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New Methodologies And Techniques For A Sustainable Organic Chemistry

Author: Alessandro Mordini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402067933
Size: 33.21 MB
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Chemical industries have to face the challenge of finding adequate processes to produce large quantities of new products, while at the same time decreasing both the impact on the environment and the risk of disaster. This book addresses this challenge. It discusses the problems of environmentally benign organic processes on an interdisciplinary approach. The book features experts in selective catalysis, development of new reagents and methods who present their recent results.

Photochemically Generated Intermediates In Synthesis

Author: Angelo Albini
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118689305
Size: 27.45 MB
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Examines the latest applications of photochemistry to generate important intermediates Presenting the latest breakthroughs in the field of organic photochemistry, this book offers tested and proven photochemical approaches to synthesis, creating promising new possibilities and applications for photochemical reactions. It focuses on photoreactions involving an intermediate where mechanistic aspects control the course of the reaction and its synthetic value. Readers will discover new insights into the mechanisms and nature of photo-produced reactive intermediates for organic synthesis as well as the methods to generate them. Moreover, by focusing on highly efficient techniques for producing such species, the authors enable researchers to design and perform photoreactions within the framework of green, sustainable chemistry. Photochemically-Generated Intermediates in Synthesis begins with a discussion of the principles and practice of photo-generated intermediates. Next, the book explores: Photogeneration of carbon-centered radicals Photogeneration of heteroatom-centered radicals Photogeneration of biradicals and radical pairs Photochemical generation of radical ions Photogeneration of carbocations and carbanions Photogeneration of carbenes and nitrenes The book's final chapter is dedicated to the photochemical manipulation of intermediates. Each chapter includes key kinetic data for typical intermediates as well as detailed case examples, giving readers all the tools needed to perform their own photochemical reactions. Comparisons to non-photochemical methods are offered whenever possible. Photochemically-Generated Intermediates in Synthesis sets the stage for greater collaboration among photochemists and synthetic organic chemists, enabling these two research communities to fully leverage photochemistry in order to generate key intermediates needed for a broad range of synthetic reactions in organic chemistry.

Advanced Sensors For Safety And Security

Author: Ashok Vaseashta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9400770030
Size: 30.61 MB
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This book results from a NATO Advanced Research Workshop titled “Technological Innovations in CBRNE Sensing and Detection for Safety, Security, and Sustainability” held in Yerevan, Armenia in 2012. The objective was to discuss and exchange views as to how fusion of advanced technologies can lead to improved sensors/detectors in support of defense, security, and situational awareness. The chapters range from policy and implementation, advanced sensor platforms using stand-off (THz and optical) and point-contact methods for detection of chemical, nuclear, biological, nuclear and explosive agents and contaminants in water, to synthesis methods for several materials used for sensors. In view of asymmetric, kinetic, and distributed nature of threat vectors, an emphasis is placed to examine new generation of sensors/detectors that utilize an ecosystems of innovation and advanced sciences convergence in support of effective counter-measures against CBRNE threats. The book will be of considerable interest and value to those already pursuing or considering careers in the field of nanostructured materials, and sensing/detection of CBRNE agents and water-borne contaminants. For policy implementation and compliance standpoint, the book serves as a resource of several informative contributions. In general, it serves as a valuable source of information for those interested in how nanomaterials and nanotechnologies are advancing the field of sensing and detection using nexus of advanced technologies for scientists, technologists, policy makers, and soldiers and commanders.

New Trends In Intercalation Compounds For Energy Storage

Author: Christian Julien
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401003890
Size: 43.39 MB
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Recent advances in electrochemistry and materials science have opened the way to the evolution of entirely new types of energy storage systems: rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochroms, hydrogen containers, etc., all of which have greatly improved electrical performance and other desirable characteristics. This book encompasses all the disciplines linked in the progress from fundamentals to applications, from description and modelling of different materials to technological use, from general diagnostics to methods related to technological control and operation of intercalation compounds. Designing devices with higher specific energy and power will require a more profound understanding of material properties and performance. This book covers the status of materials and advanced activities based on the development of new substances for energy storage.

The Role Of Ecological Chemistry In Pollution Research And Sustainable Development

Author: Ali Mufit Bahadir
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 904812901X
Size: 49.73 MB
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Sustainable Development has become the leading concept of the 21 century. It describes a development, which agrees with the needs of the present generation but does not endanger the chances of the coming generations to satisfy also their needs. “Sustainable development” has become an important general goal for all fields of life like economy, ecology and social balance. The development and shaping of our future has been discussed internationally like on the summits of the Conferences in Rio and in Johannesburg. But this is also a topic on national base in various countries. Leading authorities in various fields of economy and politics have also accepted this concept. Although the concept of sustainable development has been generally accepted, there are still problems how to achieve and evaluate these general goals. It is clear that the definitions about the prime needs vary from man to man, from country to country and from continent to continent. But pollution does not respect national borders. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the politics of economy, ecology and social demands by a synergistic way that they are strengthened by each other. If it is not possible to stop tendencies, which threaten the future quality of life, the cost demands of societies will dramatically increase and negative tendencies will become irreversible.

Nanotechnological Basis For Advanced Sensors

Author: Johann Peter Reithmaier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400709021
Size: 43.39 MB
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Bringing together experts from 15 countries, this book is based on the lectures and contributions of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on “Nanotechnological Basis for Advanced Sensors” held in Sozopol, Bulgaria, 30 May - 11 June, 2010. It gives a broad overview on this topic, and includes articles on: techniques for preparation and characterization of sensor materials; different types of nanoscaled materials for sensor applications, addressing both their structure (nanoparticles, nanocomposites, nanostructured films, etc.) and chemical nature (carbon-based, oxides, glasses, etc.); and on advanced sensors that exploit nanoscience and nanotechnology. In addition, the volume represents an interdisciplinary approach with authors coming from diverse fields such as physics, chemistry, engineering, materials science and biology. A particular strength of the book is its combination of longer papers, introducing the basic knowledge on a certain topic, and brief contributions highlighting special types of sensors and sensor materials.

Environmental Simulation Chambers Application To Atmospheric Chemical Processes

Author: Ian Barnes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402042329
Size: 29.35 MB
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Atmospheric pollution has many different detrimental impacts on air quality at urban, regional and global scales. Large volume photoreactors (often referred to as smog or simulation chambers) have been used very effectively to investigate and understand many varied aspects of atmospheric chemistry related to air pollution problems. Photochemical smog formation, which was first observed around 1945 in Los Angeles, is now a major environmental problem for all industrialised and densely populated regions of the world. Over the years many different modelling and experimental tools have been developed to analyse and simulate the complex chemical processes associated with tropspheric photooxidant formation. Work in environmental chambers has played a key role in the development of our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry associated with pollution problems on local, regional and global scales. Chamber observations have also been used in connection with environmental policy issues. In general they are used for validation of atmospheric chemical models, studies of chemical reaction mechanisms and as a direct means to test the possible impact of specific chemical compounds on air quality under simulated ambient conditions New large smog chamber installations have been recently developed in the US (Riverside, California), Europe (Jülich, Germany) and Japan, and a large number of smaller scale laboratory chambers are in operation around the world. Over the years there have been numerous new technical developments related to environmental chamber facilities such as the design of the chambers (e. g.

Evaluation Of Soil Organic Matter Models

Author: David S. Powlson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642610943
Size: 59.48 MB
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Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a major pool of carbon within the biosphere, roughly twice than in atmospheric CO2. SOM models embody our best understanding of soil carbon dynamics and are needed to predict how global environmental change will influence soil carbon stocks. These models are also required for evaluating the likely effectiveness of different mitigation options. The first important step towards systematically evaluating the suitability of SOM models for these purposes is to test their simulations against real data. Since changes in SOM occur slowly, long-term datasets are required. This volume brings together leading SOM model developers and experimentalists to test SOM models using long-term datasets from diverse ecosystems, land uses and climatic zones within the temperate region.

Viable Methods Of Soil And Water Pollution Monitoring Protection And Remediation

Author: Irena Twardowska
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402047282
Size: 65.39 MB
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This book details the state-of-the art in early warning monitoring of anthropogenic pollution of soil and water. It is unique with regard to its complex, multidisciplinary, mechanistic approach. Top scientists establish links and strengthen weak connections between specific fields in biology, microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, sensoristics, soil science and hydrogeology.

The Utilization Of Bioremediation To Reduce Soil Contamination Problems And Solutions

Author: Václav Sasek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401001316
Size: 12.17 MB
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Traditional reliance on chemical analysis to understand the direction and extent of treatment in a bioremediation process has been found to be inadequate. Whereas the goal of bioremediation is toxicity reduction, few direct, reliable measures of this process are as yet available. Another area of intense discussion is the assessment of market forces contributing to the acceptability of bioremediation. Finally, another important component is a series of lectures and lively exchanges devoted to practical applications of different bioremediation technologies. The range of subjects covers a wide spectrum, encompassing emerging technologies as well as actual, full-scale operations. Examples discussed include landfarming, biopiling, composting, phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Each technology is explored for its utility and capability to provide desired treatment goals. Advantages and limitations of each technology are discussed. The concept of natural attenuation is also critically evaluated since in some cases where time to remediation is not a significant factor, it may be an alternative to active bioremediation operations.