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Modelling In Ecotoxicology

Author: S.E. Jorgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483291073
Size: 68.32 MB
Format: PDF
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Ecotoxicology is the science of toxic substances in the environment and their impact on living organisms. Today we use many more chemicals in everyday life than we did 30-40 years ago. Our knowledge of the fate and effect of such chemicals in the environment has not yet followed the rate of chemical innovation in spite of our expanding knowledge of ecotoxicology. About 50,000 different chemicals are produced on an industrial scale, but we have only sufficient data to evaluate the environmental consequences of a few per cent of these. The need for ecotoxicological knowledge has never been more pronounced than it is today. Even more resources must be allocated in this field in the near future, if we are to be able to cope with the threat of more toxic chemical compounds in our environment. This book outlines the state of the art of modelling the fate and effects of toxic substances in the environment. Modelling in ecotoxicology differs from modelling in other fields by the great lack of data. The quality of the models is very dependent on the parameters used, and as we do not have a wide knowledge of parameters in ecotoxicological processes, good parameter estimation methods are crucial for ecotoxicolocal models. A comprehensive review of available parameter estimation methods is therefore included in this volume. Model examples and case studies have also been included to illustrate the difficulties and short comings in practical modelling.

Fundamentals Of Ecological Modelling

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080440286
Size: 29.47 MB
Format: PDF
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This is a thoroughly revised and updated edition of an authoritative introduction to ecological modelling. Sven Erik Jørgensen, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Ecological Modelling, and Giuseppe Bendoricchio, Professor of Environmental Modelling at the University of Padova, Italy, offer compelling insights into the subject. This volume explains the concepts and processes involved in ecological modelling, presents the latest developments in the field and provides readers with the tools to construct their own models. The Third Edition features: • A detailed discussion and step-by-step outline of the modelling procedure. • An account of different model types including overview tables, examples and illustrations. • A comprehensive presentation of the submodels and unit processes used in modelling. • In-depth descriptions of the latest modelling techniques. • Structured exercises at the end of each chapter. • Three mathematical appendices and a subject index. This practical and proven book very effectively combines the theory, methodology and applications of ecological modelling. The new edition is an essential, up-to-date guide to a rapidly growing field.

Modeling And Simulation In Ecotoxicology With Applications In Matlab And Simulink

Author: Kenneth R. Dixon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439855188
Size: 57.17 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Exploring roles critical to environmental toxicology, Modeling and Simulation in Ecotoxicology with Applications in MATLAB® and Simulink® covers the steps in modeling and simulation from problem conception to validation and simulation analysis. Using the MATLAB and Simulink programming languages, the book presents examples of mathematical functions and simulations, with special emphasis on how to develop mathematical models and run computer simulations of ecotoxicological processes. Designed for students and professionals with little or no experience in modeling, the book includes: General principles of modeling and simulation and an introduction to MATLAB and Simulink Stochastic modeling where variability and uncertainty are acknowledged by making parameters random variables Toxicological processes from the level of the individual organism, with worked examples of process models in either MATLAB or Simulink Toxicological processes at the level of populations, communities, and ecosystems Parameter estimation using least squares regression methods The design of simulation experiments similar to the experimental design applied to laboratory or field experiments Methods of postsimulation analysis, including stability analysis and sensitivity analysis Different levels of model validation and how they are related to the modeling purpose The book also provides three individual case studies. The first involves a model developed to assess the relative risk of mortality following exposure to insecticides in different avian species. The second explores the role of diving behavior on the inhalation and distribution of oil spill naphthalene in bottlenose dolphins. The final case study looks at the dynamics of mercury in Daphnia that are exposed to simulated thermal plumes from a hypothetical power plant cooling system. Presented in a rigorous yet accessible style, the methodology is versatile enough to be readily applicable not only to environmental toxicology but a range of other biological fields.

Fundamentals Of Ecological Modelling

Author: S.E. Jorgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444535689
Size: 47.43 MB
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Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling: Applications in Environmental Management and Research, Fourth Edition, provides a comprehensive discussion of the fundamental principles of ecological modeling. The first two editions of this book (published in 1986 and 1994) focused on the roots of the discipline the four main model types that dominated the field 30-40 years ago: (1) dynamic biogeochemical models; (2) population dynamic models; (3) ecotoxicological models; and (4) steady-state biogeochemical and energy models. The third edition focused on the mathematical formulations of ecological processes that are included in ecological models. This fourth edition uses the four model types previously listed as the foundation and expands the latest model developments in spatial models, structural dynamic models, and individual-based models. As these seven types of models are very different and require different considerations in the model development phase, a separate chapter is devoted to the development of each of the model types. Throughout the text, the examples given from the literature emphasize the application of models for environmental management and research. Presents the most commonly used model types with a step-by-step outline of the modeling procedure used for each Shows readers through an illustrated example of how to use each model in research and management settings New edition is revised to include only essential theory with a focus on applications Includes case studies, illustrations, and exercises (case study of an ecological problem with full illustration on how to solve the problem)

Ecotox

Author: L.A. Jørgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 044459969X
Size: 68.14 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This CD-ROM provides the facts, abstracts and figures needed to build environmental models together with information on the environmental effects of chemical substances. The data has been rigorously selected from scientific journals covering 25 years. Environmental models included cover a wide range of topics, including eutrophication, dispersion of chemical compounds, growth and competition of different organisms as well as models which describe global environmental cycles. Ecotoxicological information on substances includes the water concentrations at which aquatic organisms are affected by the chemical compounds. These concentrations are used in the regulation of releases and for calculating safe concentration levels in the environment. The growth of environmental toxicological data and the growth of different types of environmental models has been a major new development in this field. ECOTOX: Ecological Modelling and Ecotoxicology presents ecotoxicological information about more than 2000 chemical substances, including such data as growth parameters, lethal concentrations (LC50), emissions, degradation of chemical substances, background concentrations, concentration factors, biological effects, octanol/water partition coefficients, excretion and uptake rates, emissions and composition of living organisms. Accompanying this information are the constants and equations to be used in environmental models, and abstracts from scientific journals to give an explanation concerning the scope of the data. All this information is directed towards environmental modelling, administration of environmental regulations, scientific models, environmental policy making and environmental impact assessment. NEW FROM APRIL 2001 - http://www.enviromod.subnet.dk/Ecological and Environmental Modeling - An Interactive Internet Course

Ecotoxicology Modeling

Author: James Devillers
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441901972
Size: 17.41 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Ecotoxicology Modeling is a comprehensive and well-documented text providing a collection of computational methods to the ecotoxicologists primarily interested in the study of the adverse effects of chemicals, their mechanisms of action and/or their environmental fate and behavior. Avoiding mathematical jargon, the book presents numerous case studies to enable the reader to understand the interest but also the limitations of linear and nonlinear models in ecotoxicology. Written by an international team of scientists, Ecotoxicology Modeling is of primary interest to those whose research or professional activity is directly concerned with the development and application of models in ecotoxicology. It is also intended to provide the graduate and post-graduate students with a clear and accessible text covering the main types of modeling approaches used in environmental sciences.

Numerical Ecology

Author: Pierre Legendre
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538682
Size: 26.83 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The book describes and discusses the numerical methods which are successfully being used for analysing ecological data, using a clear and comprehensive approach. These methods are derived from the fields of mathematical physics, parametric and nonparametric statistics, information theory, numerical taxonomy, archaeology, psychometry, sociometry, econometry and others. Compared to the first edition of Numerical Ecology, this second edition includes three new chapters, dealing with the analysis of semiquantitative data, canonical analysis and spatial analysis. New sections have been added to almost all other chapters. There are sections listing available computer programs and packages at the end of several chapters. As in the previous English and French editions, there are numerous examples from the ecological literature, and the choice of methods is facilitated by several synoptic tables.

Models In Environmental Regulatory Decision Making

Author: Committee on Models in the Regulatory Decision Process
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309110009
Size: 78.85 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Many regulations issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are based on the results of computer models. Models help EPA explain environmental phenomena in settings where direct observations are limited or unavailable, and anticipate the effects of agency policies on the environment, human health and the economy. Given the critical role played by models, the EPA asked the National Research Council to assess scientific issues related to the agency's selection and use of models in its decisions. The book recommends a series of guidelines and principles for improving agency models and decision-making processes. The centerpiece of the book's recommended vision is a life-cycle approach to model evaluation which includes peer review, corroboration of results, and other activities. This will enhance the agency's ability to respond to requirements from a 2001 law on information quality and improve policy development and implementation.

Ecological Modelling And Engineering Of Lakes And Wetlands

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444632557
Size: 27.61 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ecological modelling has developed rapidly in recent decades, with the focus primarily on the restoration of lakes and wetlands. Ecological Modelling and Engineering in Lakes and Wetlands presents the progress being made in modelling for a wealth of applications. It covers the older biogeochemical models still in use today, structurally dynamic models, 3D models, biophysical models, entire watershed models, and ecotoxicological models, as well as the expansion of modeling to the Arctic and Antarctic climate-zones. The book also addresses modelling the effect of climate change, including the development of ecological models for addressing storm water pond issues, which are increasingly important in urban regions where more concentrated rainfalls are a consequence of climate change. The ecological engineering topics covered in the book also emphasize the advancements being made in applying ecological engineering regimes for better environmental management of lakes and wetlands. Examines recent progress towards a better understanding of these two important ecosystems Presents new results and approaches that can be used to develop better models Discusses how to increase the synergistic effect between ecosystems engineering and modelling