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Natural Gas Hydrates In Flow Assurance

Author: Carolyn Ann Koh
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 9781856179461
Size: 44.53 MB
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With millions of kilometres of onshore and offshore oil and gas pipelines in service around the world, pipelines are the life’s blood of the world. Notorious for disrupting natural gas production or transmission, the formation of natural gas hydrates can cost a company hundreds of millions and lead to catastrophic equipment breakdowns and safety and health hazards. Written by an international group of experts, Natural Gas Hydrates in Flow Assurance provide an expert overview of the practice and theory in natural gas hydrates, with applications primarily in flow assurance. Compact and easy to use, the book provides readers with a wealth of materials which include the key lessons learned in the industry over the last 20 years. Packed with field case studies, the book is designed to provide hands-on training and practice in calculating hydrate phase equilibria and plug dissociation. In addition readers receive executable programs to calculate hydrate thermodynamics. Case studies of hydrates in flow assurance The key concepts underlying the practical applications An overview of the state of the art flow assurance industrial developments

Flow Assurance Solids In Oil And Gas Production

Author: Jon Steinar Gudmundsson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351733168
Size: 24.59 MB
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The precipitation and deposition of solids are a major challenge in the production of oil and gas. Flow assurance solids are formed because of unavoidable changes in temperature, pressure and composition of the oil-gas-water flowstream, from reservoir conditions to processing conditions. The advent of subsea production and the increased exploitation of heavy crudes have made flow assurance issues dominant in ensuring efficient and safe exploitation of hydrocarbon assets. Five troublesome flow assurance solids are described in the book: asphaltene, paraffin wax, natural gas hydrate, naphthenate and inorganic scale. These big-five solids are presented in stand-alone chapters. Each chapter is designed to be readable without clutter. Derivations of equations and descriptions of supporting details are given in several appendices. The book is intended for professional engineers and natural scientist working in E&P companies, engineering companies, service companies and specialized companies. An understanding of the big-five solids is required throughout the lifetime of oil and gas assets, from early development to abandonment. The technical, safety and environmental risks associated with deposition problems in near-wellbore formations, production tubing, wellhead equipment, flowlines and processing facilities, are relevant for decisions in the oil and gas industry and in outside regulatory and financial entities.

Natural Gas Hydrate Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential

Author: Michael D. Max
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319025082
Size: 31.61 MB
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The book is an up-to-date basic reference for natural gas hydrate (NGH) in the Arctic Ocean. Geographical, geological, environmental, energy, new technology, and regulatory matters are discussed. The book should be of interest to general readers and scientists and students as well as industry and government agencies concerned with energy and ocean management. NGH is a solid crystalline material that compresses gas by about a factor of about 164 during crystallization from natural gas (mainly methane) - rich pore waters over time. NGH displaces water and may form large concentrations in sediment pore space. Its formation introduces changes in the geotechnical character of host sediment that allows it to be distinguished by seismic and electric exploration methods. The chemical reaction that forms NGH from gas and water molecules is highly reversible, which allows controlled conversion of the NGH to its constituent gas and water. This can be achieved rapidly by one of a number of processes including heating, depressurization, inhibitor injection, dissolution, and molecular replacement. The produced gas has the potential to make NGH a valuable unconventional natural gas resource, and perhaps the largest on earth. Estimates for NGH distribution, concentration, economic targets, and volumes in the Arctic Ocean have been carried out by restricting the economic target to deepwater turbidite sands, which are also sediment hosts for more deeply buried conventional hydrocarbon deposits. Resource base estimates are based on NGH petroleum system analysis approach using industry-standard parameters along with analogs from three relatively well known examples (Nankai-Japan, Gulf of Mexico-United States, and Arctic permafrost hydrate). Drilling data has substantiated new geotechnical-level seismic analysis techniques for estimating not just the presence of NGH but prospect volumes. In addition to a volumetric estimate for NGH having economic potential, a sedimentary depositional model is proposed to aid exploration in the five different regions around the deep central Arctic Ocean basin. Related topics are also discussed. Transport and logistics for NGH may also be applicable for stranded conventional gas and oil deposits. Arising from a discussion of new technology and methodologies that could be applied to developing NGH, suggestions are made for the lowering of exploration and capital expenses that could make NGH competitive on a produced cost basis. The basis for the extraordinarily low environmental risk for exploration and production of NGH is discussed, especially with respect to the environmentally fragile Arctic region. It is suggested that because of the low environmental risk, special regulations could be written that would provide a framework for very low cost and safe development.

Exploration And Production Of Oceanic Natural Gas Hydrate

Author: Michael D. Max
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030004015
Size: 61.19 MB
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This second edition provides extensive information on the attributes of the Natural Gas Hydrate (NGH) system, highlighting opportunities for the innovative use and modification of existing technologies, as well as new approaches and technologies that have the potential to dramatically lower the cost of NGH exploration and production. Above all, the book compares the physical, environmental, and commercial aspects of the NGH system with those of other gas resources. It subsequently argues and demonstrates that natural gas can provide the least expensive energy during the transition to, and possibly within, a renewable energy future, and that NGH poses the lowest environmental risk of all gas resources. Intended as a non-mathematical, descriptive text that should be understandable to non-specialists as well as to engineers concerned with the physical characteristics of NGH reservoirs and their production, the book is written for readers at the university graduate level. It offers a valuable reference guide for environmentalists and the energy community, and includes discussions that will be of great interest to energy industry professionals, legislators, administrators, regulators, and all those concerned with energy options and their respective advantages and disadvantages.

Monoethylene Glycol As Hydrate Inhibitor In Offshore Natural Gas Processing

Author: Alexandre Mendonça Teixeira
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319660748
Size: 68.54 MB
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This book addresses several issues related to hydrate inhibition and monoethylene glycol (MEG) recovery units (MRUs) in offshore natural gas fields, from fundamentals to engineering aspects and from energy consumption assessment to advanced topics such as exergy analysis. The assessment of energy degradation in MRUs is critical in offshore rigs, and the topic of exergy theory has by no means been completely explored; it is still being developed. The book presents a comprehensive, yet concise, formulation for exergy flow and examines different approaches for the reference state of MEG and definition of the reference environment so as to obtain an effective exergy analysis with consistent results. It also provides new and useful information that has a great potential in the field of exergy analysis application by assessing energy degradation for three well-known MRU technologies on offshore rigs: the Traditional Atmospheric Distillation Process; the Full-Stream Process; and the Slip-Stream Process. The book then elucidates how the main design parameters impact the efficiency of MEG recovery units and offers insights into thermodynamic efficiency based on case studies of general distillation-based processes with sharp or not too sharp cut, providing ranges for expected values of efficiencies and enhancing a global comprehension of this subject. Since MEG recovery is an energy consuming process that invariably has to be conducted in a limited space and with limited power supply, the book is a valuable resource for those involved in design, engineering, economic evaluation and environmental evaluation of topside processing on offshore platforms for natural gas production.

Clathrate Hydrates Of Natural Gases Third Edition

Author: E. Dendy Sloan, Jr.
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420008494
Size: 64.84 MB
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Hydrate research has expanded substantially over the past decade, resulting in more than 4,000 hydrate-related publications. Collating this vast amount of information into one source, Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases, Third Edition presents a thoroughly updated, authoritative, and comprehensive description of all major aspects of natural gas clathrate hydrates. What’s New in the Third Edition? This new edition of a bestseller offers updated information on the clathrate hydrate compounds discovered in the past decade, provides a balance between experimental and theoretical perspectives, and incorporates two software programs that can be downloaded from the CRC press website. It also presents case studies on low dosage hydrate inhibitor prevention and hydrate drilling in nature, phase equilibrium data and kinetic models, and descriptions of the paradigm change in flow assurance to risk management. Other new material discusses the paradigm transition from hydrate reservoir assessment to reservoir production and summarizes the in situ conditions for hydrates in the permafrost and oceans. With this modern account of clathrate hydrates, you will acquire a fresh perspective on both new and old theories and data, hopefully leading you to pursue exciting research directions and practical applications.

Natural Gas

Author: James G. Speight
Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing
ISBN: 0128097744
Size: 35.65 MB
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Natural Gas: A Basic Handbook, Second Edition provides the reader with a quick and accessible introduction to a fuel source/industry that is transforming the energy sector. Written at an introductory level, but still appropriate for engineers and other technical readers, this book provides an overview of natural gas as a fuel source, including its origins, properties and composition. Discussions include the production of natural gas from traditional and unconventional sources, the downstream aspects of the natural gas industry. including processing, storage, and transportation, and environmental issues and emission controls strategies. This book presents an ideal resource on the topic for engineers new to natural gas, for advisors and consultants in the natural gas industry, and for technical readers interested in learning more about this clean burning fuel source and how it is shaping the energy industry. Updated to include newer sources like shale gas Includes new discussions on natural gas hydrates and flow assurance Covers environmental issues Contain expanded coverage of liquefied natural gas (LNG)

Advances In The Study Of Gas Hydrates

Author: Charles E. Taylor
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306486458
Size: 22.12 MB
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This book had its genesis in a symposium on gas hydrates presented at the 2003 Spring National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers presented in four sessions over two days. Additional guest authors were invited to provide continuity and cover topics not addressed during the symposium. Gas hydrates are a unique class of chemical compounds where molecules of one compound (the guest material) are enclosed, without bonding chemically, within an open solid lattice composed of another compound (the host material). These types of configurations are known as clathrates. The guest molecules, u- ally gases, are of an appropriate size such that they fit within the cage formed by the host material. Commonexamples of gas hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At standard pressure and temperature, methane hydrate contains by volume 180 times as much methane as hydrate. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has estimated that there is more organic carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all other forms of fossil fuels combined. In fact, methane hydrates could provide a clean source of energy for several centuries. Clathrate compounds were first discovered in the early 1800s when Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday were experimenting with chlorine-water mixtures.

Economic Geology Of Natural Gas Hydrate

Author: Michael D. Max
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402039727
Size: 60.63 MB
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This book is a companion to “Natural Gas Hydrate in Oceanic and Permafrost Environments” (Max, 2000, 2003), which is the first book on gas hydrate in this series. Although other gases can naturally form clathrate hydrates (referred to after as ‘hydrate’), we are concerned here only with hydrocarbon gases that form hydrates. The most important of these natural gases is methane. Whereas the first book is a general introduction to the subject of natural gas hydrate, this book focuses on the geology and geochemical controls of gas hydrate development and on gas extraction from naturally occurring hydrocarbon hydrates. This is the first broad treatment of gas hydrate as a natural resource within an economic geological framework. This book is written mainly to stand alone for brevity and to minimize duplication. Information in Max (2000; 2003) should also be consulted for completeness. Hydrate is a type of clathrate (Sloan, 1998) that is formed from a cage structure of water molecules in which gas molecules occupying void sites within the cages stabilize the structure through van der Waals or hydrogen bonding.

Gas Injection For Disposal And Enhanced Recovery

Author: Ying Wu
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118938577
Size: 65.48 MB
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This is the fourth volume in a series of books focusing onnatural gas engineering, focusing on two of the most importantissues facing the industry today: disposal and enhanced recovery ofnatural gas. This volume includes information for both upstream anddownstream operations, including chapters on shale, geologicalissues, chemical and thermodynamic models, and much more. Written by some of the most well-known and respected chemicaland process engineers working with natural gas today, the chaptersin this important volume represent the most cutting-edge andstate-of-the-art processes and operations being used in thefield. Not available anywhere else, this volume is amust-have for any chemical engineer, chemist, or process engineerworking with natural gas. There are updates of new technologies in other related areas ofnatural gas, in addition to disposal and enhanced recovery,including sour gas, acid gas injection, and natural gas hydrateformations. Advances in Natural Gas Engineering is anongoing series of books meant to form the basis for the workinglibrary of any engineer working in natural gas today. Everyvolume is a must-have for any engineer or library.