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Nonstandard Analysis And Its Applications

Author: Nigel Cutland
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 052135109X
Size: 41.41 MB
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This textbook is an introduction to non-standard analysis and to its many applications. Non standard analysis (NSA) is a subject of great research interest both in its own right and as a tool for answering questions in subjects such as functional analysis, probability, mathematical physics and topology. The book arises from a conference held in July 1986 at the University of Hull which was designed to provide both an introduction to the subject through introductory lectures, and surveys of the state of research. The first part of the book is devoted to the introductory lectures and the second part consists of presentations of applications of NSA to dynamical systems, topology, automata and orderings on words, the non- linear Boltzmann equation and integration on non-standard hulls of vector lattices. One of the book's attractions is that a standard notation is used throughout so the underlying theory is easily applied in a number of different settings. Consequently this book will be ideal for graduate students and research mathematicians coming to the subject for the first time and it will provide an attractive and stimulating account of the subject.

The Strength Of Nonstandard Analysis

Author: Imme van den Berg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3211499059
Size: 64.37 MB
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Nonstandard Analysis enhances mathematical reasoning by introducing new ways of expression and deduction. Distinguishing between standard and nonstandard mathematical objects, its inventor, the eminent mathematician Abraham Robinson, settled in 1961 the centuries-old problem of how to use infinitesimals correctly in analysis. Having also worked as an engineer, he saw not only that his method greatly simplified mathematically proving and teaching, but also served as a powerful tool in modelling, analyzing and solving problems in the applied sciences, among others by effective rescaling and by infinitesimal discretizations. This book reflects the progress made in the forty years since the appearance of Robinson s revolutionary book Nonstandard Analysis: in the foundations of mathematics and logic, number theory, statistics and probability, in ordinary, partial and stochastic differential equations and in education. The contributions are clear and essentially self-contained.

Optimization And Nonstandard Analysis

Author: J.E. Rubio
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824792817
Size: 50.16 MB
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This text presents an up-to-date overview of optimization and control theory, including existence theory, modelling, approximation and numerical methods. It also provides a self-contained treatment of the theory and practice of non-standard analysis and its applications, illustrated with problems and research material based on optimization theory. A complete set of detailed exercises and a thorough bibliography arranged by topic are included.;College or university bookstores may order five or more copies at a special student price, available upon request.

A Combination Of Geometry Theorem Proving And Nonstandard Analysis With Application To Newton S Principia

Author: Jacques Fleuriot
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 085729329X
Size: 11.94 MB
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Sir Isaac Newton's philosophi Naturalis Principia Mathematica'(the Principia) contains a prose-style mixture of geometric and limit reasoning that has often been viewed as logically vague. In A Combination of Geometry Theorem Proving and Nonstandard Analysis, Jacques Fleuriot presents a formalization of Lemmas and Propositions from the Principia using a combination of methods from geometry and nonstandard analysis. The mechanization of the procedures, which respects much of Newton's original reasoning, is developed within the theorem prover Isabelle. The application of this framework to the mechanization of elementary real analysis using nonstandard techniques is also discussed.

Lmsst 24 Lectures On Elliptic Curves

Author: John William Scott Cassels
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521425308
Size: 33.83 MB
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The study of special cases of elliptic curves goes back to Diophantos and Fermat, and today it is still one of the liveliest centers of research in number theory. This book, addressed to beginning graduate students, introduces basic theory from a contemporary viewpoint but with an eye to the historical background. The central portion deals with curves over the rationals: the Mordell-Wei finite basis theorem, points of finite order (Nagell-Lutz), etc. The treatment is structured by the local-global standpoint and culminates in the description of the Tate-Shafarevich group as the obstruction to a Hasse principle. In an introductory section the Hasse principle for conics is discussed. The book closes with sections on the theory over finite fields (the "Riemann hypothesis for function fields") and recently developed uses of elliptic curves for factoring large integers. Prerequisites are kept to a minimum; an acquaintance with the fundamentals of Galois theory is assumed, but no knowledge either of algebraic number theory or algebraic geometry is needed. The p-adic numbers are introduced from scratch. Many examples and exercises are included for the reader, and those new to elliptic curves, whether they are graduate students or specialists from other fields, will find this a valuable introduction.

Nonstandard Methods And Applications In Mathematics

Author: Nigel Cutland
Publisher: A K Peters Ltd
ISBN: 9781568812915
Size: 45.54 MB
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This book is a collection of peer-reviewed papers from a conference on Nonstandard Methods and Applications in Mathematics (NS2002) that was held in Pisa, Italy. The papers address nonstandard analysis, which is one of the great achievements of modern applied mathematical logic. They focus on its important philosophical achievement of providing a sound mathematical basis for using infinitesimals in analysis, and they show how this methodology is now well established as a tool for both research and teaching.

Hyperbolic Geometry

Author: Birger Iversen
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521435080
Size: 61.38 MB
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Although it arose from purely theoretical considerations of the underlying axioms of geometry, the work of Einstein and Dirac has demonstrated that hyperbolic geometry is a fundamental aspect of modern physics. In this book, the rich geometry of the hyperbolic plane is studied in detail, leading to the focal point of the book, Poincare's polygon theorem and the relationship between hyperbolic geometries and discrete groups of isometries. Hyperbolic 3-space is also discussed, and the directions that current research in this field is taking are sketched. This will be an excellent introduction to hyperbolic geometry for students new to the subject, and for experts in other fields.

A Combination Of Geometry Theorem Proving And Nonstandard Analysis With Application To Newton S Principia

Author: Jacques D Fleuriot
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 14.31 MB
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Abstract: "Sir Isaac Newton's Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (the Principia) was first published in 1687 and set much of the foundations that led to profound changes in modern science. Despite the influence of the work, the elegance of the geometrical techniques used by Newton is little known since the demonstrations of most of the theorems set out in it are usually done using calculus. Newton's reasoning also goes beyond the traditional boundaries of Euclidean geometry with the presence of both motion and infinitesimals. This thesis describes the mechanization of Lemmas and Propositions from the Principia using formal tools developed in the generic theorem prover Isabelle. We discuss the formalization of a geometry theory based on existing methods from automated geometry theorem proving. The theory contains extra geometric notions, including definitions of the ellipse and its tangent, that enable us to deal with the motion of bodies and other physical aspects. We introduce the formalization of a theory of filters and ultrafilters, and the purely definitional construction of the hyperreal numbers of Nonstandard Analysis (NSA). The hyperreals form a proper field extension of the reals that contains new types of numbers including infinitesimals and infinite numbers. By combining notions from NSA and geometry theorem proving, we propose an 'infinitesimal' geometry in which quantities can be infinitely small. This approach then reveals new properties of the geometry that only hold because infinitesimal elements are allowed. We also mechanize some analytic geometry and use it to verify the geometry theories of Isabelle. We then report on the main application of this framework. We discuss the formalization of several results from the Principia and give a detailed case study of one of its most important propositions: the Propositio Kepleriana. An anomaly is revealed in Newton's reasoning through our rigorous mechanization. Finally, we present the formalization of a portion of mathematical analysis using the nonstandard approach. We mechanize both standard and nonstandard definitions of familiar concepts, prove their equivalence, and use nonstandard arguments to provide intuitive yet rigorous proofs of many of their properties."

Dynamical Systems And Ergodic Theory

Author: Mark Pollicott
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521575997
Size: 60.17 MB
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This book is essentially a self-contained introduction to topological dynamics and ergodic theory. It is divided into a number of relatively short chapters with the intention that each may be used as a component of a lecture course tailored to the particular audience. Parts of the book are suitable for a final year undergraduate course or for a master's level course. A number of applications are given, principally to number theory and arithmetic progressions (through van der Waerden's theorem and Szemerdi's theorem).