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Modern Crystallography Iii

Author: A.A. Chernov
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783642818370
Size: 69.25 MB
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Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the atomic structure of matter, thus giving a new impetus to the development of solid-state physics. Crystallographic methods, pri marily x-ray diffraction analysis, penetrated into materials sciences, mol ecular physics, and chemistry, and also into many other branches of science. Later, electron and neutron diffraction structure analyses be came important since they not only complement x-ray data, but also supply new information on the atomic and the real structure of crystals. Electron microscopy and other modern methods of investigating mat ter-optical, electronic paramagnetic, nuclear magnetic, and other res onance techniques-yield a large amount of information on the atomic, electronic, and real crystal structures. Crystal physics has also undergone vigorous development. Many re markable phenomena have been discovered in crystals and then found various practical applications. Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth (which brought crystallography closer to thermodynamics and physical chem istry) and the development of the various methods of growing synthetic crystals dictated by practical needs. Man-made crystals became increas ingly important for physical investigations, and they rapidly invaded technology. The production . of synthetic crystals made a tremendous impact on the traditional branches: the mechanical treatment of mate rials, precision instrument making, and the jewelry industry.

Modern Theory Of Crystal Growth I

Author: A.A. Chernov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642689388
Size: 15.90 MB
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Our understanding of the basic processes of crystal growth has meanwhile reached the level of maturity at least in the phenomenological concepts. This concerns for example the growth of pure crystals from a low-density nutrient phase like vapor or dilute solution with various aspects of pattern formation like spiral and layer growth, facetting and roughening, and the stability of smooth macroscopic shapes, as well as basic mechanisms of impurity incorporation in melt growth of (in this sense) simple materials like silicon or organic model substances. In parallel the experimental techniques to quantitatively ana lyze the various growth mechanisms have also reached a high level of reproducibility and precision, giving reliable tests on theoretical predictions. These basic concepts and appli cations to experiments have been recently reviewed by one of us (A. A. C. ) in "Modern Crystallography III. Crystal Growth" (Springer Series on Solid State Sciences, 1983). It has to be emphasized, however, that for practical applications we are still unable to quantitatively calculate many important parameters like kinetic coefficients from first principles. For mixed systems such as complex oxides, solutions and systems with chemi cal reactions, our degree of understanding is even lower. As a few examples for present achievements we note that experiments with vapour and molecular beam condensation of alkali halides confirmed the qualitatively predicted mechanisms of screw dislocations and two-dimensional nucleation for layer-growth.

Multiple Diffraction Of X Rays In Crystals

Author: Chung In-Hang
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642821669
Size: 80.34 MB
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The three-dimensional arrangement of atoms and molecules in crystals and the comparable magnitude of x-ray wavelengths and interatomic distances make it possible for crystals to have more than one set of atomic planes that satisfy Bragg's law and simultaneously diffract an incident x-ray beam - this is the so-called multiple diffraction. This type of diffraction should, in prin ciple, reflect three-dimensional information about the structure of the dif fracting material. Recent progress in understanding this diffraction phenome non and in utilizing this diffraction technique in solid-state and materials sciences reveals the diversity as well as the importance of multiple diffraction of x-rays in application. Unfortunately, there has been no single book written that gives a sys tematic review of this type of diffraction, encompasses its diverse applica tions, and foresees future trends gf development. It is for this purpose that this book is designed. It is hoped that its appearance may possibly turn more attention of condensed-matter physicists, chemists and material scientists toward this particular phenomenon, and that new methods of non-destructive analysis of matter using this diffraction technique may be developed in the future.

Comprehensive Semiconductor Science And Technology

Author:
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080932282
Size: 69.35 MB
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Semiconductors are at the heart of modern living. Almost everything we do, be it work, travel, communication, or entertainment, all depend on some feature of semiconductor technology. Comprehensive Semiconductor Science and Technology captures the breadth of this important field, and presents it in a single source to the large audience who study, make, and exploit semiconductors. Previous attempts at this achievement have been abbreviated, and have omitted important topics. Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts, this work delivers an objective yet cohesive global review of the semiconductor world. The work is divided into three sections. The first section is concerned with the fundamental physics of semiconductors, showing how the electronic features and the lattice dynamics change drastically when systems vary from bulk to a low-dimensional structure and further to a nanometer size. Throughout this section there is an emphasis on the full understanding of the underlying physics. The second section deals largely with the transformation of the conceptual framework of solid state physics into devices and systems which require the growth of extremely high purity, nearly defect-free bulk and epitaxial materials. The last section is devoted to exploitation of the knowledge described in the previous sections to highlight the spectrum of devices we see all around us. Provides a comprehensive global picture of the semiconductor world Each of the work's three sections presents a complete description of one aspect of the whole Written and Edited by a truly international team of experts

Springer Handbook Of Crystal Growth

Author: Govindhan Dhanaraj
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540747611
Size: 56.63 MB
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Over the years, many successful attempts have been chapters in this part describe the well-known processes made to describe the art and science of crystal growth, such as Czochralski, Kyropoulos, Bridgman, and o- and many review articles, monographs, symposium v- ing zone, and focus speci cally on recent advances in umes, and handbooks have been published to present improving these methodologies such as application of comprehensive reviews of the advances made in this magnetic elds, orientation of the growth axis, intro- eld. These publications are testament to the grow- duction of a pedestal, and shaped growth. They also ing interest in both bulk and thin- lm crystals because cover a wide range of materials from silicon and III–V of their electronic, optical, mechanical, microstructural, compounds to oxides and uorides. and other properties, and their diverse scienti c and The third part, Part C of the book, focuses on - technological applications. Indeed, most modern ad- lution growth. The various aspects of hydrothermal vances in semiconductor and optical devices would growth are discussed in two chapters, while three other not have been possible without the development of chapters present an overview of the nonlinear and laser many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals, KTP and KDP. The knowledge on the effect of crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The gravity on solution growth is presented through a c- literature devoted to basic understanding of growth parison of growth on Earth versus in a microgravity mechanisms, defect formation, and growth processes environment.

High Magnetic Fields In Semiconductor Physics Iii

Author: Gottfried Landwehr
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642844081
Size: 44.31 MB
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High magnetic fields have, for a long time, been an important tool in the investigation of the electronic structure of semiconductors. In recent yearsstudies of heterostructures and superlattices have predominated, and this emphasis is reflected in these proceedings. The contributions concentrate on experiments using transport and optical methods, but recent theoretical developments are also covered. Special attention is paid to the quantum Hall effect, including the problem of edge currents, the influence of contacts, and Wigner condensation in the fractional quantum Hall effect regime. The 27 invited contributions by renowned expertsprovide an excellent survey of the field that is complemented by numerous contributed papers.

Electron Correlations In Molecules And Solids

Author: Peter Fulde
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642973094
Size: 64.38 MB
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Quantum chemistry and solid-state theory are two important related fields of research that have grown up with almost no cross communication. This book bridges the gap between the two. In the first half, new concepts for treating weak and strong correlations are developed, and standard quantum-chemical methods, as well as density functional, Green's function, functional integral, and Monte Carlo methods are discussed. The second half discusses applications of the theory to molecules, semiconductors, homogeneous metallic systems, transition metals, and strongly correlated systems such as heavy-fermion systems and the new high-Tc superconducting materials.

Handbook Of Crystal Growth

Author: Peter Rudolph
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444633065
Size: 40.92 MB
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Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries

Site Symmetry In Crystals

Author: Robert Evarestov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642974422
Size: 13.67 MB
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The history of applications of space group theory to solid state physics goes back more than five decades. The periodicity of the lattice and the definition of a k-space were the corner-stones of this application. Prof. Volker Heine in Vol. 35 of Solid State Physics (1980) noted that, even in perfect crystals, where k-space methods are appropriate, the local properties (such as the charge densi ty, bond order, etc.) are defined by the local environment of one atom. Natural ly, "k-space methods" are not appropriate for crystals with point defects, sur faces and interfaces, or for amorphous materials. In such cases the real-space approach favored by chemists to describe molecules has turned out to be very useful. To span the gulf between the k-space and real space methods it is helpful to recall that atoms in crystalline solids possess a site symmetry defined by the symmetry of the local environment of the atom occupying the site. The site symmetry concept is familiar to crystallographers and commonly used by them in the description of crystalline structures. However, in the application of group theory to solid state physics problems, the site symmetry approach has been used only for the last ten to fifteen years. In our book Methods oj Group Theory in the Quantum Chemistry oj Solids published in Russian in 1987 by Leningrad University Press we gave the first results of this application to the theory of electronic structure of crystals.

Modern Crystallography Iii

Author: A.A. Chernov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642818358
Size: 63.57 MB
Format: PDF
View: 1517
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Early in this century, the newly discovered x-ray diffraction by crystals made a complete change in crystallography and in the whole science of the atomic structure of matter, thus giving a new impetus to the development of solid-state physics. Crystallographic methods, pri marily x-ray diffraction analysis, penetrated into materials sciences, mol ecular physics, and chemistry, and also into many other branches of science. Later, electron and neutron diffraction structure analyses be came important since they not only complement x-ray data, but also supply new information on the atomic and the real structure of crystals. Electron microscopy and other modern methods of investigating mat ter-optical, electronic paramagnetic, nuclear magnetic, and other res onance techniques-yield a large amount of information on the atomic, electronic, and real crystal structures. Crystal physics has also undergone vigorous development. Many re markable phenomena have been discovered in crystals and then found various practical applications. Other important factors promoting the development of crystallog raphy were the elaboration of the theory of crystal growth (which brought crystallography closer to thermodynamics and physical chem istry) and the development of the various methods of growing synthetic crystals dictated by practical needs. Man-made crystals became increas ingly important for physical investigations, and they rapidly invaded technology. The production . of synthetic crystals made a tremendous impact on the traditional branches: the mechanical treatment of mate rials, precision instrument making, and the jewelry industry.