress. Throughout this report, several recommendations and guidelines are outlined to accelerate progress in climate modeling. The U.S. supports several climate models, each conceptually similar but with components assembled with slightly different software and data output standards. If all U.S. climate models employed a single software system, it could simplify testing and migration to new computing hardware, and allow scientists to compare and interchange climate model components, such as land surface or ocean models. A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling recommends an annual U.S. climate modeling forum be held to help bring the nation's diverse modeling communities together with the users of climate data. This would provide climate model data users with an opportunity to learn more about the strengths and limitations of models and provide input to modelers on their needs and provide a venue for discussions of priorities for the national modeling enterprise, and bring disparate climate science communities together to design common modeling experiments. In addition, A National Strategy for Advancing Climate Modeling explains that U.S. climate modelers will need to address an expanding breadth of scientific problems while striving to make predictions and projections more accurate. Progress toward this goal can be made through a combination of increasing model resolution, advances in observations, improved model physics, and more complete representations of the Earth system. To address the computing needs of the climate modeling community, the report suggests a two-pronged approach that involves the continued use and upgrading of existing climate-dedicated computing resources at modeling centers, together with research on how to effectively exploit the more complex computer hardware systems expected over the next 10 to 20 years.