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Modal Logic

Author: Nino B. Cocchiarella
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199710638
Size: 77.99 MB
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In this text, a variety of modal logics at the sentential, first-order, and second-order levels are developed with clarity, precision and philosophical insight. All of the S1-S5 modal logics of Lewis and Langford, among others, are constructed. A matrix, or many-valued semantics, for sentential modal logic is formalized, and an important result that no finite matrix can characterize any of the standard modal logics is proven. Exercises, some of which show independence results, help to develop logical skills. A separate sentential modal logic of logical necessity in logical atomism is also constructed and shown to be complete and decidable. On the first-order level of the logic of logical necessity, the modal thesis of anti-essentialism is valid and every de re sentence is provably equivalent to a de dicto sentence. An elegant extension of the standard sentential modal logics into several first-order modal logics is developed. Both a first-order modal logic for possibilism containing actualism as a proper part as well as a separate modal logic for actualism alone are constructed for a variety of modal systems. Exercises on this level show the connections between modal laws and quantifier logic regarding generalization into, or out of, modal contexts and the conditions required for the necessity of identity and non-identity. Two types of second-order modal logics, one possibilist and the other actualist, are developed based on a distinction between existence-entailing concepts and concepts in general. The result is a deeper second-order analysis of possibilism and actualism as ontological frameworks. Exercises regarding second-order predicate quantifiers clarify the distinction between existence-entailing concepts and concepts in general. Modal Logic is ideally suited as a core text for graduate and undergraduate courses in modal logic, and as supplementary reading in courses on mathematical logic, formal ontology, and artificial intelligence.

Modal Logic

Author: Brian F. Chellas
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521295154
Size: 21.41 MB
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A textbook on modal logic, intended for readers already acquainted with the elements of formal logic, containing nearly 500 exercises. Brian F. Chellas provides a systematic introduction to the principal ideas and results in contemporary treatments of modality, including theorems on completeness and decidability. Illustrative chapters focus on deontic logic and conditionality. Modality is a rapidly expanding branch of logic, and familiarity with the subject is now regarded as a necessary part of every philosopher's technical equipment. Chellas here offers an up-to-date and reliable guide essential for the student.

Meaning And Necessity

Author: Rudolf Carnap
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226093475
Size: 34.88 MB
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"This book is valuable as expounding in full a theory of meaning that has its roots in the work of Frege and has been of the widest influence. . . . The chief virtue of the book is its systematic character. From Frege to Quine most philosophical logicians have restricted themselves by piecemeal and local assaults on the problems involved. The book is marked by a genial tolerance. Carnap sees himself as proposing conventions rather than asserting truths. However he provides plenty of matter for argument."—Anthony Quinton, Hibbert Journal

Modal Logic

Author: Patrick Blackburn
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521527149
Size: 44.95 MB
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This is an advanced 2001 textbook on modal logic, a field which caught the attention of computer scientists in the late 1970s. Researchers in areas ranging from economics to computational linguistics have since realised its worth. The book is for novices and for more experienced readers, with two distinct tracks clearly signposted at the start of each chapter. The development is mathematical; prior acquaintance with first-order logic and its semantics is assumed, and familiarity with the basic mathematical notions of set theory is required. The authors focus on the use of modal languages as tools to analyze the properties of relational structures, including their algorithmic and algebraic aspects, and applications to issues in logic and computer science such as completeness, computability and complexity are considered. Three appendices supply basic background information and numerous exercises are provided. Ideal for anyone wanting to learn modern modal logic.

Type Logical Semantics

Author: Bob Carpenter
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262531498
Size: 60.80 MB
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The book, which stepwise develops successively more powerful logical and grammatical systems, covers an unusually broad range of material.

Modal Logic

Author: Alexander Chagrov
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198537794
Size: 42.18 MB
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For a novice this book is a mathematically-oriented introduction to modal logic, the discipline within mathematical logic studying mathematical models of reasoning which involve various kinds of modal operators - `like it is necessary' in philosophy, `it is believed' in cognitive science, `it is provable' in mathematics and `it is true after executing a program' in computer science. It is an advanced text which starts with very fundamental concepts and gradually proceeds to the front line of current research, introducing in full details the modern semantical and algebraic apparatus and covering practically all classical results in the field. It contains both numerous exercises and open problems, and presupposes only minimal knowledge in mathematics. A specialist can use the book as a source of references. For the first time results and methods of many directions in propositional modal logic - from completeness and duality to algorithmic problems - are collected and systematically presented in one volume. Unlike other books, modal logic is treated here as a uniform theory rather than a collection of a few particular systems. It is the only book presenting the theory of superintuitionistic logics.

Modal Logic For Philosophers

Author: James W. Garson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107512301
Size: 77.30 MB
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This book on modal logic is especially designed for philosophy students. It provides an accessible yet technically sound treatment of modal logic and its philosophical applications. Every effort is made to simplify the presentation by using diagrams instead of more complex mathematical apparatus. These and other innovations provide philosophers with easy access to a rich variety of topics in modal logic, including a full coverage of quantified modal logic, non-rigid designators, definite descriptions, and the de-re de-dicto distinction. Discussion of philosophical issues concerning the development of modal logic is woven into the text. The book uses natural deduction systems, which are widely regarded as the easiest to teach and use. It also includes a diagram technique that extends the method of truth trees to modal logic. This provides a foundation for a novel method for showing completeness that is easy to extend to quantifiers. This second edition contains a new chapter on logics of conditionals, an updated and expanded bibliography, and is updated throughout.

Intensional And Higher Order Modal Logic

Author: Daniel Gallin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 148327473X
Size: 43.11 MB
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North-Holland Mathematics Studies, 19: Intensional and Higher-Order Modal Logic: With Applications to Montague Semantics focuses on an approach to the problem of providing a precise account of natural language syntax and semantics, including the set-theoretic semantical methods, Boolean models, and two-sorted type theory. The book first offers information on intensional logic and alternative formulations of intensional logic. Topics include two-sorted type theory, normal forms, extensions and intensional logic, modal T-logic, persistence in intensional logic, generalized completeness of intensional logic, and natural language and intensional logic. The text then examines higher-order modal logic and algebraic semantics. Discussions focus on Cohen's independence results, topological models of MLp, modal independence results, Boolean models of MLp, relative strength of intensional logic and MLp, propositional operators, modal predicate logic, and propositions in MLp. The monograph is a valuable reference for mathematicians and researchers interested in intensional and higher-order modal logic.

A New Introduction To Modal Logic

Author: M.J. Cresswell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134800274
Size: 49.32 MB
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This long-awaited book replaces Hughes and Cresswell's two classic studies of modal logic: An Introduction to Modal Logic and A Companion to Modal Logic. A New Introduction to Modal Logic is an entirely new work, completely re-written by the authors. They have incorporated all the new developments that have taken place since 1968 in both modal propositional logic and modal predicate logic, without sacrificing tha clarity of exposition and approachability that were essential features of their earlier works. The book takes readers from the most basic systems of modal propositional logic right up to systems of modal predicate with identity. It covers both technical developments such as completeness and incompleteness, and finite and infinite models, and their philosophical applications, especially in the area of modal predicate logic.

Logic In Grammar

Author: Gennaro Chierchia
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199697973
Size: 57.39 MB
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In a fundamental investigation of language and human reasoning, Gennaro Chierchia looks at how syntactic and inferential processes interact through the study of polarity sensitive and free choice items. He reformulates the semantics of focus and scope and the pragmatics of implicature as part of the recursive semantic system.