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On Justification

Author: Luc Boltanski
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691125169
Size: 38.35 MB
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A vital and underappreciated dimension of social interaction is the way individuals justify their actions to others, instinctively drawing on their experience to appeal to principles they hope will command respect. Individuals, however, often misread situations, and many disagreements can be explained by people appealing, knowingly and unknowingly, to different principles. On Justification is the first English translation of Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot's ambitious theoretical examination of these phenomena, a book that has already had a huge impact on French sociology and is likely to have a similar influence in the English-speaking world. In this foundational work of post-Bourdieu sociology, the authors examine a wide range of situations where people justify their actions. The authors argue that justifications fall into six main logics exemplified by six authors: civic (Rousseau), market (Adam Smith), industrial (Saint-Simon), domestic (Bossuet), inspiration (Augustine), and fame (Hobbes). The authors show how these justifications conflict, as people compete to legitimize their views of a situation. On Justification is likely to spark important debates across the social sciences.

On Critique

Author: Luc Boltanski
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0745683533
Size: 48.16 MB
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The relationship between sociology and social critique has haunted the discipline since its origins. Does critique divert sociology from its scientific project? Or is critique the ultimate goal of sociology, without which the latter would be a futile activity disconnected from the concerns of ordinary people? This issue has underpinned two divergent theoretical orientations that can be found in the discipline today: the critical sociology that was developed in its most elaborate form by Pierre Bourdieu, and the pragmatic sociology of critique developed by Luc Boltanski and his associates. In critical sociology, description in terms of power relations underscores the potency of mechanisms of oppression, the way the oppressed passively endure them, going so far in their alienation as to adopt the values that enslave them. Pragmatic sociology, by contrast, describes the actions of human beings who rebel but who are endowed with reason. It stresses their ability, in certain historical conditions, to rise up against their domination and construct new interpretations of reality in the service of critical activity. In this major new book Boltanski develops a framework that makes it possible to reconcile these seemingly antagonistic approaches - the one determinist and assigning the leading role to the enlightening science of the sociologist, the other concerned to stick as closely as possible to what people say and do. This labour of unification leads him to rework central notions such as practice, institution, critique and, finally, ‘social reality,' all with the aim of contributing to a contemporary renewal of practices of emancipation.

Greening Citizenship

Author: A. Scerri
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137010312
Size: 40.13 MB
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The greening of citizenship, the state and ideology has created both opportunities and bottlenecks for progressive political movements. Scerri argues that these are pursuing justice by making holistic demands for: fair distribution and status recognition, adequate representation and effective participation.

Justification Evaluation And Critique In The Study Of Organizations

Author: Charlotte Cloutier
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 1787149226
Size: 57.30 MB
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This volume explores how mobilizing Boltanski and Thévenot’s economies of worth framework, and its associated concepts of justification, evaluation and critique, help address questions regarding the premises and dynamics of coordinated action, both within and across organizations, and by so doing help advance our understanding.

The New Spirit Of Capitalism

Author: Luc Boltanski
Publisher: Verso Books
ISBN: 1786633272
Size: 49.40 MB
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New edition of this major work examining the development of neoliberalism In this established classic, sociologists Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello get to the heart of contemporary capitalism. Delving deep into the latest management texts informing the thinking of employers, the authors trace the contours of a new spirit of capitalism. They argue that beginning in the mid-1970s, capitalism abandoned the hierarchical Fordist work structure and developed a new network-based form of organization founded on employee initiative and autonomy in the workplace—a putative freedom bought at the cost of material and psychological security. This was a spirit in tune with the libertarian and romantic currents of the period (as epitomized by dressed-down, cool capitalists such as Bill Gates and Ben and Jerry) and, as the authors argue, a more successful, pernicious, and subtle form of exploitation. In this new edition, the authors reflect on the reception of the book and the debates it has stimulated.

Distant Suffering

Author: Luc Boltanski
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521659536
Size: 15.45 MB
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Distant Suffering, first published in 1999, examines the moral and political implications for a spectator of the distant suffering of others as presented through the media. What are the morally acceptable responses to the sight of suffering on television, for example, when the viewer cannot act directly to affect the circumstances in which the suffering takes place? Luc Boltanski argues that spectators can actively involve themselves and others by speaking about what they have seen and how they were affected by it. Developing ideas in Adam Smith's moral theory, he examines three rhetorical 'topics' available for the expression of the spectator's response to suffering: the topics of denunciation and of sentiment and the aesthetic topic. The book concludes with a discussion of a 'crisis of pity' in relation to modern forms of humanitarianism. A possible way out of this crisis is suggested which involves an emphasis and focus on present suffering.

The Sense Of Dissonance

Author: David Stark
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400831005
Size: 27.37 MB
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What counts? In work, as in other areas of life, it is not always clear what standards we are being judged by or how our worth is being determined. This can be disorienting and disconcerting. Because of this, many organizations devote considerable resources to limiting and clarifying the logics used for evaluating worth. But as David Stark argues, firms would often be better off, especially in managing change, if they allowed multiple logics of worth and did not necessarily discourage uncertainty. In fact, in many cases multiple orders of worth are unavoidable, so organizations and firms should learn to harness the benefits of such "heterarchy" rather than seeking to purge it. Stark makes this argument with ethnographic case studies of three companies attempting to cope with rapid change: a machine-tool company in late and postcommunist Hungary, a new-media startup in New York during and after the collapse of the Internet bubble, and a Wall Street investment bank whose trading room was destroyed on 9/11. In each case, the friction of competing criteria of worth promoted an organizational reflexivity that made it easier for the company to change and deal with market uncertainty. Drawing on John Dewey's notion that "perplexing situations" provide opportunities for innovative inquiry, Stark argues that the dissonance of diverse principles can lead to discovery.

Valuing The Unique

Author: Lucien Karpik
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 62.14 MB
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"With his economics of singularities, Lucien Karpik has given researchers even more than a masterpiece of economic sociology. He introduces new methods, new concepts, and new results. He shows how the differences between markets are more important than their similarities, and how our approach to markets should deal first and foremost with qualities. This book puts economics back on the road toward generality!"--Olivier Favereau, Universite Paris X and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique ""Valuing the Unique" is an exciting foray onto new ground for economic sociology. In studying markets of singularities, Lucien Karpik provides a wealth of fascinating examples of judgment devices whereby we value goods and services that are incommensurable. A singular achievement!"--David Stark, author of "The Sense of Dissonance: Accounts of Worth in Economic Life" "This is one of these rare books that reveals a new economic province. Far removed from the familiar domain of customary economics there lies the realm of singularities--goods and services for which the issue of quality lies beyond any question of price. By successfully integrating culture and market, and the politics of the market, "Valuing the Unique" has implications for general and theoretical sociology. It presents a most lively and useful read for those interested in the manner in which markets actually function."--Philippe Steiner, Universite Paris-Sorbonne ""Valuing the Unique" is the most important book to be published in economic sociology in many years. Karpik develops a full-fledged sociological alternative to understanding the problem of singularities, and offers conceptual breakthroughs that make hitherto puzzling issues much easier to comprehend. No debates on the issue of the valuation of goods will be able to ignore Karpik's theoretical contribution."--Jens Beckert, director of the Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies "This is a wonderfully stimulating book--evocative, provocative, ambitious, and certain to spark debate. It poses important questions and offers new conceptual tools for economic sociology. There is a lot to think about here."--Bruce Carruthers, Northwestern University "

Powers Of Theory

Author: Robert R. Alford
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521316354
Size: 58.75 MB
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An evaluation of different theories of the nature of the state in capitalist democracies.

Pedigree

Author: Lauren A. Rivera
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400880742
Size: 16.28 MB
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Americans are taught to believe that upward mobility is possible for anyone who is willing to work hard, regardless of their social status, yet it is often those from affluent backgrounds who land the best jobs. Pedigree takes readers behind the closed doors of top-tier investment banks, consulting firms, and law firms to reveal the truth about who really gets hired for the nation's highest-paying entry-level jobs, who doesn’t, and why. Drawing on scores of in-depth interviews as well as firsthand observation of hiring practices at some of America’s most prestigious firms, Lauren Rivera shows how, at every step of the hiring process, the ways that employers define and evaluate merit are strongly skewed to favor job applicants from economically privileged backgrounds. She reveals how decision makers draw from ideas about talent—what it is, what best signals it, and who does (and does not) have it—that are deeply rooted in social class. Displaying the "right stuff" that elite employers are looking for entails considerable amounts of economic, social, and cultural resources on the part of the applicants and their parents. Challenging our most cherished beliefs about college as a great equalizer and the job market as a level playing field, Pedigree exposes the class biases built into American notions about the best and the brightest, and shows how social status plays a significant role in determining who reaches the top of the economic ladder.