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Minimal Surfaces Stratified Multivarifolds And The Plateau Problem

Author: A. T. Fomenko
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821898277
Size: 31.30 MB
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Plateau's problem is a scientific trend in modern mathematics that unites several different problems connected with the study of minimal surfaces. In its simplest version, Plateau's problem is concerned with finding a surface of least area that spans a given fixed one-dimensional contour in three-dimensional space--perhaps the best-known example of such surfaces is provided by soap films. From the mathematical point of view, such films are described as solutions of a second-order partial differential equation, so their behavior is quite complicated and has still not been thoroughly studied. Soap films, or, more generally, interfaces between physical media in equilibrium, arise in many applied problems in chemistry, physics, and also in nature. In applications, one finds not only two-dimensional but also multidimensional minimal surfaces that span fixed closed ``contours'' in some multidimensional Riemannian space. An exact mathematical statement of the problem of finding a surface of least area or volume requires the formulation of definitions of such fundamental concepts as a surface, its boundary, minimality of a surface, and so on. It turns out that there are several natural definitions of these concepts, which permit the study of minimal surfaces by different, and complementary, methods. In the framework of this comparatively small book it would be almost impossible to cover all aspects of the modern problem of Plateau, to which a vast literature has been devoted. However, this book makes a unique contribution to this literature, for the authors' guiding principle was to present the material with a maximum of clarity and a minimum of formalization. Chapter 1 contains historical background on Plateau's problem, referring to the period preceding the 1930s, and a description of its connections with the natural sciences. This part is intended for a very wide circle of readers and is accessible, for example, to first-year graduate students. The next part of the book, comprising Chapters 2-5, gives a fairly complete survey of various modern trends in Plateau's problem. This section is accessible to second- and third-year students specializing in physics and mathematics. The remaining chapters present a detailed exposition of one of these trends (the homotopic version of Plateau's problem in terms of stratified multivarifolds) and the Plateau problem in homogeneous symplectic spaces. This last part is intended for specialists interested in the modern theory of minimal surfaces and can be used for special courses; a command of the concepts of functional analysis is assumed.

Nonlinear Semigroups

Author: Isao Miyadera
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821886816
Size: 61.96 MB
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This book presents a systematic exposition of the general theory of nonlinear contraction semigroups in Banach spaces and is aimed at students and researchers in science and engineering as well as in mathematics. Suitable for use as a textbook in graduate courses and seminars, this self-contained book is accessible to those with only a basic knowledge of functional analysis. After preprequisites presented in the first chapter, Miyadera covers the basic properties of dissipative operators and nonlinear contraction semigroups in Banach spaces. The generation of nonlinear contraction semigroups, the Komura theorem, and the Crandall-Liggett theorem are explored, and there is a treatment of the convergence of difference approximation of Cauchy problems for ????- dissipative operators and the Kobayashi generation theorem of nonlinear semigroups. Nonlinear Semigroups concludes with applications to nonlinear evolution equations and to first order quasilinear equations.

Arithmetic Of Probability Distributions And Characterization Problems On Abelian Groups

Author: Gennadij M. Fel'dman
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821845936
Size: 38.14 MB
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This book studies the problem of the decomposition of a given random variable into a sum of independent random variables (components). Starting from the famous Cramer theorem, which says that all components of a normal random variable are also normal random variables, the central feature of the book is Feldman's use of powerful analytical techniques. In the algebraic case, one cannot directly use analytic methods because of the absence of a natural analytic structure on the dual group, which is the domain of characteristic functions. Nevertheless, the methods developed in this book allow one to apply analytic techniques in the algebraic setting. The first part of the book presents results on the arithmetic of probability distributions of random variables with values in a locally compact abelian group. The second part studies problems of characterization of a Gaussian distribution of a locally compact abelian group by the independence or identical distribution of its linear statistics.