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Moral Tribes

Author: Joshua David Greene
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0143126059
Size: 63.58 MB
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A path-breaking neuroscientist explores how globalization has illuminated the deep moral divisions between opposing sides, drawing on pioneering research to reveal the evolutionary sources of morality while outlining recommendations for bridging divided cultures.

Moral Tribes

Author: Joshua Greene
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 1101638672
Size: 49.61 MB
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“Surprising and remarkable…Toggling between big ideas, technical details, and his personal intellectual journey, Greene writes a thesis suitable to both airplane reading and PhD seminars.”—The Boston Globe Our brains were designed for tribal life, for getting along with a select group of others (Us) and for fighting off everyone else (Them). But modern times have forced the world’s tribes into a shared space, resulting in epic clashes of values along with unprecedented opportunities. As the world shrinks, the moral lines that divide us become more salient and more puzzling. We fight over everything from tax codes to gay marriage to global warming, and we wonder where, if at all, we can find our common ground. A grand synthesis of neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy, Moral Tribes reveals the underlying causes of modern conflict and lights the way forward. Greene compares the human brain to a dual-mode camera, with point-and-shoot automatic settings (“portrait,” “landscape”) as well as a manual mode. Our point-and-shoot settings are our emotions—efficient, automated programs honed by evolution, culture, and personal experience. The brain’s manual mode is its capacity for deliberate reasoning, which makes our thinking flexible. Point-and-shoot emotions make us social animals, turning Me into Us. But they also make us tribal animals, turning Us against Them. Our tribal emotions make us fight—sometimes with bombs, sometimes with words—often with life-and-death stakes. A major achievement from a rising star in a new scientific field, Moral Tribes will refashion your deepest beliefs about how moral thinking works and how it can work better.

Moral Tribes

Author: Joshua Greene
Publisher: Atlantic Books Ltd
ISBN: 1782393382
Size: 74.85 MB
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A ground-breaking and ambitious book that promotes a new understanding of morality, one that will help us to solve society's biggest problems. Our brains were designed for tribal life, for getting along with a select group of others (Us), and for fighting off everyone else (Them). But modern life has thrust the world's tribes into a shared space, creating conflicts of interest and clashes of values, along with unprecedented opportunities. As the world shrinks, the moral lines that divide us become more salient and more puzzling. We fight over everything from tax codes to gay marriage to global warming, and we wonder where, if at all, we can find our common ground. A grand synthesis of neuroscience, psychology, and philosophy, Moral Tribes reveals the underlying causes of modern conflict and lights a way forward. Our emotions make us social animals, turning Me into Us. But they also make us tribal animals, turning Us against Them. Our tribal emotions make us fight, sometimes with bombs, sometimes with words, and often with life-and-death stakes. Drawing inspiration from moral philosophy and cutting-edge science, Moral Tribes shows when we should trust our instincts, when we should reason, and how the right kind of reasoning can move us forward. Joshua Greene is the director of Harvard University's Moral Cognition Lab, a pioneering scientist, a philosopher, and an acclaimed teacher. The great challenge of Moral Tribes is this: How can we get along with Them when what they want feels so wrong? Finally, Greene offers a surprisingly simple set of maxims for navigating the modern moral terrain, a practical road map for solving problems and living better lives.

Just Babies

Author: Paul Bloom
Publisher: Crown
ISBN: 0307886867
Size: 46.60 MB
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A leading cognitive scientist argues that a deep sense of good and evil is bred in the bone. From John Locke to Sigmund Freud, philosophers and psychologists have long believed that we begin life as blank moral slates. Many of us take for granted that babies are born selfish and that it is the role of society—and especially parents—to transform them from little sociopaths into civilized beings. In Just Babies, Paul Bloom argues that humans are in fact hardwired with a sense of morality. Drawing on groundbreaking research at Yale, Bloom demonstrates that, even before they can speak or walk, babies judge the goodness and badness of others’ actions; feel empathy and compassion; act to soothe those in distress; and have a rudimentary sense of justice. Still, this innate morality is limited, sometimes tragically. We are naturally hostile to strangers, prone to parochialism and bigotry. Bringing together insights from psychology, behavioral economics, evolutionary biology, and philosophy, Bloom explores how we have come to surpass these limitations. Along the way, he examines the morality of chimpanzees, violent psychopaths, religious extremists, and Ivy League professors, and explores our often puzzling moral feelings about sex, politics, religion, and race. In his analysis of the morality of children and adults, Bloom rejects the fashionable view that our moral decisions are driven mainly by gut feelings and unconscious biases. Just as reason has driven our great scientific discoveries, he argues, it is reason and deliberation that makes possible our moral discoveries, such as the wrongness of slavery. Ultimately, it is through our imagination, our compassion, and our uniquely human capacity for rational thought that we can transcend the primitive sense of morality we were born with, becoming more than just babies. Paul Bloom has a gift for bringing abstract ideas to life, moving seamlessly from Darwin, Herodotus, and Adam Smith to The Princess Bride, Hannibal Lecter, and Louis C.K. Vivid, witty, and intellectually probing, Just Babies offers a radical new perspective on our moral lives. From the Hardcover edition.

Us Against Them

Author: Bruce Rozenblit
Publisher: Transcendent Sound, Inc.
ISBN: 0615233163
Size: 49.33 MB
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An investigation of how tribalism affected the evolution of the human mind. The analysis reveals a process that beliefs are a primary means of group identification and are a natural component of the evolution of human thought and culture. The results are mental processes that divide population groups into "us" and "them" which result in methods of thought and perception that affect major areas of human culture, specifically politics and religion. Us Against Them argues that the essential difference between the religious/conservative and the secular/liberal is driven by tribalism, not ideology. This is evidenced by the exclusive nature of conservative ideology that divides people into separate groups as evidenced by common features such as "you're with us or against us," "believers and heretics," and "attack to defend." The book is written for the general public without technical jargon and is arranged as a series of arguments in the manner of traditional philosophy.

Braintrust

Author: Patricia S. Churchland
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400889383
Size: 63.79 MB
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What is morality? Where does it come from? And why do most of us heed its call most of the time? In Braintrust, neurophilosophy pioneer Patricia Churchland argues that morality originates in the biology of the brain. She describes the "neurobiological platform of bonding" that, modified by evolutionary pressures and cultural values, has led to human styles of moral behavior. The result is a provocative genealogy of morals that asks us to reevaluate the priority given to religion, absolute rules, and pure reason in accounting for the basis of morality. Moral values, Churchland argues, are rooted in a behavior common to all mammals--the caring for offspring. The evolved structure, processes, and chemistry of the brain incline humans to strive not only for self-preservation but for the well-being of allied selves--first offspring, then mates, kin, and so on, in wider and wider "caring" circles. Separation and exclusion cause pain, and the company of loved ones causes pleasure; responding to feelings of social pain and pleasure, brains adjust their circuitry to local customs. In this way, caring is apportioned, conscience molded, and moral intuitions instilled. A key part of the story is oxytocin, an ancient body-and-brain molecule that, by decreasing the stress response, allows humans to develop the trust in one another necessary for the development of close-knit ties, social institutions, and morality. A major new account of what really makes us moral, Braintrust challenges us to reconsider the origins of some of our most cherished values.

Moral Realism And The Foundations Of Ethics

Author: David Owen Brink
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521359375
Size: 35.85 MB
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A systematic analysis considers the objectivity of ethics, the relationship between the moral point of view and a scientific or naturalist worldview and its role in a person's rational lifespan.

Out Of Character

Author: David DeSteno
Publisher: Harmony
ISBN: 0307717771
Size: 58.19 MB
Format: PDF
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Have you ever wondered why a trumpeter of family values would suddenly turn around and cheat on his wife? Why jealousy would send an otherwise level-headed person into a violent rage? What could drive a person to blow a family fortune at the blackjack tables? Or have you ever pondered what might make Mr. Right leave his beloved at the altar, why hypocrisy seems to be rampant, or even why, every once in awhile, even you are secretly tempted, to lie, cheat, or steal (or, conversely, help someone you never even met)? This book answers these questions and more, and in doing so, turns the prevailing wisdom about who we are upside down. Our character, argue psychologists DeSteno and Valdesolo, isn’t a stable set of traits, but rather a shifting state that is subject to the constant push and pull of hidden mechanisms in our mind. And it's the battle between these dueling psychological forces that determine how we act at any given point in time. Drawing on the surprising results of the clever experiments concocted in their own laboratory, DeSteno and Valdesolo shed new scientific light on so many of the puzzling behaviors that regularly grace the headlines. For example, you’ll learn: • Why Tiger Woods just couldn’t resist the allure of his mistresses even though he had a picture-perfect family at home. And why no one, including those who knew him best, ever saw it coming. • Why even the shrewdest of investors can be tempted to gamble their fortunes away (and why risky financial behavior is driven by the same mechanisms that compel us to root for the underdog in sports). • Why Eliot Spitzer, who made a career of crusading against prostitution, turned out to be one of the most famous johns of all time. • Why Mel Gibson, a noted philanthropist and devout Catholic, has been repeatedly caught spewing racist rants, even though close friends say he doesn’t have a racist bone in his body. • And why any of us is capable of doing the same, whether we believe it or not! A surprising look at the hidden forces driving the saint and sinner lurking in us all, Out of Character reveals why human behavior is so much more unpredictable than we ever realized. From the Hardcover edition.

City Of Cats

Author: Max Diksztejn
Publisher: Hillcrest Publishing Group
ISBN: 0996524711
Size: 19.48 MB
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In the late Roman Empire, City of Cats follows the tumultuous events of one decisive year in the life of Lupicinus, powerful advisor to the Pope, who lives a duplicitous life as a clandestine non-believer, and Saturnine, the unconverted wife of a Christian senator who secretly writes against the Church. Lupicinus and Saturnine are brought together and their lives changed forever by Kharapan, a Stoic philosopher from a remote land outside the Empire. Kharapan remains true to his principles and loyal to his friends even as he, and the ancient idea of philosophy as a way of life itself, teeter on the brink of extinction. City of Cats, deeply relevant to our time, is about the soul-rending decisions people are forced to make when the course of history is against them. It is a brilliant and thoughtful exploration of the philosophic way of life that once flourished in Western culture.

Us And Them

Author: David Berreby
Publisher: Hutchinson Radius
ISBN: 9780091801113
Size: 36.24 MB
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US AND THEM: Understanding your tribal mind reveals how and why we convince ourselves that we belong to differing human kinds - tribe-type categories like races, religions, classes, street gangs and high school cliques. Why do we see these divisions? Why do we care about them so much? Why do we kill and die for them? We see it every day on the news. Why have high schools in the US become killing zones? Why does strife continue in Northern Ireland? How do terrorists learn to torture and kill anyone who isn't one of them? Members Only answers these questions by looking at their common root in human nature. Politics and culture are invoked, of course, but the heart of the book is the individual mind. David Berreby describes how each person creates their own mind map, identifies others with similar mind maps and ostracises all those who are different. Based in solid scientific research, David Berreby exposes new discoveries about the mind and brain that will eventually overturn many of our familiar notions about human kinds and how we perceive them. This is a crucial subject that touches all of our lives in ways both large and small, obvious and subtle. Human kind thinking is part of human nature.