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Modelling Radioactivity In The Environment

Author: E.M. Scott
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080536651
Size: 57.96 MB
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Just as an environmental model typically will be composed of a number of linked sub-models, representing physical, chemical or biological processes understood to varying degrees, this volume includes a series of linked chapters exemplifying the fundamental nature of environmental radioactivity models in all compartments of the environment. Why is a book on modelling environmental radioactivity necessary? There are many reasons why such a boook is necessary, perhaps the most important that: - modelling is an often misunderstood and maligned activity and this book can provide, to a broad audience, a greater understanding of modelling power but also some of the limitations. - modellers and experimentalists often do not understand and mistrust each other's work yet they are mutually dependent, in the sense that good experimental science can direct good modelling work and vice-versa; we hope that this book can dispel mistrust and engender improved understanding. - there is an increasing reliance on model results in environmental management, yet there is also often misuse and misrepresentation of these results. This book can help to bridge the gap between unrealistic expectations of model power and the realisation of what is possible, practicable and feasible in modelling of environmental radioactivity; and finally, - modelling tools, capacity and power have increased many-fold in a relatively short period of time. Much of this is due to the much-heralded computer revolution, but much is also due to better science. It is useful to consider what gap if any still remains between what is possible and what is necessary.

Radioactive Releases In The Environment

Author: John R. Cooper
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471899242
Size: 50.20 MB
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This text brings together in one single comprehensive reference,the fundamentals of radioactivity. It uniquely fills the gap in themarket, as no other books deal with environmental radioactivity tothis degree. * Timely and invaluable as the studies of environmental processesand the awareness of the impact of human activity on ourenvironment are increasing * Links all three main aspects of environmental radioactivity:Principles, Transport and Measurement * Useful to a wide readership - students, lecturers, researchers,companies and environmental consultants

Environmental Radioactivity And Emergency Preparedness

Author: Mats Isaksson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482244659
Size: 12.11 MB
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Radioactive sources such as nuclear power installations can pose a great threat to both humans and our environment. How do we measure, model and regulate such threats? Environmental Radioactivity and Emergency Preparedness addresses these topical questions and aims to plug the gap in the lack of comprehensive literature in this field. The book explores how to deal with the threats posed by different radiological sources, including those that are lost or hidden, and the issues posed by the use of such sources. It presents measurement methods and approaches to model and quantify the extent of threat, and also presents strategies for emergency preparedness, such as strategies for first-responders and radiological triage in case an accident should happen. Containing the latest recommendations and procedures from bodies such as the IAEA, this book is an essential reference for both students and academicians studying radiation safety, as well as for radiation protection experts in public bodies or in the industry.

Tropical Radioecology

Author: John R. Twining
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080450164
Size: 12.62 MB
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Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. Features chapters, co-authored by world experts, that explain the origins, inputs, distribution, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrates radioecological information into the most recent radiological consequences modelling and best-practice probabilistic ecological risk analysis methodology, given the need to understand the implications of enhanced socio-economic development in the world's tropical regions.

Environmental Radioactivity And Emergency Preparedness

Author: Mats Isaksson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315355558
Size: 57.89 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 768
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Radioactive sources such as nuclear power installations can pose a great threat to both humans and our environment. How do we measure, model and regulate such threats? Environmental Radioactivity and Emergency Preparedness addresses these topical questions and aims to plug the gap in the lack of comprehensive literature in this field. The book explores how to deal with the threats posed by different radiological sources, including those that are lost or hidden, and the issues posed by the use of such sources. It presents measurement methods and approaches to model and quantify the extent of threat, and also presents strategies for emergency preparedness, such as strategies for first-responders and radiological triage in case an accident should happen. Containing the latest recommendations and procedures from bodies such as the IAEA, this book is an essential reference for both students and academicians studying radiation safety, as well as for radiation protection experts in public bodies or in the industry.

Modelling The Dispersion Of Radionuclides In The Marine Environment

Author: Raúl Periánez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540273820
Size: 69.86 MB
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This guide details the techniques and numerical procedures required for numerical modelling of radioactivity dispersion in marine environments. The book goes beyond the basics of hydrodynamic modeling to analyze the latest trends in modeling.

Modeling The Environment

Author: Frederick Andrew Ford
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 9781559636018
Size: 11.84 MB
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Modeling techniques that allow managers and researchers to see in advance the consequences of actions and policies are becoming increasingly important to environmental management. Modeling the Environment is a basic introduction to one of the most widely known and used modeling techniques, system dynamics. Written in a clear and comprehensible style, the book: -- presents basic concepts of modeling using system dynamics -- illustrates the mechanics of model construction through a range of working models -- offers a rich array of exercises for students to use in applying principles and techniques used in the text -- walks students through the design and application of models of specific types of environmental systems Modeling the Environment requires little or no mathematical background and is appropriate for undergraduate environmental students as well as professionals new to modeling. Developed from the author's own introductory course, it is classroom-tested and represents an important contribution to the field of system dynamics.

Radionuclide Behaviour In The Natural Environment

Author: Christophe Poinssot
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857097199
Size: 51.19 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Understanding radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment is essential to the sustainable development of the nuclear industry and key to assessing potential environmental risks reliably. Minimising those risks is essential to enhancing public confidence in nuclear technology. Scientific knowledge in this field has developed greatly over the last decade.Radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment provides a comprehensive overview of the key processes and parameters affecting radionuclide mobility and migration. After an introductory chapter, part one explores radionuclide chemistry in the natural environment, including aquatic chemistry and the impact of natural organic matter and microorganisms. Part two discusses the migration and radioecological behavior of radionuclides. Topics include hydrogeology, sorption and colloidal reactions as well as in-situ investigations. Principles of modelling coupled geochemical, transport and radioecological properties are also discussed. Part three covers application issues: assessment of radionuclide behaviour in contaminated sites, taking Chernobyl as an example, estimation of radiological exposure to the population, performance assessment considerations related to deep geological repositories, and remediation concepts for contaminated sites. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment is an essential tool for all those interested or involved in nuclear energy, from researchers, designers and industrial operators to environmental scientists. It also provides a comprehensive guide for academics of all levels in this field. Provides a comprehensive overview of the key processes and parameters affecting radionuclide mobility and migration Explores radionuclide chemistry in the natural environment Discusses the migration and radioecological behaviour of radionuclides

Airborne Radioactive Contamination In Inhabited Areas

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080914251
Size: 52.33 MB
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For many decades, investigations of the behaviour and implications of radioactive contamination in the environment have focused on agricultural areas and food production. This was due to the erroneous assumption that the consequences of credible contaminating incidents would be restricted to rural areas. However, due to the Chernobyl accident, more than 250,000 persons were removed from their homes, demonstrating a great need for knowledge and instruments that could be applied to minimise the manifold adverse consequences of contamination in inhabited areas. Also, today the world is facing a number of new threats, including radiological terrorism, which would be likely to take place in a city, where most people would become directly affected. A recent report from the US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism concludes that it is most likely that a large radiological, or even nuclear, terror attack on a major city somewhere in the world will occur before 2013. For the first time ever, the specific problems of airborne radioactive contamination in inhabited areas are treated in a holistically covering treatise, pinpointing factorial interdependencies and describing instruments for mitigation. The state-of-the-art knowledge is here explained in Airborne Radioactive Contamination in Inhabited Areas y leading scientists in the various disciplines of relevance. Unique holistic description of airborne radioactive contamination of inhabited areas and its consequences State-of-the-art information on problems associated with both accidental and malicious contamination events, in particularly 'dirty bombs' Detailed description of processes and parameters governing the severity of contaminating incidents Written by key experts in the world

The Natural Radiation Environment Vii

Author: J.P. McLaughlin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080457918
Size: 42.22 MB
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The Natural Radiation Environment Symposium (NRE VII), the Seventh in the NRE series, which commenced forty years ago in 1963 at Rice University Texas, was held in Rhodes (Greece) in May 2002. During the intervening four decades the research work presented at these NRE Symposia has contributed to a deeper understanding of natural radiation and in particular of its contribution to human radiation exposures. It is clear from the quality and diversity of the 143 papers in this volume of Radioactivity in the Environment series that the study of the natural radiation environment is an active and continually expanding field of research. The papers in this volume fall into a number of main and topical research areas namely: the measurement and behaviour of natural radionuclides in the environment cosmic radiation measurement and dosimetry the external penetrating radiation field at ground level TENR (Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation) and NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) studies assessment of the health effects of radon regulatory aspects of natural radiation exposures In these papers the results of many new surveys of natural radionuclide levels in the environment and of improved methods of detection are described. While some of the natural radiation sources investigated are unmodified by human activity, many accounts are given here of exposures to natural sources which have been enhanced by technology. Such TENR and NORM exposures are shown to range from activities such as mining, oil and gas exploitation, the use of industrial by-products as building materials, to space travel to name but a few. In several cases quite high doses to some individuals are shown to occur. Accounts are given here of methods to prevent and reduce exposures to such sources.