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Noise Reduction In Speech Processing

Author: Jacob Benesty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364200296X
Size: 60.77 MB
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Noise is everywhere and in most applications that are related to audio and speech, such as human-machine interfaces, hands-free communications, voice over IP (VoIP), hearing aids, teleconferencing/telepresence/telecollaboration systems, and so many others, the signal of interest (usually speech) that is picked up by a microphone is generally contaminated by noise. As a result, the microphone signal has to be cleaned up with digital signal processing tools before it is stored, analyzed, transmitted, or played out. This cleaning process is often called noise reduction and this topic has attracted a considerable amount of research and engineering attention for several decades. One of the objectives of this book is to present in a common framework an overview of the state of the art of noise reduction algorithms in the single-channel (one microphone) case. The focus is on the most useful approaches, i.e., filtering techniques (in different domains) and spectral enhancement methods. The other objective of Noise Reduction in Speech Processing is to derive all these well-known techniques in a rigorous way and prove many fundamental and intuitive results often taken for granted. This book is especially written for graduate students and research engineers who work on noise reduction for speech and audio applications and want to understand the subtle mechanisms behind each approach. Many new and interesting concepts are presented in this text that we hope the readers will find useful and inspiring.

Speech Processing In Modern Communication

Author: Israel Cohen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642111300
Size: 77.24 MB
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Modern communication devices, such as mobile phones, teleconferencing systems, VoIP, etc., are often used in noisy and reverberant environments. Therefore, signals picked up by the microphones from telecommunication devices contain not only the desired near-end speech signal, but also interferences such as the background noise, far-end echoes produced by the loudspeaker, and reverberations of the desired source. These interferences degrade the fidelity and intelligibility of the near-end speech in human-to-human telecommunications and decrease the performance of human-to-machine interfaces (i.e., automatic speech recognition systems). The proposed book deals with the fundamental challenges of speech processing in modern communication, including speech enhancement, interference suppression, acoustic echo cancellation, relative transfer function identification, source localization, dereverberation, and beamforming in reverberant environments. Enhancement of speech signals is necessary whenever the source signal is corrupted by noise. In highly non-stationary noise environments, noise transients, and interferences may be extremely annoying. Acoustic echo cancellation is used to eliminate the acoustic coupling between the loudspeaker and the microphone of a communication device. Identification of the relative transfer function between sensors in response to a desired speech signal enables to derive a reference noise signal for suppressing directional or coherent noise sources. Source localization, dereverberation, and beamforming in reverberant environments further enable to increase the intelligibility of the near-end speech signal.

Topics In Acoustic Echo And Noise Control

Author: Eberhard Hänsler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540332138
Size: 37.49 MB
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This book treats important topics in "Acoustic Echo and Noise Control" and reports the latest developments. Methods for enhancing the quality of transmitted speech signals are gaining growing attention in universities and in industrial development laboratories. This book, written by an international team of highly qualified experts, concentrates on the modern and advanced methods.

Microphone Array Signal Processing

Author: Jacob Benesty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540786122
Size: 29.91 MB
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In the past few years we have written and edited several books in the area of acousticandspeechsignalprocessing. Thereasonbehindthisendeavoristhat there were almost no books available in the literature when we ?rst started while there was (and still is) a real need to publish manuscripts summarizing the most useful ideas, concepts, results, and state-of-the-art algorithms in this important area of research. According to all the feedback we have received so far, we can say that we were right in doing this. Recently, several other researchers have followed us in this journey and have published interesting books with their own visions and perspectives. The idea of writing a book on Microphone Array Signal Processing comes from discussions we have had with many colleagues and friends. As a c- sequence of these discussions, we came up with the conclusion that, again, there is an urgent need for a monograph that carefully explains the theory and implementation of microphone arrays. While there are many manuscripts on antenna arrays from a narrowband perspective (narrowband signals and narrowband processing), the literature is quite scarce when it comes to s- sor arrays explained from a truly broadband perspective. Many algorithms for speech applications were simply borrowed from narrowband antenna - rays. However, a direct application of narrowband ideas to broadband speech processing may not be necessarily appropriate and can lead to many m- understandings.

Speech Enhancement

Author: Jacob Benesty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540274898
Size: 75.92 MB
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A strong reference on the problem of signal and speech enhancement, describing the newest developments in this exciting field. The general emphasis is on noise reduction, because of the large number of applications that can benefit from this technology.

Signal Enhancement With Variable Span Linear Filters

Author: Jacob Benesty
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9812877398
Size: 65.24 MB
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This book introduces readers to the novel concept of variable span speech enhancement filters, and demonstrates how it can be used for effective noise reduction in various ways. Further, the book provides the accompanying Matlab code, allowing readers to easily implement the main ideas discussed. Variable span filters combine the ideas of optimal linear filters with those of subspace methods, as they involve the joint diagonalization of the correlation matrices of the desired signal and the noise. The book shows how some well-known filter designs, e.g. the minimum distortion, maximum signal-to-noise ratio, Wiener, and tradeoff filters (including their new generalizations) can be obtained using the variable span filter framework. It then illustrates how the variable span filters can be applied in various contexts, namely in single-channel STFT-based enhancement, in multichannel enhancement in both the time and STFT domains, and, lastly, in time-domain binaural enhancement. In these contexts, the properties of these filters are analyzed in terms of their noise reduction capabilities and desired signal distortion, and the analyses are validated and further explored in simulations.

Speech And Audio Processing In Adverse Environments

Author: Eberhard Hänsler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 354070602X
Size: 69.22 MB
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Users of signal processing systems are never satis?ed with the system they currently use. They are constantly asking for higher quality, faster perf- mance, more comfort and lower prices. Researchers and developers should be appreciative for this attitude. It justi?es their constant e?ort for improved systems. Better knowledge about biological and physical interrelations c- ing along with more powerful technologies are their engines on the endless road to perfect systems. This book is an impressive image of this process. After “Acoustic Echo 1 and Noise Control” published in 2004 many new results lead to “Topics in 2 Acoustic Echo and Noise Control” edited in 2006 . Today – in 2008 – even morenew?ndingsandsystemscouldbecollectedinthisbook.Comparingthe contributions in both edited volumes progress in knowledge and technology becomesclearlyvisible:Blindmethodsandmultiinputsystemsreplace“h- ble” low complexity systems. The functionality of new systems is less and less limited by the processing power available under economic constraints. The editors have to thank all the authors for their contributions. They cooperated readily in our e?ort to unify the layout of the chapters, the ter- nology, and the symbols used. It was a pleasure to work with all of them. Furthermore, it is the editors concern to thank Christoph Baumann and the Springer Publishing Company for the encouragement and help in publi- ing this book.

Springer Handbook Of Speech Processing

Author: Jacob Benesty
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540491252
Size: 38.69 MB
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This handbook plays a fundamental role in sustainable progress in speech research and development. With an accessible format and with accompanying DVD-Rom, it targets three categories of readers: graduate students, professors and active researchers in academia, and engineers in industry who need to understand or implement some specific algorithms for their speech-related products. It is a superb source of application-oriented, authoritative and comprehensive information about these technologies, this work combines the established knowledge derived from research in such fast evolving disciplines as Signal Processing and Communications, Acoustics, Computer Science and Linguistics.

Acoustic Signal Processing For Telecommunication

Author: Steven L. Gay
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441986448
Size: 37.17 MB
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158 2. Wiener Filtering 159 3. Speech Enhancement by Short-Time Spectral Modification 3. 1 Short-Time Fourier Analysis and Synthesis 159 160 3. 2 Short-Time Wiener Filter 161 3. 3 Power Subtraction 3. 4 Magnitude Subtraction 162 3. 5 Parametric Wiener Filtering 163 164 3. 6 Review and Discussion Averaging Techniques for Envelope Estimation 169 4. 169 4. 1 Moving Average 170 4. 2 Single-Pole Recursion 170 4. 3 Two-Sided Single-Pole Recursion 4. 4 Nonlinear Data Processing 171 5. Example Implementation 172 5. 1 Subband Filter Bank Architecture 172 173 5. 2 A-Posteriori-SNR Voice Activity Detector 5. 3 Example 175 6. Conclusion 175 Part IV Microphone Arrays 10 Superdirectional Microphone Arrays 181 Gary W. Elko 1. Introduction 181 2. Differential Microphone Arrays 182 3. Array Directional Gain 192 4. Optimal Arrays for Spherically Isotropic Fields 193 4. 1 Maximum Gain for Omnidirectional Microphones 193 4. 2 Maximum Directivity Index for Differential Microphones 195 4. 3 Maximimum Front-to-Back Ratio 197 4. 4 Minimum Peak Directional Response 200 4. 5 Beamwidth 201 5. Design Examples 201 5. 1 First-Order Designs 202 5. 2 Second-Order Designs 207 5. 3 Third-Order Designs 216 5. 4 Higher-Order designs 221 6. Optimal Arrays for Cylindrically Isotropic Fields 222 6. 1 Maximum Gain for Omnidirectional Microphones 222 6. 2 Optimal Weights for Maximum Directional Gain 224 6. 3 Solution for Optimal Weights for Maximum Front-to-Back Ratio for Cylindrical Noise 225 7. Sensitivity to Microphone Mismatch and Noise 230 8.

Applications Of Digital Signal Processing To Audio And Acoustics

Author: Mark Kahrs
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 030647042X
Size: 44.48 MB
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Karlheinz Brandenburg and Mark Kahrs With the advent of multimedia, digital signal processing (DSP) of sound has emerged from the shadow of bandwidth limited speech processing. Today, the main appli cations of audio DSP are high quality audio coding and the digital generation and manipulation of music signals. They share common research topics including percep tual measurement techniques and analysis/synthesis methods. Smaller but nonetheless very important topics are hearing aids using signal processing technology and hardware architectures for digital signal processing of audio. In all these areas the last decade has seen a significant amount of application oriented research. The topics covered here coincide with the topics covered in the biannual work shop on “Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics”. This event is sponsored by the IEEE Signal Processing Society (Technical Committee on Audio and Electroacoustics) and takes place at Mohonk Mountain House in New Paltz, New York. A short overview of each chapter will illustrate the wide variety of technical material presented in the chapters of this book. John Beerends: Perceptual Measurement Techniques. The advent of perceptual measurement techniques is a byproduct of the advent of digital coding for both speech and high quality audio signals. Traditional measurement schemes are bad estimates for the subjective quality after digital coding/decoding. Listening tests are subject to sta tistical uncertainties and the basic question of repeatability in a different environment.