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Minimizing The Use Of Chemicals To Control Scaling In Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Improved Prediction Of The Scaling Potential Of Calcium Carbonate

Author: Tarek Kamal Abdalla Waly
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 041561578X
Size: 13.86 MB
Format: PDF
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A comprehensive and detailed study on the scaling potential of calcium carbonate in seawater reverse osmosis systems (SWRO), this book provides a new approach for calculating the degree of supersaturation and the pH of the SWRO systems concentrates with the assistance of the feed-water pH and the inorganic carbon constituents. Furthermore, the book highlights the weakness in the present supersaturation indices and membrane manufacturers programs. Finally, the research suggested that SWRO concentrate is much lower undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate than previously thought. This was confirmed by comprehensive pilot testing where acids and antiscalants used to prevent calcium carbonate scaling were completely eliminated from the pilot plant.

Controlling Biofouling In Seawater Reverse Osmosis Membrane Systems

Author: Nirajan Dhakal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780815357186
Size: 29.53 MB
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Seawater desalination is a rapidly growing coastal industry that is increasingly threatened by algal blooms. Depending on the severity of algal blooms, desalination systems may be forced to shut down because of clogging and/or poor feed water quality. To maintain stable operation and provide good feed water quality to seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems, ultrafiltration (UF) pre-treatment is proposed. This research focused on assessing the ability of UF and other pre-treatment technologies to reduce biofouling in SWRO systems. An improved method to measure bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) was developed and applied at laboratory, pilot and full scale to assess the ability of conventional UF (150 kDa) and tight UF (10 kDa) alone and in combination with a phosphate adsorbent to reduce regrowth potential and delay the onset of biofouling in SWRO. The improved bacterial regrowth potential method employs a natural consortium of marine bacteria as inoculum and flow cytometry. The limit of detection of the BRP method was lowered to 43,000 � 12,000 cells/mL, which is equivalent to 9.3 � 2.6 �g-Cglucose/L. The reduction in bacterial regrowth potential after tight UF (10 kDa) was 3 to 4 times higher than with conventional UF (150 kDa). It was further reduced after the application of a phosphate adsorbent, independent of pore size of the UF membrane. Pilot studies demonstrated that the application of tight UF (10 kDa) coupled with a phosphate adsorbent consistently lowered the bacterial regrowth potential and no feed channel pressure drop increase was observed in membrane fouling simulators (MFS) over a period of 21 days. The study also showed that non-backwashable fouling of UF membranes varied strongly with the type of algal species and the algal organic matter (AOM) they release. The presence of polysaccharide (stretching -OH) and sugar ester groups (stretching S=O) was the main cause of non-backwashable fouling. In conclusion, this study showed that an improved BRP method is suitable for the assessment of SWRO pre-treatment systems and it can be a useful tool to develop potential strategies to mitigate biofouling and improve the sustainability of SWRO systems.

A Multidisciplinary Introduction To Desalination

Author: Alireza Bazargan
Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC
ISBN: 8793609949
Size: 10.35 MB
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Although more than 70% of the globe is covered with water, only a small portion is suitable for direct human use, making the scarcity of freshwater one of our planet's most serious challenges. In this context, desalination, defined as "the separation of salts from water," is one of the possible solutions for appeasing our ever-increasing thirst. By drawing upon the expertise of a remarkable team of international authors, this book provides a simple, encompassing, and "multidisciplinary" introduction to desalination. The particular stregnth of this publication is its inclusive yet straightforward nature. In other words, the unique assortment of reader-friendly chapters is designed to cover the topic of desalination as a whole and strike a delicate balance between the technical and non-technical. To this end, the book is divided into five general sections: * The first section presents an overview of water scarcity, followed by a review of integrated water management and the alternatives to desalination. The fundamentals of desalination are also provided, including simple water chemistry. * The second section covers conventional desalination technologies, including thermal and membrane processes. The topics of pre- and post- treatment are given due credit, as all desalination plants are more or less reliant on them. * The third section reviews the history of how desalination technologies originated, including a review of today's R&D activities and cutting edge research. The topic of membrane manufacturing is also covered. * Section four is concerned with energy and environmental issues, including the application of renewable and nuclear energy, energy minimization, brine management, and environmental impacts. * Finally, section five covers the social and commercial issues, ranging from rural desalination to politics. Desalination costs and economic feasibility are discussed as well as issues in business development and future market prospects.

Riverbank Filtration

Author: C. Ray
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306481545
Size: 65.59 MB
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Chittaranjan Ray, Ph. D. , P. E. University of Hawaii at Mãnoa Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Jürgen Schubert, M. Sc. Stadtwerke Düsseldorf AG Düsseldorf, Germany Ronald B. Linsky National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States Gina Melin National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States 1. What is Riverbank Filtration? The purpose ofthis book is to show that riverbank filtration (RBF) isa low-cost and efficient alternative water treatment for drinking-water applications. There are two immediate benefits to the increased use of RBF: Minimized need for adding chemicals like disinfectants and coagulants to surface water to control pathogens. Decreased costs to the community without increased risk to human health. Butwhat,exactly, isRBF? In humid regions, river water naturally percolates through the ground into aquifers (which are layers of sand and gravel that contain water underground) during high-flow conditions. In arid regions, most rivers lose flow, and the percolating water passes through soil and aquifer material until it reaches the water table. During these percolation processes, potential contaminants present in river water are filtered and attenuated. If there are no other contaminants present in the aquifer or ifthe respective contaminants are present at lower concentrations, the quality of water in the aquifer can be ofhigher quality than that found in theriver. In RBF, production wells — which are placed near the banks ofrivers —pump large quantities ofwater.

Natural Water Treatment Systems For Safe And Sustainable Water Supply In The Indian Context Saph Pani

Author: Thomas Wintgens
Publisher: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 1780408382
Size: 58.97 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context is based on the work from the Saph Pani project (Hindi word meaning potable water). The book aims to study and improve natural water treatment systems, such as River Bank Filtration (RBF), Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), and wetlands in India, building local and European expertise in this field. The project aims to enhance water resources and water supply, particularly in water stressed urban and peri urban areas in different parts of the Indian sub-continent. This project is co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework (FP7) scheme of small or medium scale focused research projects for specific cooperation actions (SICA) dedicated to international cooperation partner countries. Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context provides: an introduction to the concepts of natural water treatment systems (MAR, RBF, wetlands) at national and international level knowledge of the basics of MAR, RBF and wetlands, methods and hydrogeological characterisation an insight into case studies in India and abroad. This book is a useful resource for teaching at Post Graduate level, for research and professional reference.

Creating Low Carbon Cities

Author: Shobhakar Dhakal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319497308
Size: 74.60 MB
Format: PDF
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This book addresses key topics in the current deliberations and debates on low carbon cities that are underway globally. Contributions by experts from around the world focus on the key factors required for creating low carbon cities. These include appropriate infrastructure, ensuring co-benefits of climate actions, making best use of knowledge and information, proper accounting of emissions, and social factors such as behavioral change. Readers will gain a better understanding of these drivers and explore potential transformation pathways for cities. Particular emphasis is given to the current situation of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the urban level, stressing the complexity of measuring GHG emissions from cities. Chapters also shed new light on the long-term transformation pathways towards low carbon. This book discusses key challenges and opportunities in all these domains to aid in creating low carbon cities, making it of value to policy makers, researchers in academia and consultants working on climate change and energy issues. “The low carbon cities agenda is of bold ambition and demands rapid societal transformation. This book provides invaluable information and analysis on how the goals of this agenda can be achieved and what will be the significant obstacles in the way. The content in the book goes below the surface to reveal on-the-ground economic, engineering and equity issues that are at the heart of the Paris Climate Agreement and the ensuing policy debates. In this way, Creating Low Carbon Cities serves as a critical scholarly benchmark and as a toolkit for further action." William Solecki, Professor, Institute for Sustainable Cities, City University of New York "Creating Low Carbon Cities provides a refreshingly critical approach to low-carbon urban development, what has been achieved so far and the challenges ahead. It will be an important data-driven resource for local leaders, sustainability practitioners and urban planners.” Ms. Monika Zimmermann, Deputy Secretary General, ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability

Risk Informed Management Of European River Basins

Author: Jos Brils
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642385982
Size: 14.59 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The growing impacts of economic activities and climate change on the conditions of rivers throughout the world, require a new, integrated approach towards river basin management, an approach that can also cope with an uncertain future. In this volume, leading European scientists and representatives of major stakeholder groups present risk-informed management as this new approach, as developed in the European Commission-funded project RISKBASE. It aims to improve the ecological quality of river basins and thus to sustain the goods and services they provide for the benefit of society. Risk-informed management involves the integrated application of three key-principles: · Being well informed · Managing adaptively · Pursuing a participatory approach The authors explain and underpin these principles in detail, offer inspiring examples from practice and connect them to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). This book is intended for scientists, consultants and practitioners concerned about river basins, world-wide, as well as the drafters and implementers of the WFD River Basin Management Plans.

The Water Energy And Food Security Nexus In The Arab Region

Author: Kamel M. Amer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319484087
Size: 54.17 MB
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This book investigates the need for a more open and interdisciplinary dialogue on the nexus of food, water and energy security in the Arab region. It argues that achieving sustainable economic development is irretrievably tied to the security of the water–energy–food nexus, which is in turn essential for bringing about sustained peace. Further, it discusses various approaches to achieving these lofty objectives, and offers the following take-away messages: The Arab region is currently under considerable water stress, and the situation will continue to get worse with a number of global changes – most notably those related to climate and regional water distribution. Viable solutions are available in the Arab region and can be implemented through innovative policies, judicious use of new technologies, and stimulating public opinion. Integration across water, energy, and food sectors is obviously needed but achieving it in practice is extremely challenging. There are some gaps in the scientific understanding but at the same time there is a wealth of data and synthesized information that can guide decision-making.

Best Practice Guide On The Control Of Arsenic In Drinking Water

Author: Prosun Bhattacharya
Publisher: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 1843393859
Size: 43.50 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Arsenic in drinking water derived from groundwater is arguably the biggest environmental chemical human health risk known at the present time, with well over 100,000,000 people around the world being exposed. Monitoring the hazard, assessing exposure and health risks and implementing effective remediation are therefore key tasks for organisations and individuals with responsibilities related to the supply of safe, clean drinking water. Best Practice Guide on the Control of Arsenic in Drinking Water, covering aspects of hazard distribution, exposure, health impacts, biomonitoring and remediation, including social and economic issues, is therefore a very timely contribution to disseminating useful knowledge in this area. The volume contains 10 short reviews of key aspects of this issue, supplemented by a further 14 case studies, each of which focusses on a particular area or technological or other practice, and written by leading experts in the field. Detailed selective reference lists provide pointers to more detailed guidance on relevant practice. The volume includes coverage of (i) arsenic hazard in groundwater and exposure routes to humans, including case studies in USA, SE Asia and UK; (ii) health impacts arising from exposure to arsenic in drinking water and biomonitoring approaches; (iii) developments in the nature of regulation of arsenic in drinking water; (iv) sampling and monitoring of arsenic, including novel methodologies; (v) approaches to remediation, particularly in the context of water safety planning, and including case studies from the USA, Italy, Poland and Bangladesh; and (vi) socio-economic aspects of remediation, including non-market valuation methods and local community engagement.