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New And Future Developments In Catalysis

Author: Steven L Suib
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0444538739
Size: 78.41 MB
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New and Future Developments in Catalysis is a package of seven books that compile the latest ideas concerning alternate and renewable energy sources and the role that catalysis plays in converting new renewable feedstock into biofuels and biochemicals. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and catalytic processes will be discussed in a unified and comprehensive approach. There will be extensive cross-referencing within all volumes. The use of solar energy during various catalytic chemical processes for the production of an array of chemical products is the theme of this volume. Photocatalysis is a topic of increasing importance due to its essential role in many of today’s environmental and energy source problems. The use of solar energy for catalytic reactions results in a carbon dioxide–neutral process. All photocatalytic processes and the future developments in this area are discussed, including an economic analysis of the various processes. Offers in-depth coverage of all catalytic topics of current interest and outlines future challenges and research areas A clear and visual description of all parameters and conditions, enabling the reader to draw conclusions for a particular case Outlines the catalytic processes applicable to energy generation and design of green processes

Photocatalytic Water Splitting

Author: Rony S. Khnayzer
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 59.46 MB
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Due to the expected increases on energy demand in the near future, the development of new catalytic molecular compositions and materials capable of directly converting water, with the aid of solar photons, into hydrogen becomes obviated. Hydrogen is a combustible fuel and precious high-energy feedstock chemical. However, for the water-splitting reaction to proceed efficiently and economically enough for large-scale application, efficient light-absorbing sensitizers and water splitting catalysts are required. To study the kinetics of the water reduction reaction, we have used titania (TiO2) nanoparticles as a robust scaffold to photochemically grow platinum (Pt) nanoparticles from a unique surface-anchored molecular precursor Pt(dcbpy)Cl2 [dcbpy = 4,4`-dicarboxylic acid-2,2`-bipyridine]. The hybrid Pt/TiO2 nanomaterials obtained were shown to be a superior water reduction catalyst (WRC) in aqueous suspensions when compared with the benchmark platinized TiO2. In addition, cobalt phosphate (CoPi) water oxidation catalyst (WOC) was photochemically assembled on the surface of TiO2, and its structure and mechanism of activity showed resemblance to the established electrochemically grown CoPi material. Both WRC and WOC described above possessed near unity Faradaic efficiency for hydrogen and oxygen production respectively, and were fully characterized by electron microscopy, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, electrochemistry and photochemistry. While there are established materials and molecules that are able to drive water splitting catalysis, some of these efficient semiconductors, including titanium dioxide (TiO2) and tungsten trioxide (WO3), are only able to absorb high-energy (ultraviolet or blue) photons. This high-energy light represents merely a fraction of the solar spectrum that strikes the earth and the energy content of those remaining photons is simply wasted. A strategy to mitigate this problem has been developed over the years in our laboratory. Briefly, photons of low energy are converted into higher energy light using a process termed photon upconversion. Using this technique, low energy photons supplied by the sun can be converted into light of appropriate energy to trigger electronic transitions in high energy absorbing photoactive materials without any chemical modification of the latter. We have shown, that this technology is capable of upconverting visible sunlight to sensitize wide-bandgap semiconductors such as WO3, subsequently extending the photoaction of these materials to cover a larger portion of the solar spectrum. Besides the engineering of different compositions that serve as either sensitizers or catalysts in these solar energy conversion schemes, we have designed an apparatus for parallel high-throughput screening of these photocatalytic compositions. This combinatorial approach to solar fuels photocatalysis has already led to unprecedented fundamental understanding of the generation of hydrogen gas from pure water. The activity of a series of new Ru(II) sensitizers along with Co(II) molecular WRCs were optimized under visible light excitation utilizing different experimental conditions. The multi-step mechanism of activity of selected compositions was further elucidated by pump-probe transient absorption spectroscopy.

Materials And Processes For Solar Fuel Production

Author: Balasubramanian Viswanathan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493916289
Size: 18.89 MB
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This book features different approaches to non-biochemical pathways for solar fuel production. This one-of-a-kind book addresses photovoltaics, photocatalytic water splitting for clean hydrogen production and CO2 conversion to hydrocarbon fuel through in-depth comprehensive contributions from a select blend of established and experienced authors from across the world. The commercial application of solar based systems, with particular emphasis on non-PV based devices have been discussed. This book intends to serve as a primary resource for a multidisciplinary audience including chemists, engineers and scientists providing a one-stop location for all aspects related to solar fuel production. The material is divided into three sections: Solar assisted water splitting to produce hydrogen; Solar assisted CO2 utilization to produce green fuels and Solar assisted electricity generation. The content strikes a balance between theory, material synthesis and application with the central theme being solar fuels.

Sustainable Development Of Energy Water And Environment Systems

Author: N.H. Afgan
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9789058096623
Size: 78.55 MB
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This work contains a collection of selected, peer-reviewed papers that were presented at the First Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems, held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2002. This conference was focussed on the following objectives: More...to discuss sustainability concepts of energy, water and environment and their relation to global development; to analyse potential scientific and technological processes reflecting energy, water and environment exchange; to present energy, water and environment system models and their evaluation; to consider multi-criteria assessment of energy, water and environment systems by taking account of economic, social, environmental and resource use aspects. This book is interesting for (post)graduate students, scientists and professionals from mechanical, chemical and environmental disciplines who are working on sustainable development.