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Nature Of Science In General Chemistry Textbooks

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400719200
Size: 54.82 MB
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Research in science education has recognized the importance of history and philosophy of science (HPS). Nature of science (NOS) is considered to be an essential part of HPS with important implications for teaching science. The role played by textbooks in developing students’ informed conceptions of NOS has been a source of considerable interest for science educators. In some parts of the world, textbooks become the curriculum and determine to a great extent what is taught and learned in the classroom. Given this background and interest, this monograph has evaluated NOS in university level general chemistry textbooks published in U.S.A. Most textbooks in this study provided little insight with respect to the nine criteria used for evaluating NOS. Some of the textbooks, however, inevitably refer to HPS and thus provide guidelines for future textbooks. A few of the textbooks go into considerable detail to present the atomic models of Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Bohr and wave mechanical to illustrate the tentative nature of scientific theories --- an important NOS aspect. These results lead to the question: Are we teaching science as practiced by scientists? An answer to this question can help us to understand the importance of NOS, by providing students an HPS-based environment, so that they too (just like the scientists) feel the thrill and excitement of discovering new things. This monograph provides students and teachers guidelines for introducing various aspects of NOS, based on historical episodes.

From Science In The Making To Understanding The Nature Of Science

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136508651
Size: 18.19 MB
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The Nature of Science is highly topical among science teacher educators and researchers. Increasingly, it is a mandated topic in state curriculum documents. This book draws together recent research on Nature of Science studies within a historical and philosophical framework suitable for students and teacher educators. Traditional science curricula and textbooks present science as a finished product. Taking a different approach, this book provides a glimpse of “science in the making” — scientific practice imbued with arguments, controversies, and competition among rival theories and explanations. Teaching about “science in the making” is a rich source of motivating students to engage creatively with the science curriculum. Readers are introduced to “science in the making” through discussion and analysis of a wide range of historical episodes from the early 19th century to early 21st century. Recent cutting-edge research is presented to provide insight into the dynamics of scientific progress. More than 90 studies from major science education journals, related to nature of science are reviewed. A theoretical framework, field tested with in-service science teachers, is developed for moving from ‘science in the making’ to understanding the Nature of Science.

International Handbook Of Research In History Philosophy And Science Teaching

Author: Michael R. Matthews
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400776543
Size: 38.82 MB
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This inaugural handbook documents the distinctive research field that utilizes history and philosophy in investigation of theoretical, curricular and pedagogical issues in the teaching of science and mathematics. It is contributed to by 130 researchers from 30 countries; it provides a logically structured, fully referenced guide to the ways in which science and mathematics education is, informed by the history and philosophy of these disciplines, as well as by the philosophy of education more generally. The first handbook to cover the field, it lays down a much-needed marker of progress to date and provides a platform for informed and coherent future analysis and research of the subject. The publication comes at a time of heightened worldwide concern over the standard of science and mathematics education, attended by fierce debate over how best to reform curricula and enliven student engagement in the subjects. There is a growing recognition among educators and policy makers that the learning of science must dovetail with learning about science; this handbook is uniquely positioned as a locus for the discussion. The handbook features sections on pedagogical, theoretical, national, and biographical research, setting the literature of each tradition in its historical context. It reminds readers at a crucial juncture that there has been a long and rich tradition of historical and philosophical engagements with science and mathematics teaching, and that lessons can be learnt from these engagements for the resolution of current theoretical, curricular and pedagogical questions that face teachers and administrators. Science educators will be grateful for this unique, encyclopaedic handbook, Gerald Holton, Physics Department, Harvard University This handbook gathers the fruits of over thirty years’ research by a growing international and cosmopolitan community Fabio Bevilacqua, Physics Department, University of Pavia

Evolving Nature Of Objectivity In The History Of Science And Its Implications For Science Education

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319677268
Size: 29.36 MB
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This book explores the evolving nature of objectivity in the history of science and its implications for science education. It is generally considered that objectivity, certainty, truth, universality, the scientific method and the accumulation of experimental data characterize both science and science education. Such universal values associated with science may be challenged while studying controversies in their original historical context. The scientific enterprise is not characterized by objectivity or the scientific method, but rather controversies, alternative interpretations of data, ambiguity, and uncertainty. Although objectivity is not synonymous with truth or certainty, it has eclipsed other epistemic virtues and to be objective is often used as a synonym for scientific. Recent scholarship in history and philosophy of science has shown that it is not the experimental data (Baconian orgy of quantification) but rather the diversity / plurality in a scientific discipline that contributes toward understanding objectivity. History of science shows that objectivity and subjectivity can be considered as the two poles of a continuum and this dualism leads to a conflict in understanding the evolving nature of objectivity. The history of objectivity is nothing less than the history of science itself and the evolving and varying forms of objectivity does not mean that one replaced the other in a sequence but rather each form supplements the others. This book is remarkable for its insistence that the philosophy of science, and in particular that discipline’s analysis of objectivity as the supposed hallmark of the scientific method, is of direct value to teachers of science. Meticulously, yet in a most readable way, Mansoor Niaz looks at the way objectivity has been dealt with over the years in influential educational journals and in textbooks; it’s fascinating how certain perspectives fade, while basic questions show no sign of going away. There are few books that take both philosophy and education seriously – this one does! Roald Hoffmann, Cornell University, chemist, writer and Nobel Laureate in Chemistry

Reconstruction Of Wave Particle Duality And Its Implications For General Chemistry Textbooks

Author: Mansoor Niaz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400743963
Size: 10.54 MB
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It goes without saying that atomic structure, including its dual wave-particle nature, cannot be demonstrated in the classroom. Thus, for most science teachers, especially those in physics and chemistry, the textbook is their key resource and their students’ core source of information. Science education historiography recognizes the role played by the history and philosophy of science in developing the content of our textbooks, and with this in mind, the authors analyze more than 120 general chemistry textbooks published in the USA, based on criteria derived from a historical reconstruction of wave-particle duality. They come to some revealing conclusions, including the fact that very few textbooks discussed issues such as the suggestion, by both Einstein and de Broglie, and before conclusive experimental evidence was available, that wave-particle duality existed. Other large-scale omissions included de Broglie’s prescription for observing this duality, and the importance of the Davisson-Germer experiments, as well as the struggle to interpret the experimental data they were collecting. Also untouched was the background to the role played by Schrödinger in developing de Broglie’s ideas. The authors argue that rectifying these deficiencies will arouse students’ curiosity by giving them the opportunity to engage creatively with the content of science curricula. They also assert that it isn’t just the experimental data in science that matters, but the theoretical insights and unwonted inspirations, too. In addition, the controversies and discrepancies in the theoretical and experimental record are key drivers in understanding the development of science as we know it today.

Simulations As Scaffolds In Science Education

Author: Maggie Renken
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319246151
Size: 16.82 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book outlines key issues for addressing the grand challenges posed to educators, developers, and researchers interested in the intersection of simulations and science education. To achieve this, the authors explore the use of computer simulations as instructional scaffolds that provide strategies and support when students are faced with the need to acquire new skills or knowledge. The monograph aims to provide insight into what research has reported on navigating the complex process of inquiry- and problem-based science education and whether computer simulations as instructional scaffolds support specific aims of such pedagogical approaches for students.

Haloalkyne Chemistry

Author: Huanfeng Jiang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662490013
Size: 57.46 MB
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This book presents efficient and practical methods for the synthesis of various functionalized organic molecules from haloalkynes through different reaction processes such as cross-coupling reactions, nucleophilic additions and cycloadditions. It consists of four chapters demonstrating interesting examples of these transformations, and showcasing the synthetic power of haloalkynes for rapid assembly of complex molecular structures. Most of the protocols allow multiple bond-forming events to occur in a single operation, offering opportunities to advance chemical synthesis and address the increasing demands for green and sustainable chemistry. It also presents a wide range of functionalized products, including many synthetically useful conjugated cyclic and acyclic structures that have potential applications in materials science, chemical biology and natural product synthesis. This book is a valuable reference not only for organic chemists, but also for biologists and materials scientists involved in the modern synthesis of organic compounds and materials. Huanfeng Jiang and Wanqing Wu are both Professors at the School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, China. Chuanle Zhu is a Postdoctoral Fellow at the School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, China.

Logische Untersuchungen Erg Nzungsband Erster Teil

Author: Edmund Husserl
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9401005990
Size: 51.63 MB
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Vom Sommer 1913 bis zum Sommer 1914 arbeitete Husserl zunächst an der Umarbeitung und dann an einer völligen Neufassung der VI. Logischen Untersuchung. Im vorliegenden ersten Teil einer zweibändigen Ausgabe gelangen die im Nachlass erhaltenen Entwürfe zur Umarbeitung der VI. Untersuchung aus dem Sommer 1913 zur Veröffentlichung. Diese Entwürfe lagen zum Teil bereits in Druckproben bzw. Druckfahnen vor, die Husserl dann erneut intensiv überarbeitet und handschriftlich erweitert hat. Nach dem Erscheinen der Ideen I im April 1913 war es nicht nur Husserls Absicht, die VI. Untersuchung seinem neuen methodologischen Standpunkt anzupassen, sondern auch seine langjährigen und weitverzweigten aktphänomenologischen Forschungen, vor allem seine Analysen der Wahrnehmung, der Phantasie und der Aktmodalitäten sowie seine urteilstheoretischen Analysen in den Text einfliessen zu lassen. Der Versuch einer Umarbeitung der VI. Untersuchung erfolgte im Hinblick auf die Neuausgabe der Logischen Untersuchungen im Herbst 1913. Dieser Neuausgabe wollte Husserl eine längere Vorrede voranstellen. Die im Nachlass erhaltenen Bruchstücke von zwei im September 1913 entstandenen Entwürfen dieser Vorrede ergänzen die hier veröffentlichten Umarbeitungsentwürfe.

The Chemistry And Applications Of Sustainable Natural Hair Products

Author: Kalyani Barve
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319294199
Size: 19.12 MB
Format: PDF
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This book investigates the relationship between phytoconstituents and properties in specific plants, such as Hibiscus rosa sinesis, Cuscuta reflexa, Citrullus colocynthis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Ocimum gratissimum, that are used in hair care products including shampoos, conditioners, dyes, and oils. It explains the impact of these materials on the growth, structure, appearance, and health of hair. It also explores how the chemistry of certain plants from sustainable sources is exploited for use in hair products and nutraceuticals. Additionally, the authors include information on ingredients used for formulating 'green' hair products that treat common conditions such as canities, dandruff and alopecia.

Theory Choice In The History Of Chemical Practices

Author: Emma Tobin
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319298933
Size: 38.71 MB
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This collection of essays examines the question of theory from the perspective of the history of chemistry. Through the lens of a number of different periods, the authors provide a historical analysis of the question of theory in the history of chemical practice. The consensus picture that emerges is that the history of science tells us a much more complex story about theory choice. A glimpse at scientific practice at the time shows that different, competing as well as non-competing, theories were used in the context of the scientific practice at the various times and sometimes played a pivotal pedagogical role in training the next generation of chemists. This brief brings together a history of chemical practice, and in so doing reveals that theory choice is conceptually more problematic than was originally conceived. This volume was produced as part of the Ad HOC chemistry research group hosted by University College London and University of Cambridge.