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New Directions In Conservation Medicine

Author: A. Alonso Aguirre
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199731470
Size: 26.93 MB
Format: PDF
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New Directions of Conservation Medicine: Applied Cases of Ecological Health covers topics from emerging diseases and toxicants to the EcoHealth/One Health explosion. It challenges the notion that human health is an isolated concern removed from the bounds of ecology and species interactions.

New Directions In Conservation Medicine

Author: A. Alonso Aguirre
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199909059
Size: 66.53 MB
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In recent years, species and ecosystems have been threatened by many anthropogenic factors manifested in local and global declines of populations and species. Although we consider conservation medicine an emerging field, the concept is the result of the long evolution of transdisciplinary thinking within the health and ecological sciences and the better understanding of the complexity within these various fields of knowledge. Conservation medicine was born from the cross fertilization of ideas generated by this new transdisciplinary design. It examines the links among changes in climate, habitat quality, and land use; emergence and re-emergence of infectious agents, parasites and environmental contaminants; and maintenance of biodiversity and ecosystem functions as they sustain the health of plant and animal communities including humans. During the past ten years, new tools and institutional initiatives for assessing and monitoring ecological health concerns have emerged: landscape epidemiology, disease ecological modeling and web-based analytics. New types of integrated ecological health assessment are being deployed; these efforts incorporate environmental indicator studies with specific biomedical diagnostic tools. Other innovations include the development of non-invasive physiological and behavioral monitoring techniques; the adaptation of modern molecular biological and biomedical techniques; the design of population level disease monitoring strategies; the creation of ecosystem-based health and sentinel species surveillance approaches; and the adaptation of health monitoring systems for appropriate developing country situations. New Directions of Conservation Medicine: Applied Cases of Ecological Health addresses these issues with relevant case studies and detailed applied examples. New Directions of Conservation Medicine challenges the notion that human health is an isolated concern removed from the bounds of ecology and species interactions. Human health, animal health, and ecosystem health are moving closer together and at some point, it will be inconceivable that there was ever a clear division.

Conservation Medicine

Author: A. Alonso Aguirre
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0195150937
Size: 41.63 MB
Format: PDF
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Conservation medicine is an emerging discipline, focussing on the intersection of ecosystem health, animal health, and human health. Work in the biomedical and veterinary sciences is now being folded into conservation biology; to explore the connections between animal and human health; trace the environmental sources of pathogens and pollutants; develop an understanding of the ecological causes of changes in human and animal health; and understand the consequences of diseases to populations and ecological communities. Conservation Medicine defines this new discipline. It examines ecological health issues from various standpoints, including the emergence and resurgence of infectious disease agents; the increasing impacts of toxic chemicals and hazardous substances; and the health implications of habitat fragmentation and degradation and loss of biodiversity. It will provide a framework to examine the connections between the health of the planet and the health of all species and challenge practitioners and students in the health sciences and natural sciences to think about new, collaborative ways to address ecological health concerns.

Lyme Disease

Author: Richard Ostfeld
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199780853
Size: 66.80 MB
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Most human diseases come from nature, from pathogens that live and breed in non-human animals and are "accidentally" transmitted to us. Human illness is only the culmination of a complex series of interactions among species in their natural habitats. To avoid exposure to these pathogens, we must understand which species are involved, what regulates their abundance, and how they interact. Lyme disease affects the lives of millions of people in the US, Europe, and Asia. It is the most frequently reported vector-borne disease in the United States; About 20,000 cases have been reported each year over the past five years, and tens of thousands more go unrecognized and unreported. Despite the epidemiological importance of understanding variable LD risk, such pursuit has been slow, indirect, and only partially successful, due in part to an overemphasis on identifying the small subset of 'key players' that contribute to Lyme disease risk, as well as a general misunderstanding of effective treatment options. This controversial book is a comprehensive, synthetic review of research on the ecology of Lyme disease in North America. It describes how humans get sick, why some years and places are so risky and others not. It challenges dogma - for instance, that risk is closely tied to the abundance of deer - and replaces it with a new understanding that embraces the complexity of species and their interactions. It describes why the place where Lyme disease emerged - coastal New England - set researchers on mistaken pathways. It shows how tiny acorns have enormous impacts on our probability of getting sick, why biodiversity is good for our health, why living next to a small woodlot is dangerous, and why Lyme disease is an excellent model system for understanding many other human and animal diseases. Intended for an audience of professional and student ecologists, epidemiologists, and other health scientists, it is written in an informal style accessible also to non-scientists interested in human health and conservation.

Sustaining Life

Author: Eric Chivian
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0195175093
Size: 32.77 MB
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Examines the relationship between the animals, plants, and insects on land and in the water and how they have provided health benefits to society.

Essentials Of Disease In Wild Animals

Author: Gary A. Wobeser
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118708873
Size: 49.31 MB
Format: PDF
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The interrelationship between wild animal, domestic animals and human health is appreciated now more than ever before. This is because of the recognition of the involvement of wild animals in diseases of humans and domestic animals, the impact of disease on wildlife management and conservation biology, recognition of new forms of environmental contamination, and academic interest in disease as an ecological factor. This is the first introductory level book about disease in wild animals that deals with basic subjects such as the nature of disease, what causes disease, how disease is described and measured, how diseases spread and persist and the effects of disease on individual animals and populations. In contrast to authors of many other veterinary books, Gary A. Wobeser takes a more general approach to health in wild animals, recognizing that disease is one ecological factor among many and that disease can never be considered satisfactorily in isolation. Rather than focus on individual causative agents and their effect on the individual animal, the emphasis is on why disease occurred, and on the complex interactions that occur among disease agents, the environment and host populations. Written by a leading researcher in wildlife diseases, this book will fill a knowledge gap for those called to work with disease in wild animals who lack experience or training in the general features of disease as they relate to wild animals. Veterinarians, ecologists, wildlife biologists, population biologists and public health workers will find this book invaluable.

Wildlife Dna Analysis

Author: Adrian Linacre
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118496523
Size: 26.24 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Clearly structured throughout, the introduction highlights the different types of crime where these techniques are regularly used. This chapter includes a discussion as to who performs forensic wildlife examinations, the standardisation and validation of methods, and the role of the expert witness in this type of alleged crime. This is followed by a detailed section on the science behind DNA typing including the problems in isolating DNA from trace material and subsequent genetic analysis are also covered. The book then undertakes a comprehensive review of species testing using DNA, including a step-by-step guide to sequence comparisons. A comparison of the different markers used in species testing highlights the criteria for a genetic marker. A full set of case histories illustrates the use of the different markers used. The book details the use of genetic markers to link two or more hairs/feather/leaves/needles to the same individual organism and the software used in population assignment. The problems and possibilities in isolating markers, along with the construction of allele databases are discussed in this chapter. The book concludes with evaluation and reporting of genetic evidence in wildlife forensic science illustrated by examples of witness statements.

Applied Ecology And Environmental Management

Author: Edward I. Newman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470698179
Size: 43.92 MB
Format: PDF
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This book explains ways that ecological science can be applied to solving some of the most crucial problems facing our world today. A major theme is how resources can be effectively managed and exploited in as near a sustainable manner as possible. The author draws together, in a single volume, major topics in environmental and resource management that have traditionally been dispersed among several different books. Applied Ecology starts with an analysis of our planet's basic natural resources - energy, water and soil; it moves on to the management of biological resources - fish, grazing lands and forests, and then to pest control and pollution. Finally, the book tackles conservation and management of wild species and the restoration of ecological communities. The second edition of this text has been radically redesigned and rewritten. Each chapter starts with a list of questions, setting out the various fundamental problems to be considered. Interwoven with these practical problems is a clear explanation of the underlying basic science - ecology - studied at scales ranging from global, landscape and ecosystem, down to the population and individual (and even their physiology and genetics). The science is illustrated by examples from every major geographic area of the world. This book is aimed primarily at undergraduate students taking courses in applied ecology, environmental science, environmental management and natural resources management. The author has extensive experience as a university teacher. Like his lectures, this book is scientifically rigorous yet clear and easy to understand. Draws together major topics in environmental and resource management, usually dispersed over many separate books. Questions, summaries and clearly structured chapters enhance usability. Emphasis on clarity and accessibility. Based on a proven and successful course.

Paleontology In Ecology And Conservation

Author: Julien Louys
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642250386
Size: 61.24 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The fossil record contains unique long-term insights into how ecosystems form and function which cannot be determined simply by examining modern systems. It also provides a record of endangered species through time, which allow us to make conservation decisions based on thousands to millions of years of information. The aim of this book is to demonstrate how palaeontological data has been or could be incorporated into ecological or conservation scientific studies. This book will be written by palaeontologists for modern ecologists and conservation scientists. Manuscripts will fall into one (or a combination) of four broad categories: case studies, review articles, practical considerations and future directions. This book will serve as both a ‘how to guide’ and provide the current state of knowledge for this type of research. It will highlight the unique and critical insights that can be gained by the inclusion of palaeontological data into modern ecological or conservation studies.

Conservation Of Biological Resources

Author: E. J. Milner-Gulland
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444313584
Size: 17.40 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book presents the issues surrounding the conservation of wild species and ecosystems used by people. It is aimed at final year undergraduate and master's students taking courses in conservation, environmental management, ecological economics and related subjects, as well as conservation professionals, including managers, policy-makers and researchers. The structure of the book is ideal for a course in conservation, comprising a theoretical section written by the authors, and a set of ten contributed case studies intentionally diverse in discipline, geographical region and system of study. The theoretical section provides the knowledge that is needed to understand the issues, while the case studies can form the basis of seminars. Readers will emerge with a clear recognition of the difficulties of limiting the harvesting of biological resources to sustainable levels, and of the boundaries of sustainable use as a conservation tool. The authors, an ecologist and an anthropologist, have both worked on the conservation and sustainable use of wildlife for several years, including the ivory and rhino horn trades. The first book to examine the issues underlying the sustainable use debate in a fully interdisciplinary manner. Both the theoretical section and the case studies approach the issues using methods from economics, ecology, anthropology and other fields Designed as a course textbook, combining a theoretical section with invited case studies written by expert practitioners in the field Outlines the new direction that conservation biology (and thus conservation biologists) must take if it is to be successful