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Modal Logic

Author: Nino B. Cocchiarella
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199710638
Size: 15.74 MB
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In this text, a variety of modal logics at the sentential, first-order, and second-order levels are developed with clarity, precision and philosophical insight. All of the S1-S5 modal logics of Lewis and Langford, among others, are constructed. A matrix, or many-valued semantics, for sentential modal logic is formalized, and an important result that no finite matrix can characterize any of the standard modal logics is proven. Exercises, some of which show independence results, help to develop logical skills. A separate sentential modal logic of logical necessity in logical atomism is also constructed and shown to be complete and decidable. On the first-order level of the logic of logical necessity, the modal thesis of anti-essentialism is valid and every de re sentence is provably equivalent to a de dicto sentence. An elegant extension of the standard sentential modal logics into several first-order modal logics is developed. Both a first-order modal logic for possibilism containing actualism as a proper part as well as a separate modal logic for actualism alone are constructed for a variety of modal systems. Exercises on this level show the connections between modal laws and quantifier logic regarding generalization into, or out of, modal contexts and the conditions required for the necessity of identity and non-identity. Two types of second-order modal logics, one possibilist and the other actualist, are developed based on a distinction between existence-entailing concepts and concepts in general. The result is a deeper second-order analysis of possibilism and actualism as ontological frameworks. Exercises regarding second-order predicate quantifiers clarify the distinction between existence-entailing concepts and concepts in general. Modal Logic is ideally suited as a core text for graduate and undergraduate courses in modal logic, and as supplementary reading in courses on mathematical logic, formal ontology, and artificial intelligence.

Meaning And Necessity

Author: Rudolf Carnap
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226093475
Size: 13.91 MB
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"This book is valuable as expounding in full a theory of meaning that has its roots in the work of Frege and has been of the widest influence. . . . The chief virtue of the book is its systematic character. From Frege to Quine most philosophical logicians have restricted themselves by piecemeal and local assaults on the problems involved. The book is marked by a genial tolerance. Carnap sees himself as proposing conventions rather than asserting truths. However he provides plenty of matter for argument."—Anthony Quinton, Hibbert Journal

Type Logical Semantics

Author: Bob Carpenter
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262531498
Size: 47.95 MB
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The book, which stepwise develops successively more powerful logical and grammatical systems, covers an unusually broad range of material.

Advances In Modal Logic

Author: Krister Segerberg
Publisher: Stanford Univ Center for the Study
ISBN: 9781575862712
Size: 20.28 MB
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Modal Logic, originally conceived as the logic of necessity and possibility, has developed into a powerful mathematical and computational discipline. It is the main source of formal languages aimed at analyzing complex notions such as common knowledge and formal provability. Modal and modal-like languages also provide us with families of restricted description languages for relational and topological structures; they are being used in many disciplines, ranging from artificial intelligence, computer science and mathematics via natural language syntax and semantics to philosophy. This volume presents a broad and up-to-date view of the field, with contributions covering both the foundations of modal logic itself and each of the aforementioned application areas. Complemented with an editorial introduction covering the roots of modal logic, this book is indispensable for any advanced student and researcher in non-classical logic and its applications.

Logic In Linguistics

Author: Jens Allwood
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521291743
Size: 38.78 MB
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An elementary introduction to formal logic, particularly intended for linguists and others interested in languages. Concepts and theories developed within formal logic for the study of artificial languages have for some time been fruitfully applied to the study of natural languages and some knowledge of them is necessary for students of linguists (especially semantics). With this need in mind the authors offer a clear, succinct and basic introduction to set theory, inference, propositional and predicate logic, deduction, modal and intensional logic, and various concomitant extensions of these. There is a discussion too of the relation between linguistics and logical analysis and between logic and natural language. The authors see increasing scope for co-operation between logicians and linguistics in studying the structure of language, and it is the overall aim of the book to promote this co-operation.

Computer Science Logic

Author: Anuj Dawar
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642152058
Size: 54.17 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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Annotation. This volume constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 24th International Workshop on Computer Science Logic, CSL 2010, held in Brno, Czech Republic, in August 2010. The 33 full papers presented together with 7 invited talks, were carefully reviewed and selected from 103 submissions. Topics covered include automated deduction and interactive theorem proving, constructive mathematics and type theory, equational logic and term rewriting, automata and games, modal and temporal logic, model checking, decision procedures, logical aspects of computational complexity, finite model theory, computational proof theory, logic programming and constraints, lambda calculus and combinatory logic, categorical logic and topological semantics, domain theory, database theory, specification, extraction and transformation of programs, logical foundations of programming paradigms, verification and program analysis, linear logic, higher-order logic, and nonmonotonic reasoning.

Multi Dimensional Modal Logic

Author: Maarten Marx
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792343455
Size: 80.10 MB
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Modal Logic is a branch of logic with applications in many related disciplines such as computer science, philosophy, linguistics and artificial intelligence. Over the last twenty years, in all of these neighbouring fields, modal systems have been developed that we call multi-dimensional. (Our definition of multi-dimensionality in modal logic is a technical one: we call a modal formalism multi-dimensional if, in its intended semantics, the universe of a model consists of states that are tuples over some more basic set.) This book treats such multi-dimensional modal logics in a uniform way, linking their mathematical theory to the research tradition in algebraic logic. We will define and discuss a number of systems in detail, focusing on such aspects as expressiveness, definability, axiomatics, decidability and interpolation. Although the book will be mathematical in spirit, we take care to give motivations from the disciplines mentioned earlier on.

What Logics Mean

Author: James W. Garson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110703910X
Size: 22.37 MB
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This book explains how the meanings of the symbols of logic are determined by the rules that govern them.