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Nobel Prizes And Notable Discoveries

Author: Erling Norrby
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813144661
Size: 47.91 MB
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This is the third book in a series presenting Nobel Prizes in the life sciences using the remarkably rich archives of nominations and reviews which are kept secret for 50 years after the awards have been made. The two previous books are Nobel Prizes and Life Sciences (2010) and Nobel Prizes and Nature's Surprises (2013). The present book discusses the prizes in physiology or medicine 1963–65. The 1963 prize recognized milestone discoveries in the field of neurosciences, the way electrical impulses are generated and spread in nerves. The impressive developments of insights into tantalizing brain functions, like consciousness and memory, is discussed in the perspective of prizes both before and after the 1963 prize. The prize in 1964 marked the advanced biochemical venture that led to a full understanding of the synthesis of cholesterol, a central molecule for providing flexibility of the membranes of the trillions of cell in our body. The importance of this molecule for the appearance of cardiovascular diseases and the possibilities to prevent them is presented in the light of other prizes earlier and later in this field. The 1965 prize recognized three impressive French intellectuals, Lwoff, Monod and Jacob. Their contributions allowed the full maturation of the initial phase of the emerging field of molecular biology. The comprehension of the information flow from DNA via RNA to proteins was the source of a revolution of life sciences and of medicine.

Nobel Prizes And Life Sciences

Author: Erling Norrby
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814299367
Size: 49.63 MB
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The Nobel Prizes m natural sciences have achieved the reputation of being the ultimate accolade for scientific achievements. This honk gives a unique insight into the selection of Nobel Prize recipients, in particular the life sciences. The evolving mechanisms of selection of prize recipients are illustrated by reference to archives, which have remained secret for 1) years. Many of the prizes subjected to particular evaluation concern awards given for discoveries in the field of infectious diseases and the interconnected field of genetics. The book illustrates the individuals and environments that are conducive to scientific creativity. Nowhere is this enigmatic activity'-- the mime mover in advancing the human condition highlighted as lucidly as by identification individuals worthy of Nobel Prizes. --Book Jacket.

The Nobel Prize Winning Discoveries In Infectious Diseases

Author: David Rifkind
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080459578
Size: 75.67 MB
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This book presents the 24 discoveries in infectious diseases that have merited Nobel Prize recognition since the inception of the awards in 1901. Grouped according to biological groups rather than chronology, each discovery includes a biographical sketch of the laureate(s), a description of the research, and a summary of the current status of the field. In addition, consideration is given to the relevance of the research on the general field of biology and medicine.

Nobel Prizes And Nature S Surprises

Author: Erling Norrby
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814522015
Size: 49.31 MB
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Each year the Nobel Prizes in the natural sciences reveal amazing discoveries. New milestones in the relentless advance of science are identified. The growth of knowledge and its evolution can be researched in the Nobel archives where nominations are kept secret for 50 years after the awards have been made. They represent a treasure for real-time assessment of science. Norrby's earlier book, Nobel Prizes and Life Sciences (2010) examined the unique archival records until 1959. The present book takes us up to 1962, surveying a range of dazzling discoveries. All prizes in immunology are reviewed. Their impact on our capacity to control infectious diseases and transplant organs are highlighted. The Nobel year 1962 is exceptional in recognizing the most major advance in biology since Darwin in 1859 presented his theory of evolution. This was the dramatic discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953. The era of molecular biology had begun. Its explosive development continues into the present. Contents:A Magician of Virology from AustraliaA Divided Nobel Prize and a New Era in ImmunologyMore Nobel Prizes in ImmunologyImmunity, Infections and TransplantationsTransgressing Borders in Science and Scenes of LifeMaking Sense of HearingUnraveling the Complexity of Protein Folding“It's So Beautiful, You See, So Beautiful”Coda Readership: General. Keywords:DNA;Nobel Prize;Life Science;Medical Disoveries;Molecular BiologyReviews: "This book describes and explains one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. It is a seminal work, that scholars of the History of Science will use to be able to understand how science evolves. Young scientists will find this book a valuable resource." Sir Aaron Klug Nobel laureate in Chemistry, 1982 "Speculation about what happens in the selection of Nobel Prize winners is part of both the narrative and the ‘gossip’ of science. Interpreting what went on in the Nobel selection committees 50 years ago requires both an intimate understanding of how the process works and familiarity with subtleties of the Swedish language. Erling Norrby has the proper personal experiences to make such evaluations. In the present, his second, book he mainly reviews Medical Nobel awards during 1960 and 1962. Coming as it does near the beginnings of the modern medicine — recognizing exceptional advances in immunology and molecular biology — this is a fascinating era for those who are intrigued by the history of discovery." Peter C Doherty Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine, 1996 "The moment the Nobel Foundation announces its Prizes in the sciences, decades of struggle and turmoil toward discovery enter the spotlight. To skillfully examine some of the most dramatic scientific advances in the middle of the twentieth century, Erling Norrby has reached deeply into the Nobel archives to examine firsthand how many of the most illustrious Prizes from that era came to be awarded. As a superb scientist, educator and administrator, Dr Norrby is able to tell these stories within the context of the scientific discoveries." Stanley B Prusiner Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine, 1997 “I particularly enjoyed Norrby's lengthy treatment of the 1962 chemistry prize — to James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins, 1962 for their structural work on the structure of DNA … This well-referenced and copiously illustrated book, featuring meditations, poetry, quotations, and miscellaneous musings, is a true labour of love. I heartily recommend it to anyone interested in the history of scientific discovery, the personalities of those who pursue it, and how it actually happens and is received.” Chemistry & Industry

A Century Of Nobel Prize Recipients

Author: Francis Leroy
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824708764
Size: 20.41 MB
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Celebrating a century of revolutionary contributions to our understanding of life, the world, and the universe, this encyclopedic desk reference traces the discoveries that earned nearly 500 distinguished scientists Nobel honors in the areas of chemistry, physics, and medicine. The School of Library Journal called it "...eye-catching... Original artwork, colorful captioned drawings of models and structures, and diagrams illustrate complex scientific principles and may invite browsing. ...great graphics and appealing format..." This book includes over 550 full color illustrations and photographs, and is a must for the library of any public, university, business, or personal library.

Prize Fight

Author: Morton Meyers, M.D.
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 1137000562
Size: 65.86 MB
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We often think of scientists as dispassionate and detached, nobly laboring without any expectation of reward. But scientific research is much more complicated and messy than this ideal, and scientists can be torn by jealousy, impelled by a need for recognition, and subject to human vulnerability and fallibility. In Prize Fight , Emeritus Chair at SUNY School of Medicine Morton Meyers pulls back the curtain to reveal the dark side of scientific discovery. From allegations of stolen authorship to fabricated results and elaborate hoaxes, he shows us how too often brilliant minds are reduced to petty jealousies and promising careers cut short by disputes over authorship or fudged data. Prize Fight is a dramatic look at some of the most notable discoveries in science in recent years, from the discovery of insulin, which led to decades of infighting and even violence, to why the 2003 Nobel Prize in Medicine exposed how often scientific objectivity is imperiled.

Losing The Nobel Prize A Story Of Cosmology Ambition And The Perils Of Science S Highest Honor

Author: Brian Keating
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 1324000929
Size: 62.27 MB
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The inside story of a quest to unlock one of cosmology’s biggest mysteries, derailed by the lure of the Nobel Prize. What would it have been like to be an eyewitness to the Big Bang? In 2014, astronomers wielding BICEP2, the most powerful cosmology telescope ever made, revealed that they’d glimpsed the spark that ignited the Big Bang. Millions around the world tuned in to the announcement broadcast live from Harvard University, immediately igniting rumors of an imminent Nobel Prize. But had these cosmologists truly read the cosmic prologue or, swept up in Nobel dreams, had they been deceived by a galactic mirage? In Losing the Nobel Prize, cosmologist and inventor of the BICEP (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization) experiment Brian Keating tells the inside story of BICEP2’s mesmerizing discovery and the scientific drama that ensued. In an adventure story that spans the globe from Rhode Island to the South Pole, from California to Chile, Keating takes us on a personal journey of revelation and discovery, bringing to vivid life the highly competitive, take-no-prisoners, publish-or-perish world of modern science. Along the way, he provocatively argues that the Nobel Prize, instead of advancing scientific progress, may actually hamper it, encouraging speed and greed while punishing collaboration and bold innovation. In a thoughtful reappraisal of the wishes of Alfred Nobel, Keating offers practical solutions for reforming the prize, providing a vision of a scientific future in which cosmologists may, finally, be able to see all the way back to the very beginning.

The God Particle

Author: Leon M. Lederman
Publisher: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt
ISBN: 9780618711680
Size: 29.48 MB
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The world's foremost experimental physicist uses humor, metaphor, and storytelling to delve into the mysteries of matter, discussing the as-yet-to-be-discovered God particle.

Drive And Curiosity

Author: Istvan Hargittai
Publisher: Prometheus Books
ISBN: 1616144696
Size: 80.65 MB
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What motivates those few scientists who rise above their peers to achieve breakthrough discoveries? This book examines the careers of fifteen eminent scientists who achieved some of the most notable discoveries of the past century, providing an insider’s perspective on the history of twentieth century science based on these engaging personality profiles. They include: • Dan Shechtman, the 2011 Nobel laureate and discoverer of quasicrystals; • James D. Watson, the Nobel laureate and codiscoverer of the double helix structure of DNA; • Linus Pauling, the Nobel laureate remembered most for his work on the structure of proteins; • Edward Teller, a giant of the 20th century who accomplished breakthroughs in understanding of nuclear fusion; • George Gamow, a pioneering scientist who devised the initially ridiculed and now accepted Big Bang. In each case, the author has uncovered a singular personality characteristic, motivational factor, or circumstance that, in addition to their extraordinary drive and curiosity, led these scientists to make outstanding contributions. For example, Gertrude B. Elion, who discovered drugs that saved millions of lives, was motivated to find new medications after the deaths of her grandfather and later her fiancé. F. Sherwood Rowland, who stumbled upon the environmental harm caused by chlorofluorocarbons, eventually felt a moral imperative to become an environmental activist. Rosalyn Yalow, the codiscoverer of the radioimmunoassay always felt she had to prove herself in the face of prejudice against her as a woman. These and many more fascinating revelations make this a must-read for everyone who wants to know what traits and circumstances contribute to a person’s becoming the scientist who makes the big breakthrough. From the Hardcover edition.