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Minimizing The Use Of Chemicals To Control Scaling In Sea Water Reverse Osmosis Improved Prediction Of The Scaling Potential Of Calcium Carbonate

Author: Tarek Kamal Abdalla Waly
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 041561578X
Size: 61.76 MB
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A comprehensive and detailed study on the scaling potential of calcium carbonate in seawater reverse osmosis systems (SWRO), this book provides a new approach for calculating the degree of supersaturation and the pH of the SWRO systems concentrates with the assistance of the feed-water pH and the inorganic carbon constituents. Furthermore, the book highlights the weakness in the present supersaturation indices and membrane manufacturers programs. Finally, the research suggested that SWRO concentrate is much lower undersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate than previously thought. This was confirmed by comprehensive pilot testing where acids and antiscalants used to prevent calcium carbonate scaling were completely eliminated from the pilot plant.

Controlling Biofouling In Seawater Reverse Osmosis Membrane Systems

Author: Nirajan Dhakal
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351056085
Size: 13.78 MB
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Seawater desalination is a rapidly growing coastal industry that is increasingly threatened by algal blooms. Depending on the severity of algal blooms, desalination systems may be forced to shut down because of clogging and/or poor feed water quality. To maintain stable operation and provide good feed water quality to seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems, ultrafiltration (UF) pre-treatment is proposed. This research focused on assessing the ability of UF and other pre-treatment technologies to reduce biofouling in SWRO systems. An improved method to measure bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) was developed and applied at laboratory, pilot and full scale to assess the ability of conventional UF (150 kDa) and tight UF (10 kDa) alone and in combination with a phosphate adsorbent to reduce regrowth potential and delay the onset of biofouling in SWRO. The improved bacterial regrowth potential method employs a natural consortium of marine bacteria as inoculum and flow cytometry. The limit of detection of the BRP method was lowered to 43,000 ± 12,000 cells/mL, which is equivalent to 9.3 ± 2.6 μg-Cglucose/L. The reduction in bacterial regrowth potential after tight UF (10 kDa) was 3 to 4 times higher than with conventional UF (150 kDa). It was further reduced after the application of a phosphate adsorbent, independent of pore size of the UF membrane. Pilot studies demonstrated that the application of tight UF (10 kDa) coupled with a phosphate adsorbent consistently lowered the bacterial regrowth potential and no feed channel pressure drop increase was observed in membrane fouling simulators (MFS) over a period of 21 days. The study also showed that non-backwashable fouling of UF membranes varied strongly with the type of algal species and the algal organic matter (AOM) they release. The presence of polysaccharide (stretching -OH) and sugar ester groups (stretching S=O) was the main cause of non-backwashable fouling. In conclusion, this study showed that an improved BRP method is suitable for the assessment of SWRO pre-treatment systems and it can be a useful tool to develop potential strategies to mitigate biofouling and improve the sustainability of SWRO systems.

Particulate And Organic Matter Fouling Of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Systems

Author: Sergio G. Salinas Rodriguez
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0415620929
Size: 28.36 MB
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Characterizing bulk organic matter in seawater and bay water by various analytical techniques and linking these measurements with fouling in membrane systems. Furthermore, it aimed for the development of the Modified Fouling Index - ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) at constant flux filtration as an accurate test to measure the particulate fouling potential of a feed water and predict the rate of fouling in reverse osmosis systems. A new semi-portable set-up has been successfully developed to perform MFI-UF tests at constant flux filtration. A significant effect of the filtration flux on the fouling potential was found. Consequences of this effect for reverse osmosis systems are that the fouling potential at low flux drops dramatically; for ultrafiltration systems it implicates that the rate of fouling increases at high fluxes. The observed effect of flux on the fouling potential has significant implications for fouling potential measurements. Deposition factors in RO systems varied between 0 and 1, depending on location and MFI pore size, which indicates differences in properties of the particles present. Fouling potential results in RO fouling rates of 0.2-1 bar/month depending on the pore size of the membranes used for MFI measurements. The fouling potential of the analysed raw waters is substantially reduced by conventional pre-treatment systems and ultrafiltration: for conventional pre-treatment 37 % - 74 % and ultrafiltration 60 % - 95 %, depending on the location and the MFI pore size.

Riverbank Filtration

Author: C. Ray
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306481545
Size: 10.84 MB
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Chittaranjan Ray, Ph. D. , P. E. University of Hawaii at Mãnoa Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Jürgen Schubert, M. Sc. Stadtwerke Düsseldorf AG Düsseldorf, Germany Ronald B. Linsky National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States Gina Melin National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States 1. What is Riverbank Filtration? The purpose ofthis book is to show that riverbank filtration (RBF) isa low-cost and efficient alternative water treatment for drinking-water applications. There are two immediate benefits to the increased use of RBF: Minimized need for adding chemicals like disinfectants and coagulants to surface water to control pathogens. Decreased costs to the community without increased risk to human health. Butwhat,exactly, isRBF? In humid regions, river water naturally percolates through the ground into aquifers (which are layers of sand and gravel that contain water underground) during high-flow conditions. In arid regions, most rivers lose flow, and the percolating water passes through soil and aquifer material until it reaches the water table. During these percolation processes, potential contaminants present in river water are filtered and attenuated. If there are no other contaminants present in the aquifer or ifthe respective contaminants are present at lower concentrations, the quality of water in the aquifer can be ofhigher quality than that found in theriver. In RBF, production wells — which are placed near the banks ofrivers —pump large quantities ofwater.

Fluoride Removal From Groundwater By Adsorption Technology

Author: Abdulai Salifu
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351199978
Size: 25.78 MB
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In the Eastern corridor of Northern region of Ghana, presence of high fluoride concentration in the groundwater has made many drilled boreholes unusable for drinking. Little is, however, known about the factors contributing to the occurrence of high fluoride in this part of Ghana and it’s spatial distribution. Treatment of the fluoride-contaminated groundwater by adsorption is also hampered by the lack of suitable adsorbents that are locally available. Based on principal component analysis, and saturation indices calculations, this thesis highlights that, the predominant mechanisms controlling the fluoride enrichment probably include calcite precipitation and Na/Ca exchange processes, both of which deplete Ca from the groundwater, and promote the dissolution of fluorite. The mechanisms also include F-/OH- anion exchange processes, as well as evapotranspiration processes which concentrate the fluoride ions, hence increasing its concentration in the groundwater. Spatial mapping showed that the high fluoride groundwaters occur predominantly in the Saboba, Cheriponi and Yendi districts. The thesis further highlights that, modifying the surface of indigenous materials by an aluminium coating process, is a very promising approach to develop a suitable fluoride adsorbent. Aluminum oxide coated media reduced fluoride in water from 5. 0 ± 0.2 mg/L to ? 1.5 mg/L (which is the WHO health based guideline for fluoride), in both batch and continuous flow column experiments in the laboratory. Kinetic and isotherm studies, thermodynamic calculations, as well as analytical results from Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, suggest the mechanism of fluoride adsorption onto aluminium oxide coated media involved both physisorption and chemisorption processes. Field testing in a fluoritic community in Northern Ghana showed that the adsorbent is also capable of treating fluoride-contaminated groundwater in field conditions, suggesting it is a promising defluoridation adsorbent. The adsorbent also showed good regenerability potential that would allow re-use, which could make it practically and economically viable. Additional research is, however, required to further increase the fluoride adsorption capacity of developed adsorbent.

Treatment Of Petroleum Refinery Wastewater With Constructed Wetlands

Author: Hassana Ibrahim Mustapha
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0429835167
Size: 38.80 MB
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Pollution of waterbodies and the environment by petroleum industry is of particular concern in Nigeria. This problem can be addressed by the application of constructed wetlands (CWs) which is a nature-based system that is simple to construct, have low operational and maintenance costs in terms of supply of energy and its periodic maintenance. The application of CWs in Nigeria for polishing of petroleum refinery wastewater is an unprecedented research. This PhD thesis focused on some specific objectives which were characterization of treated secondary refinery wastewater, design, construction, operation and monitoring of planted (T. latifolia, C. alternifolius and C. dactylon) and unplanted vertical subsurface flow, horizontal subsurface flow and hybrid CWs for the removal of suspended solids, nutrients, heavy metals, organic matter and organic pollutants. The CWs effectively treated the petroleum contaminated wastewater to effluent compliance limits. In this study, T. latifolia planted CWs had consistently higher removal efficiencies for all the measured parameters than C. alternifolius and C. dactylon planted CW systems. Therefore, in order to improve the wastewater quality discharged by Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) Nigeria, meet stringent guidelines and protect the recipient streams, installation of CWs at the effluent discharge point of KRPC is strongly recommended.

Risk Informed Management Of European River Basins

Author: Jos Brils
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642385982
Size: 32.15 MB
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The growing impacts of economic activities and climate change on the conditions of rivers throughout the world, require a new, integrated approach towards river basin management, an approach that can also cope with an uncertain future. In this volume, leading European scientists and representatives of major stakeholder groups present risk-informed management as this new approach, as developed in the European Commission-funded project RISKBASE. It aims to improve the ecological quality of river basins and thus to sustain the goods and services they provide for the benefit of society. Risk-informed management involves the integrated application of three key-principles: · Being well informed · Managing adaptively · Pursuing a participatory approach The authors explain and underpin these principles in detail, offer inspiring examples from practice and connect them to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). This book is intended for scientists, consultants and practitioners concerned about river basins, world-wide, as well as the drafters and implementers of the WFD River Basin Management Plans.

A Multidisciplinary Introduction To Desalination

Author: Alireza Bazargan
Publisher: IWA Publishing
ISBN: 9781780409153
Size: 57.35 MB
Format: PDF
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Although more than 70% of the globe is covered with water, only a small portion is suitable for direct human use, making the scarcity of freshwater one of our plant's most serious challenges. In this context "desalination", defined as "the removal of salt from water", is one of the possible solutions for overcoming our planet's municipal and industrial thirst. By drawing upon the authoritative expertise of a remarkable team of international authors, this book aims to provide an encompassing and "multidisciplinary" introduction to various aspects of desalination. The forte of this publication is that it does not overtly focus on a particular sub-topic of desalination, but rather addresses the topic as a whole. In other words, the unique assortment of reader-friendly chapters is designed to strike a delicate balance between the technical and non-technical. The book is divided into five general sections: • The first section presents an overview of water scarcity, followed by a review of integrated water management and the alternatives to desalination. The fundamentals of desalination are provided, including simple water chemistry; • The second section covers the conventional technologies of today, including thermal and membrane desalination processes. The topics of pre- and post- treatment are given due credit, as no desalination plant can operate without them; • The third section reviews the history of how desalination technologies originated, including a review of today's R&D activities and cutting edge research. The processes and engineering applied for membrane manufacturing are also presented; • Section four is concerned with energy and environmental issues, including the application of renewable and nuclear energy, minimization of energy usage and the water-energy-nexus, brine management, and environmental impacts; • Finally, section five covers the social and commercial issues, ranging from rural desalination, to the politics of desalination. Desalination costs and feasibility are presented, as well as issues in business development and the future market prospects. Effectively, A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Desalination aims to be a holistic go-to-compendium for anyone seeking a balanced understanding of the various facets of desalination

Advances In Water Desalination

Author: Noam Lior
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118347722
Size: 55.84 MB
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Desalination is a dynamically growing field with more research, more engineering, more applications, more countries, more people, and with more training programs. This book provides high quality invited reviews on progress in various aspects of the desalination field. It features comprehensive coverage of desalination science, technology, economics, markets, energy considerations, environmental impact, and more. It is a key guide for professionals and researchers in water desalination and related areas including chemical, mechanical, and civil engineers, chemists, materials scientists, manufacturers of desalination membranes, water reuse engineers, and water authorities, as well as students in these fields.

Creating Low Carbon Cities

Author: Shobhakar Dhakal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319497308
Size: 34.19 MB
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This book addresses key topics in the current deliberations and debates on low carbon cities that are underway globally. Contributions by experts from around the world focus on the key factors required for creating low carbon cities. These include appropriate infrastructure, ensuring co-benefits of climate actions, making best use of knowledge and information, proper accounting of emissions, and social factors such as behavioral change. Readers will gain a better understanding of these drivers and explore potential transformation pathways for cities. Particular emphasis is given to the current situation of energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at the urban level, stressing the complexity of measuring GHG emissions from cities. Chapters also shed new light on the long-term transformation pathways towards low carbon. This book discusses key challenges and opportunities in all these domains to aid in creating low carbon cities, making it of value to policy makers, researchers in academia and consultants working on climate change and energy issues. “The low carbon cities agenda is of bold ambition and demands rapid societal transformation. This book provides invaluable information and analysis on how the goals of this agenda can be achieved and what will be the significant obstacles in the way. The content in the book goes below the surface to reveal on-the-ground economic, engineering and equity issues that are at the heart of the Paris Climate Agreement and the ensuing policy debates. In this way, Creating Low Carbon Cities serves as a critical scholarly benchmark and as a toolkit for further action." William Solecki, Professor, Institute for Sustainable Cities, City University of New York "Creating Low Carbon Cities provides a refreshingly critical approach to low-carbon urban development, what has been achieved so far and the challenges ahead. It will be an important data-driven resource for local leaders, sustainability practitioners and urban planners.” Ms. Monika Zimmermann, Deputy Secretary General, ICLEI—Local Governments for Sustainability