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Obesity And Breast Cancer

Author: Kristy A. Brown
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489980024
Size: 32.37 MB
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Obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer in older women. A number of adipose-derived and obesity-related factors have been shown to affect tumour cell growth. These include adipokines, insulin, IGF-1 and oestrogens. The majority of obesity-related postmenopausal breast cancers are oestrogen-dependent. Since the ovaries no longer produce oestrogens after menopause, and that circulating levels are negligible, it is evident that it is the oestrogens produced locally within the breast adipose that are responsible for the increased growth of breast cancer cells. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgens into oestrogens and its regulation is dependent on the activity of a number of tissue-specific promoters. Targeting oestrogen biosynthesis in obesity may be useful for the prevention of breast cancer. Aromatase inhibitors are efficacious at treating postmenopausal breast cancer and recent studies suggest that they may also be useful in the prevention setting. However, these compounds inhibit the catalytic activity of aromatase and as a consequence lead to a number of undesirable side-effects, including arthralgia and possible cognitive defects due to inhibition of aromatase in the bone and brain, respectively. Novel therapies, such as those employed to treat obesity-associated disease, including anti-diabetics, may prove successful at inhibiting aromatase specifically within the breast. This SpringerBrief will explore all of these issues in depth and the authors are in a unique position to write about this topic, having extensive experience in the field of aromatase research.​

Mirnas And Target Genes In Breast Cancer Metastasis

Author: Seema Sethi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783319081618
Size: 69.12 MB
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This SpringerBrief gives the latest research on the role of miRNAs in breast cancer metastasis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are recently described small endogenous noncoding RNAs implicated in the posttranscriptional control of gene expression. These tiny molecules are involved in developmental, physiologic phenomenon as well as pathologic processes including cancers. In fact, miRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of cancer progression, invasion and metastasis. This is mainly because a single miRNA can affect several downstream genes and signaling pathways with oncogenic or tumor suppressor actions depending on the target genes affected. Due to this multimodal downstream signaling effects, these small endogenous molecules hold great promise in metastasis prevention and treatment. Modulating the activity of miRNAs can provide opportunities for novel cancer interventions. Targeting miRNAs could become a novel prognostic and therapeutic strategy to prevent the future development of metastasis. Thus, miRNAs could also serve as a potential targets for anti-metastatic therapy. The book explores how the expression of miRNAs in the primary tumor could be silenced using antagomirs (chemically modified anti-miRNA oligonucleotides), which could prevent the development of metastasis; whereas once metastasis develops then it could be treated with miRNA mimics for inducing its expression for the treatment. Therefore, development of miRNA-based prophylactic therapies could serve as precision and personalized medicine against future development of metastasis of breast and other cancers.

Neglected Tropical Diseases Middle East And North Africa

Author: Mary Ann McDowell
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3709116139
Size: 49.10 MB
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The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is highly endemic for several neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), including viral, bacterial, protozoan and helminth infections. This new volume covers the most prevalent NTDs found in about 22 MENA countries emphasizing the disease burden, clinical manifestations and control approaches. Each individual chapter deals with one specific disease and is written by a group of experts on that topic.

Breast Cancer A Heterogeneous Disease Entity

Author: Zsuzsanna Kahán
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400704893
Size: 26.76 MB
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The volume raises attention to the need of a completely new approach to breast cancer based on the knowledge collected on early breast cancer in the past two decades. The chapters are contributed by experts of all the fields participating in the clinical research and care of breast cancer. The practical importance of such a book is underlined by the increasing number of breast cancer cases, and also the increasing proportion of early stage-cases. The ultimate goal of the book is to point to the heterogeneous nature of the disease which is more striking and has more importance in care at the very early stages than at the more advanced stages. The book recommends the utilization of all the information provided by multimodality imaging and special pathological methods, a new classification system and therapeutic guidelines since early breast cancers should not be treated based on experience obtained with palpable tumors. No similar book has been yet released to the market. The book is written for all the members of the team participating in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer (radiologists, pathologists, surgeons, clinical and radiation oncologists), but may be useful for medical students and residents too. The chapters are illustrated with didactic pictures, and special emphasis is given to provide a peep into the practice of the special procedures for the careful examination and individualized therapy of each case.

Toxicology Of Herbal Products

Author: Olavi Pelkonen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319438069
Size: 52.77 MB
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This volume provides a comprehensive overview of the hazards inherent in herbal medicinal products, with systematic coverage of major toxicities. Topics include composition and quality control, toxicokinetics, interactions, safety pharmacology, approaches to studying complex mixtures including metabolomics and systems network pharmacology, and long-term toxicity. The volume also discusses various organ toxicities with a special emphasis on basic mechanisms of actions and the multicomponent and multi-target nature of herbal products. It concludes with a look to future challenges and opportunities. With contributions from noted experts, Toxicology of Herbal Products is a necessary resource for physicians, pharmacists, and toxicologists interested in complex plant-derived products.

The Pathobiology Of Breast Cancer

Author: Jose Russo
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319408151
Size: 36.15 MB
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This monograph, written by well renowned breast cancer expect, Dr. Jose Russo, provides new insight on the pathobiology of breast cancer from the most current advances in the field, translational research, initiation and progression of the disease, the mechanism of invasion and metastasis and the concept of stem cells in treatment and drug resistance. The role of personalized medicine and genomic testing are also explored, which will provide a window to the future progress of cancer care.

Obesity Inflammation And Cancer

Author: Andrew J. Dannenberg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461468191
Size: 19.98 MB
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In addition to its metabolic and endocrinologic effects, obesity and adipose tissue have now been shown to be associated with low grade inflammation resulting in cellular and humoral inflammatory factors of which the latter may act by endocrine, paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. These inflammatory mediators have increasingly been suggested as contributing to the obesity link to carcinogenesis and cancer promotion. This volume of Energy Balance and Cancer will focus on recent developments and cutting edge research pointing to inflammation and inflammatory factors as key mediators of this linkage. The volume first provides information on inflammation as an important link between obesity and insulin resistance, which is in itself linked to promotion of cancer through hyperinsulinemia. The volume then covers some of the most important mechanisms by which obesity leads to inflammation, including the novel inflammasome concept, alterations in chromatin structure, circulating inflammatory factors, unique cellular interactions between adipocytes and macrophages and the direct link of dietary fat to inflammation and cancer. Overall, this volume will provide important insight to help understand how inflammation may help modulate the linkage between obesity and cancer and serve as a platform for developing future research in this area.

Data Driven Process Discovery And Analysis

Author: Karl Aberer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 364234044X
Size: 24.77 MB
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This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the First International Symposium on Data-Driven Process Discovery and Analysis held in Campione d'Italia, Italy, in June/July 2011. The 11 revised full papers were carefully selected from 31 submissions. In addition to the thorough review process, the lively discussions at the event itself also helped the authors to improve their papers and to foster interesting extensions. The selected papers cover a wide range of topics spanning from theoretical issues related to process representation to practical experience in process discovery and analysis.

Plastics In Dentistry And Estrogenicity

Author: Theodore Eliades
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642296874
Size: 68.27 MB
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This book provides a timely and comprehensive review of our current knowledge of BPA release from dental polymers and the potential endocrinological consequences. After a review of the history and evolution of the issue within the broader biomedical context, the estrogenicity of BPA is explained. The basic chemistry of the polymers used in dentistry is then presented in a simplified and clinically relevant manner. Key chapters in the book carefully evaluate the release of BPA from polycarbonate products and composite resins and the estrogenicity of these materials. Currently available evidence on the potential estrogenic action of dental composities, sealants, and adhesives is presented, and means are suggested by which adverse health effects can be minimized. The entire dental community will find this book to be an excellent source of information on the true risks posed by BPA, and an invaluable aid to safe practice.

Innovative Diagnostics And Treatment Nanorobotics And Stem Cells

Author: Tomasz Jadczyk
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811045275
Size: 12.50 MB
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This book focuses on nanorobotic agents and stem cells for biomedical applications.It is intended for researchers and clinicians interested in innovative diagnostic and therapeutic strategies based on nanorobots and stem cells.It presents current advances in the field of molecular machines, which could be applied to generate novel therapeutic-diagnostic systems.