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New Methodologies And Techniques For A Sustainable Organic Chemistry

Author: Alessandro Mordini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402067933
Size: 39.70 MB
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Chemical industries have to face the challenge of finding adequate processes to produce large quantities of new products, while at the same time decreasing both the impact on the environment and the risk of disaster. This book addresses this challenge. It discusses the problems of environmentally benign organic processes on an interdisciplinary approach. The book features experts in selective catalysis, development of new reagents and methods who present their recent results.

Photochemically Generated Intermediates In Synthesis

Author: Angelo Albini
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118689305
Size: 19.90 MB
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Examines the latest applications of photochemistry to generate important intermediates Presenting the latest breakthroughs in the field of organic photochemistry, this book offers tested and proven photochemical approaches to synthesis, creating promising new possibilities and applications for photochemical reactions. It focuses on photoreactions involving an intermediate where mechanistic aspects control the course of the reaction and its synthetic value. Readers will discover new insights into the mechanisms and nature of photo-produced reactive intermediates for organic synthesis as well as the methods to generate them. Moreover, by focusing on highly efficient techniques for producing such species, the authors enable researchers to design and perform photoreactions within the framework of green, sustainable chemistry. Photochemically-Generated Intermediates in Synthesis begins with a discussion of the principles and practice of photo-generated intermediates. Next, the book explores: Photogeneration of carbon-centered radicals Photogeneration of heteroatom-centered radicals Photogeneration of biradicals and radical pairs Photochemical generation of radical ions Photogeneration of carbocations and carbanions Photogeneration of carbenes and nitrenes The book's final chapter is dedicated to the photochemical manipulation of intermediates. Each chapter includes key kinetic data for typical intermediates as well as detailed case examples, giving readers all the tools needed to perform their own photochemical reactions. Comparisons to non-photochemical methods are offered whenever possible. Photochemically-Generated Intermediates in Synthesis sets the stage for greater collaboration among photochemists and synthetic organic chemists, enabling these two research communities to fully leverage photochemistry in order to generate key intermediates needed for a broad range of synthetic reactions in organic chemistry.

Implications Of Molecular And Materials Structure For New Technologies

Author: Judith A K Howard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401146535
Size: 25.73 MB
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Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the use of crystal structure information and computational techniques in the design and development of a very wide range of novel materials. These activities now encompass a broad chemical spectrum, reflected in the contributions published here, which cover: modern crystallographic techniques, databases and knowledge bases of experimental results, computational techniques and their interplay with experimental information, hydrogen bonding and other intermolecular interactions, supramolecular assembly and crystal structure prediction, and practical examples of materials design. Each author is a recognised expert and the volume contains state-of-the-art results set in the context of essential background material and augmented by extensive bibliographies. The volume provides a coherent introduction to a rapidly developing field and will be of value to both specialists and non-specialists at the doctoral and post-doctoral levels.

New Trends In Intercalation Compounds For Energy Storage

Author: Christian Julien
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401003890
Size: 53.51 MB
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Recent advances in electrochemistry and materials science have opened the way to the evolution of entirely new types of energy storage systems: rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochroms, hydrogen containers, etc., all of which have greatly improved electrical performance and other desirable characteristics. This book encompasses all the disciplines linked in the progress from fundamentals to applications, from description and modelling of different materials to technological use, from general diagnostics to methods related to technological control and operation of intercalation compounds. Designing devices with higher specific energy and power will require a more profound understanding of material properties and performance. This book covers the status of materials and advanced activities based on the development of new substances for energy storage.

Evaluation Of Soil Organic Matter Models

Author: David S. Powlson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642610943
Size: 22.44 MB
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Soil organic matter (SOM) represents a major pool of carbon within the biosphere, roughly twice than in atmospheric CO2. SOM models embody our best understanding of soil carbon dynamics and are needed to predict how global environmental change will influence soil carbon stocks. These models are also required for evaluating the likely effectiveness of different mitigation options. The first important step towards systematically evaluating the suitability of SOM models for these purposes is to test their simulations against real data. Since changes in SOM occur slowly, long-term datasets are required. This volume brings together leading SOM model developers and experimentalists to test SOM models using long-term datasets from diverse ecosystems, land uses and climatic zones within the temperate region.

Supercritical Fluids

Author: E. Kiran
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401139296
Size: 58.82 MB
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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.

Photovoltaic And Photoactive Materials

Author: Joseph M. Marshall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402008245
Size: 63.64 MB
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The primary objective of this NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was to present an up-to-date overview of various current areas of interest in the field of photovoltaic and related photoactive materials. This is a wide-ranging subject area, of significant commercial and environmental interest, and involves major contributions from the disciplines of physics, chemistry, materials, electrical and instrumentation engineering, commercial realisation etc. Therefore, we sought to adopt an inter disciplinary approach, bringing together recognised experts in the various fields while retaining a level of treatment accessible to those active in specific individual areas of research and development. The lecture programme commenced with overviews of the present relevance and historical development of the subject area, plus an introduction to various underlying physical principles of importance to the materials and devices to be addressed in later lectures. Building upon this, the ASI then progressed to more detailed aspects of the subject area. We were also fortunately able to obtain a contribution from Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot of the European Commission Directorate, describing present and future EC support for activities in this field. In addition, poster sessions were held throughout the meeting, to allow participants to present and discuss their current activities. These were supported by what proved to be very effective feedback sessions (special thanks to Martin Stutzmann), prior to which groups of participants enthusiastically met (often in the bar) to identify and agree topics of common interest.

Environmental Simulation Chambers Application To Atmospheric Chemical Processes

Author: Ian Barnes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402042329
Size: 10.35 MB
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Atmospheric pollution has many different detrimental impacts on air quality at urban, regional and global scales. Large volume photoreactors (often referred to as smog or simulation chambers) have been used very effectively to investigate and understand many varied aspects of atmospheric chemistry related to air pollution problems. Photochemical smog formation, which was first observed around 1945 in Los Angeles, is now a major environmental problem for all industrialised and densely populated regions of the world. Over the years many different modelling and experimental tools have been developed to analyse and simulate the complex chemical processes associated with tropspheric photooxidant formation. Work in environmental chambers has played a key role in the development of our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry associated with pollution problems on local, regional and global scales. Chamber observations have also been used in connection with environmental policy issues. In general they are used for validation of atmospheric chemical models, studies of chemical reaction mechanisms and as a direct means to test the possible impact of specific chemical compounds on air quality under simulated ambient conditions New large smog chamber installations have been recently developed in the US (Riverside, California), Europe (Jülich, Germany) and Japan, and a large number of smaller scale laboratory chambers are in operation around the world. Over the years there have been numerous new technical developments related to environmental chamber facilities such as the design of the chambers (e. g.

Monitoring With Lichens Monitoring Lichens

Author: Pier Luigi Nimis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401004234
Size: 13.12 MB
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A comprehensive, up-to-date review of lichens as biomonitors of air pollution (bioindication, metal and radionuclide accumulation, biomarkers), and as monitors of environmental change (including global climate change and biodiversity loss) in a wide array of terrestrial habitats. Several methods for using lichens as biomonitors are described in a special section of the book.

Water Treatment Technologies For The Removal Of High Toxity Pollutants

Author: Miroslava Václavíková
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9048134978
Size: 20.88 MB
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Water is essential for life, a strategic resource for every country and population. Its availability and sanitary safety is highly connected with the health and economy status of population. Burden of disease due to polluted water is a major public health problem throughout the world. Many pollutants in water streams have been identified as toxic and harmful to the environment and human health, and among them arsenic, mercury and cadmium are considered as high priority ones. Providing population with safe drinking water became the priority and at the same time a big challenge for the modern society. Many funding agencies in various countries have assigned a high priority to the envir- mental security and pollution prevention. UN, being one of them, launched the “International Decade for Action: Water for life 2005–2015. ” Therefore, today’s political and social climate presents an important opportunity to implement principles of sustainable development and to preserve resources essential for future life. This process requires interdisciplinary approach; it is critically important to stimulate interactions between medical doctors, chemists, physicist, materials scientists, engineers and policy makers, which are already experienced in their specific areas. It is also our ethical obligation to preserve existing water resources and existing eco systems enhancing their biodiversity. The NATO Advanced Research Workshop “Water Treatment Te- nologies for the Removal of High-Toxicity Pollutants” took place on September 13–17, 2008 in Košice, Slovak Republic.