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Molten Salts

Author: Marcelle Gaune-Escard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401004587
Size: 36.46 MB
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Several state-of-the-art applications of molten salts are presented, such as metal-molten salt systems, room temperature glass formation, and room temperature melts. Several recent examples of applications highlight the importance of molten salts in various industries (batteries, pyrochemical reprocessing of nuclear fuel, synthesis and catalysis). The basic concepts of the structure, dynamics, electrochemistry, interfacial and thermodynamic properties are detailed and relevant experimental methods described. Such fundamental concepts are essential for an in-depth understanding of the physicochemical properties of molten salts in general, including metal-molten salts, glass forming and low temperature melts. Experimental methods for investigating structural, dynamical, electrochemical thermodynamical and interfacial properties are detailed, as also are techniques for data collection and analysis. Scientists, engineers and technologists will find the volume a valuable reference source covering a wide spectrum of fundamental concepts and modern technologies.

Electrochemical Technology Of Molten Salts

Author: C. A. C. Sequeira
Publisher: Trans Tech Publication
ISBN: 9780878496693
Size: 11.68 MB
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During the past several years there has been keen interest and activity in two fields of the fused salt chemistry, namely molten salt extractive metallurgy and high-temperature fuel cells.

Supercritical Fluids

Author: E. Kiran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401139296
Size: 10.46 MB
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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

Thermodynamics In Geology

Author: D.G. Fraser
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401012520
Size: 22.63 MB
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It has long been realized that the mineral assemblages of igneous and metamorphic rocks may reflect the approach of a rock to chemical eCluilibrium during its formation. However progress in the application of chemical thermodynamics to geological systems has been hindered since the time of Bowen and the other early physical-chemical petrologists by the recurring Cluandary of the experimental geologist. His systems are complex and are experimentally intractable, but if they were not so refractory they would not be there to study at all. It is only recently that accurate measurements of the thermodynamic properties of pure, or at least well-defined minerals, melts and volatile fluid phases, combined with experimental and theoretical studies of their mixing properties, have made it possible to calculate the eCluilibrium conditions for particular rock systems. Much work is now in progress to extend the ranges of com position and conditions for which sufficient data exist to enable such calculations to be made. Moreover the routine availability of the electron microprobe will ensure that the demand for such information will continue to increase. The thermodynamic techniClues reCluired to apply these data to geological problems are intrinsically simple and merely involve the combination of appropriate standard state data together with corrections for the effects of solution in natural minerals, melts or volatile fluids.

Materials For Advanced Batteries

Author: D. Murphy
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468438514
Size: 16.60 MB
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The idea of a NATO Science Committee Institute on "Materials for Advanced Batteries" was suggested to JB and DWM by Dr. A. G. Chynoweth. His idea was to bring together experts in the field over the entire spectrum of pure research to applied research in order to familiarize everyone with potentially interesting new systems and the problems involved in their development. Dr. M. C. B. Hotz and Professor M. N. Ozdas were instrumental in helping organize this meeting as a NATO Advanced Science Institute. An organlzlng committee consisting of the three of us along with W. A. Adams, U. v Alpen, J. Casey and J. Rouxel organized the program. The program consisted of plenary talks and poster papers which are included in this volume. Nearly half the time of the conference was spent in study groups. The aim of these groups was to assess the status of several key aspects of batteries and prospects for research opportunities in each. The study groups and their chairmen were: Current status and new systems J. Broadhead High temperature systems W. A. Adams Interface problems B. C. H. Steele Electrolytes U. v Alpen Electrode materials J. Rouxel These discussions are summarized in this volume. We and all the conference participants are most grateful to Professor J. Rouxel for suggesting the Aussois conference site, and to both he and Dr. M. Armand for handling local arrangements.

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