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Modelling Radioactivity In The Environment

Author: E.M. Scott
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080536651
Size: 63.29 MB
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Just as an environmental model typically will be composed of a number of linked sub-models, representing physical, chemical or biological processes understood to varying degrees, this volume includes a series of linked chapters exemplifying the fundamental nature of environmental radioactivity models in all compartments of the environment. Why is a book on modelling environmental radioactivity necessary? There are many reasons why such a boook is necessary, perhaps the most important that: - modelling is an often misunderstood and maligned activity and this book can provide, to a broad audience, a greater understanding of modelling power but also some of the limitations. - modellers and experimentalists often do not understand and mistrust each other's work yet they are mutually dependent, in the sense that good experimental science can direct good modelling work and vice-versa; we hope that this book can dispel mistrust and engender improved understanding. - there is an increasing reliance on model results in environmental management, yet there is also often misuse and misrepresentation of these results. This book can help to bridge the gap between unrealistic expectations of model power and the realisation of what is possible, practicable and feasible in modelling of environmental radioactivity; and finally, - modelling tools, capacity and power have increased many-fold in a relatively short period of time. Much of this is due to the much-heralded computer revolution, but much is also due to better science. It is useful to consider what gap if any still remains between what is possible and what is necessary.

Modelling The Dispersion Of Radionuclides In The Marine Environment

Author: Raúl Periánez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540273820
Size: 12.44 MB
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This guide details the techniques and numerical procedures required for numerical modelling of radioactivity dispersion in marine environments. The book goes beyond the basics of hydrodynamic modeling to analyze the latest trends in modeling.

Environmental Radioactivity And Emergency Preparedness

Author: Mats Isaksson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315355558
Size: 71.16 MB
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Radioactive sources such as nuclear power installations can pose a great threat to both humans and our environment. How do we measure, model and regulate such threats? Environmental Radioactivity and Emergency Preparedness addresses these topical questions and aims to plug the gap in the lack of comprehensive literature in this field. The book explores how to deal with the threats posed by different radiological sources, including those that are lost or hidden, and the issues posed by the use of such sources. It presents measurement methods and approaches to model and quantify the extent of threat, and also presents strategies for emergency preparedness, such as strategies for first-responders and radiological triage in case an accident should happen. Containing the latest recommendations and procedures from bodies such as the IAEA, this book is an essential reference for both students and academicians studying radiation safety, as well as for radiation protection experts in public bodies or in the industry.

Radioactive Releases In The Environment

Author: John R. Cooper
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471899242
Size: 43.84 MB
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This text brings together in one single comprehensive reference,the fundamentals of radioactivity. It uniquely fills the gap in themarket, as no other books deal with environmental radioactivity tothis degree. * Timely and invaluable as the studies of environmental processesand the awareness of the impact of human activity on ourenvironment are increasing * Links all three main aspects of environmental radioactivity:Principles, Transport and Measurement * Useful to a wide readership - students, lecturers, researchers,companies and environmental consultants

Reliability Of Radioactive Transfer Models

Author: G. Desmet
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400913699
Size: 55.64 MB
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Assessment of the radiological impact of planned or existing practices involving the (actual or potential) release of radionuclides to the environment are largely based on the use of modelling techniques which allow prediction of the relationship between environmental levels and releases and the associated radiation dose to man. Models are imperfect means of representing environmental transfer processes, and it is essential to know the reliability which can be associated with the predictions of these models for each and every assessment situation. Such information is necessary in order to establish confidence in model predictions and, in particular, to allow adequate safety margins to be set in the design of nuclear facilities. This knowledge is also a prerequisite to determine release limits or to decide whether further research is justified in order to improve predictive accuracy. Therefore a number of distinguished pilpers have been presented during this workshop which focused both on practical aspects of variability of observations of facts occuring in nature, but also on learned aspects of the science of statistics. It is not very clear, however, whether much insight in mechanisms is gained by such an approach. This insight is probably rather reached by a straightforward judgment of the quality of the primary data and by the willingness to think over carefully the experiments and measurernents before doing them. The book is composed such as to give the reader the chance to quietly study the presented papers in good order.

Remediation Of Contaminated Environments

Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080914152
Size: 57.79 MB
Format: PDF
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Remediation of Contaminated Environments summarises - amongst other things - what happened to the people and environment around Chernobyl (and other nuclear sites) and what measures need to be taken in future in the event of nuclear accidents etc. plus it has a very important and currently topical use in detailing what to do in the event of a terrorist dirty bomb attack on a city. Remediation, including characterization of contaminated sites; safety requirements; remediation planning; effectiveness of individual measures in different environments; social, ethical and economic considerations; application of modern decision aiding technologies Applicable to different categories of contaminated environments and contaminants, comprising areas contaminated by radiation accidents and incidents, nuclear weapon tests, natural radionuclides associated with nuclear fuel cycle, fossil material mining and gas and oil production Associated side effects (environmental and social) and human based remediation measures, comprising perception of this activity by the population; with particular regard to stakeholders and population involvement in making decisions on environmental safety and remediation of contaminated sites

Modeling The Environment

Author: Frederick Andrew Ford
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 9781559636018
Size: 70.72 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Modeling techniques that allow managers and researchers to see in advance the consequences of actions and policies are becoming increasingly important to environmental management. Modeling the Environment is a basic introduction to one of the most widely known and used modeling techniques, system dynamics. Written in a clear and comprehensible style, the book: -- presents basic concepts of modeling using system dynamics -- illustrates the mechanics of model construction through a range of working models -- offers a rich array of exercises for students to use in applying principles and techniques used in the text -- walks students through the design and application of models of specific types of environmental systems Modeling the Environment requires little or no mathematical background and is appropriate for undergraduate environmental students as well as professionals new to modeling. Developed from the author's own introductory course, it is classroom-tested and represents an important contribution to the field of system dynamics.

Social And Ethical Aspects Of Radiation Risk Management

Author: Deborah Oughton
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080914292
Size: 46.79 MB
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Social and Ethical Aspects of Radiation Risk Management provides a comprehensive treatment of the major ethical and social issues resulting from the use of ionizing radiation. It covers topics such as nuclear fuel cycles, radioactive waste treatment, nuclear bomb testing, nuclear safety management, stakeholder engagement, cleanup after nuclear accidents, ecological risks from radiation, environmental justice, health and safety for radiation workers, radiation dose standards, the ethics of clinical radiology, and the principles of radiation protection and their ethical underpinnings. With authors ranging from philosophers to radiation protection officials and practitioners, the book spans from theoretical to practical implications of this important area of radiation risk assessment and management. Covers all the major social and ethical issues in relation to radiation protection Information is easily accessible and non-technical Authors include leading radiation protection officials as well as specialists who are more independent of the radiation protection system, thus presenting both authoritative and more critical views Includes theoretical perspectives as well as practical experience

Recent Trends In Modelling Of Environmental Contaminants

Author: Debashish Sengupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132217837
Size: 52.83 MB
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The book deals primarily with the aspects like energy resources and its proper utilization, disposal of various forms of wastes and its effects and effects of major catastrophic events like nuclear disasters, global warming, etc. It also deals with the choice of suitable disposal sites for solid and hazardous waste, which is growing at an extremely rapid pace due to rapid industrialization, population growth (primarily in countries like India and China) and urbanization. In addition groundwater contamination due to various causes and its effect on the food chain is also amply discussed. The book is specifically aimed with the state-of-art information regarding research and development in these areas of study, coupled to extensive modelling and case based results obtained, both from India as well as other countries. The book is extremely instructive for the students, research workers, scientists, faculty members in Applied Physics, Solid Earth Geophysics, Radiometric Methods and Exploration, Ground Water Geochemistry, Mathematical Modeling Techniques in Earth Sciences, Near Surface Geophysics and Earth and Environmental Sciences.