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Modern Approaches To Plasticity

Author: D. Kolymbas
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444599304
Size: 48.23 MB
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Constitutive modelling of granulate materials has achieved significant progress in recent times although some challenging problems still remain to be solved. Many of the 35 contributions in this volume are devoted to modelling but there are also papers investigating the phenomena to be modelled. For instance, there are reviews on several aspects of the behaviour of granulates which are mere material properties while other aspects are related to the ill-posedness of the corresponding boundary value problems. The work provides a comprehensive and up to date treatise on the theory of plasticity in granular materials, together with a great number of solution methods and applications. The volume is intended for researchers and practising engineers who wish to enhance their knowledge in this rapidly expanding field.

Principles Of Hyperplasticity

Author: Guy T. Houlsby
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1846282403
Size: 80.42 MB
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The approach to plasticity theory developed here is firmly rooted in thermodynamics. Emphasis is placed on the use of potentials and the derivation of incremental response, necessary for numerical analysis. The derivation of constitutive models for irreversible behaviour entirely from two scalar potentials is shown. The use of potentials allows models to be very simply defined, classified and, if necessary, developed and it permits dependent and independent variables to be interchanged, making possible different forms of a model for different applications. The theory is extended to include treatment of rate-dependent materials and a powerful concept, in which a single plastic strain is replaced by a plastic strain function, allowing smooth transitions between elastic and plastic behaviour is introduced. This monograph will benefit academic researchers in mechanics, civil engineering and geomechanics and practising geotechnical engineers; it will also interest numerical analysts in engineering mechanics.

Foundations Of The Theory Of Elasticity Plasticity And Viscoelasticity

Author: Eduard Starovoitov
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466558792
Size: 30.46 MB
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Foundations of the Theory of Elasticity, Plasticity, and Viscoelasticity details fundamental and practical skills and approaches for carrying out research in the field of modern problems in the mechanics of deformed solids, which involves the theories of elasticity, plasticity, and viscoelasticity. The book includes all modern methods of research as well as the results of the authors’ recent work and is presented with sufficient mathematical strictness and proof. The first six chapters are devoted to the foundations of the theory of elasticity. Theory of stress-strain state, physical relations and problem statements, variation principles, contact and 2D problems, and the theory of plates are presented, and the theories are accompanied by examples of solving typical problems. The last six chapters will be useful to postgraduates and scientists engaged in nonlinear mechanics of deformed inhomogeneous bodies. The foundations of the modern theory of plasticity (general, small elastoplastic deformations and the theory of flow), linear, and nonlinear viscoelasticity are set forth. Corresponding research of three-layered circular plates of various materials is included to illustrate methods of problem solving. Analytical solutions and numerical results for elastic, elastoplastic, lineaer viscoelastic and viscoelastoplastic plates are also given. Thermoviscoelastoplastic characteristics of certain materials needed for numerical account are presented in the eleventh chapter. The informative book is intended for scientists, postgraduates and higher-level students of engineering spheres and will provide important practical skills and approaches.

Blindness And Brain Plasticity In Navigation And Object Perception

Author: John J. Rieser
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 0805855513
Size: 12.52 MB
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Research into the development of sensory structures in the brains of blind or visually-impaired individuals has opened a window into important ways in which the mind works. In these individuals, the part of the brain that is usually devoted to processing visual information is given over to increased processing of the touch and hearing sense. This demonstration of brain plasticity is of great importance to cognitive neuroscientists and cognitive psychologists, and has real implications for rehabilitation and education specialists who work with the visually impaired. This is an interdisciplinary book, featuring chapters from cognitive and developmental psychologists, neurologists and neuroscientists, and rehabilitation specialists and educators. All of these groups do research in this area but generally do not collaborate with one another. This book is an attempt to bring together the disparate threads of research into a single volume, appropriate for all three markets.

Elastoplasticity Theory

Author: Koichi Hashiguchi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642358497
Size: 45.37 MB
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This book was written to serve as the standard textbook of elastoplasticity for students, engineers and researchers in the field of applied mechanics. The present second edition is improved thoroughly from the first edition by selecting the standard theories from various formulations and models, which are required to study the essentials of elastoplasticity steadily and effectively and will remain universally in the history of elastoplasticity. It opens with an explanation of vector-tensor analysis and continuum mechanics as a foundation to study elastoplasticity theory, extending over various strain and stress tensors and their rates. Subsequently, constitutive equations of elastoplastic and viscoplastic deformations for monotonic, cyclic and non-proportional loading behavior in a general rate and their applications to metals and soils are described in detail, and constitutive equations of friction behavior between solids and its application to the prediction of stick-slip phenomena are delineated. In addition, the return-mapping algorithm, the consistent tangent operators and the objective time-integration algorithm of rate tensor are explained in order to enforce the FEM analyses. All the derivation processes and formulations of equations are described in detail without an abbreviation throughout the book. The distinguishable features and importance of this book is the comprehensive description of fundamental concepts and formulations including the objectivity of tensor and constitutive equations, the objective time-derivative of tensor functions, the associated flow rule, the loading criterion, the continuity and smoothness conditions and their substantial physical interpretations in addition to the wide classes of reversible/irreversible constitutive equations of solids and friction behavior between solids.

Developmental Plasticity And Evolution

Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198028567
Size: 36.92 MB
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The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.

Foundations Of Elastoplasticity Subloading Surface Model

Author: Koichi Hashiguchi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331948821X
Size: 52.48 MB
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This book is the standard text book of elastoplasticity in which the elastoplasticity theory is comprehensively described from the conventional theory for the monotonic loading to the unconventional theory for the cyclic loading behavior. Explanations of vector-tensor analysis and continuum mechanics are provided first as a foundation for elastoplasticity theory, covering various strain and stress measures and their rates with their objectivities. Elastoplasticity has been highly developed by the creation and formulation of the subloading surface model which is the unified fundamental law for irreversible mechanical phenomena in solids. The assumption that the interior of the yield surface is an elastic domain is excluded in order to describe the plastic strain rate due to the rate of stress inside the yield surface in this model aiming at the prediction of cyclic loading behavior, although the yield surface enclosing the elastic domain is assumed in all the elastoplastic models other than the subloading surface model. Then, the plastic strain rate develops continuously as the stress approaches the yield surface, providing the advantages: 1) The tangent modulus changes continuously, 2) The yield judgment whether the stress reaches the yield surface is not required, 3) The stress is automatically attracted to the yield surface even when it goes out from the yield surface by large loading increments in numerical calculation and 4) The finite strain theory based on the multiplicative decomposition of deformation gradient tensor is formulated exactly. Consequently, the monotonic, the cyclic, the non-proportional loading behaviors for wide classes of materials including soils, rocks and concretes in addition to metals can be described rigorously by the subloading surface model. Further, the viscoplastic constitutive equations in a general rate from the quasi-static to the impact loadings are described, and constitutive equations of friction behavior and its application to the prediction of stick-slip phenomena, etc. are also described in detail. In addition, the return-mapping algorithm, the consistent tangent modulus, etc. are explained for the numerical analyses. Further, the damage, the phase-transformation and the crystal plasticity models are also described in brief. All of them are based on the subloading surface model. The elastoplasticity analysis will be advanced steadily based on the subloading surface model.

Phenotypic Plasticity

Author: Thomas J. DeWitt
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195138961
Size: 64.87 MB
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Genetic, evolution, adaptation, environment, genotype.

Plasticity Theory

Author: Jacob Lubliner
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486318206
Size: 24.46 MB
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The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and geotechnical engineers, metallurgists and others. The necessary mathematics and basic mechanics and thermodynamics are covered in an introductory chapter, making the book a self-contained text suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students, as well as a reference for practitioners of solid mechanics.