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On The Compatibility Of Flexible Instruments

Author: Catrinus Jepma
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940114687X
Size: 66.33 MB
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This volume is on the flexibility mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol and summarises the main fmdings of a two day workshop on 'Dealing with Carbon Credits after Kyoto', organised by ETC and the JIN foundation (both from the Netherlands) in Callantsoog, the Netherlands, on 28-29 May 1998. The workshop was one of the fIrst meetings held on the flexibility mechanisms after the Kyoto Protocol had been accepted at the Third Conference of the Parties (CoP3) in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997. During the workshop it became clear that during the stage of translating the Protocol provisions on the flexibility mechanisms (notably Articles 6, 12 and 17) into concrete action, there are still many questions on how to interpret the scope and meaning of the Protocol text precisely. Indeed, various issues need to be elaborated on before a full assessment of the future practical work - the start of CDM and JI projects and possibly international emissions trading - can be made. Several issues were addressed at the workshop: e. g. how and via which procedures to determine the net abatement of particular CDMIJI projects; who is liable for non compliance in international emissions trading; is there a need for credit sharing formulae; can incentives be provided for early action, etc.

The Institutional Economics Of Market Based Climate Policy

Author: E. Woerdman
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080473062
Size: 37.77 MB
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The objective of this book is to analyze the institutional barriers to implementing market-based climate policy, as well as to provide some opportunities to overcome them. The approach is that of institutional economics, with special emphasis on political transaction costs and path dependence. Instead of rejecting the neoclassical approach, this book uses it where fruitful and shows when and why it is necessary to employ a new or neo-institutionalist approach. The result is that equity is considered next to efficiency, that the evolution and possible lock-in of both formal and informal climate institutions are studied, and that attention is paid to the politics and law of economic instruments for climate policy, including some new empirical analyses. The research topics of this book include the set-up costs of a permit trading system, the risk that credit trading becomes locked-in, the potential legal problem of grandfathering in terms of actional subsidies under WTO law or state aid under EC law, and the changing attitudes of various European officials towards restricting the use of the Kyoto Mechanisms.

Law And Economics Of International Climate Change Policy

Author: R. Schwarze
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401720479
Size: 39.15 MB
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International climate change policy can be broadly divided into two periods: A first period, where a broad consensus was reached to tackle the risk of global warming in a coordinated global effort, and a second period, where this consensus was finally framed into a concrete policy. The first period started at the "Earth Summit" of Rio de Janeiro in 1992, where the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature. The UNFCCC was subsequently signed and ratified by 174 countries, making it one of the most accepted international rd treaties ever. The second period was initiated at the 3 Conference of the Parties (COP3) to the UNFCCC in Kyoto in 1997, which produced the Kyoto Protocol (KP). Till now, eighty-four countries have signed the Kyoto Protocol, but only twelve ratified it. A major reason for this slow ratification is that most operational details of the Kyoto Protocol were not decided in Kyoto but deferred to following conferences. This deferral of the details, while probably appropriate to initially reach an agreement, is a major stepping stone for a speedy ratification of the protocol. National policy makers and their constituencies, who would ultimately bear the cost of Kyoto, are generally not prepared to ratify a treaty that could mean anything, from an unsustainable strict regime of international control of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to an "L-regime" ofloopholes, or from a pure market-based international carbon trading to a regime of huge international carbon tax funds.

Environmental And Technology Policy In Europe

Author: G.J. Schrama
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401702659
Size: 33.84 MB
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This book contains six studies on various national environmental policies and environment -oriented technology policy systems in Austria, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom, sandwiched between this introductory and a concluding chapter. These studies were conducted as part of the ENVINNO research project, "Towards an Integration of Environmental and Ecology-Oriented Technology Policy: Stimulus and Response in Environment Related Innovation Networks", which formed part of the Targeted Social and Economic Research (TSER) Programme of Directorate-General XII of the European Commission, now 1 Directorate-General for Research. We like to thank Mrs. Genevieve Zdrojewski of GD Directorate-General Research for her kind support of our research project. The project was carried out between 1998 and 2001 by research teams from the six countries. The co-ordinating institute was the Department of Environmental Economics and Management at the Vienna University of 2 Economics and Business Administration. At this place we want to mention all researchers involved in the ENVINNO project and we want to thank them all for their contributions to this book and the project and for the good time we have had performing the project and meeting each other at regular intervals in Vienna (A), Enschede (NL), Berlin (D), and Sevilla (E). Department of Environmental Economics and Management at the Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration in Austria: • Univ. Prof. Dr. Uwe Schubert, • Mag. Judith Kock, • Mag. Jiirgen Mellitzer, 1 Under contract-number SOEI-CT98-110S. 2 The project website is http://www.wu-wien.ac.atiwwwu/institute/iuwIENVINNO.

Greening Society

Author: P.J. Driessen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401599580
Size: 28.69 MB
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This book can be regarded as a monograph on the debates and developments in Dutch environmental policy. It has been written with a specific perspective in mind. First and foremost, the line of approach we have taken was from a multidisciplinary social science point of view. The trend in environmental policy is looked at from the angle of sociology, policy studies and political science. Secondly, all analyses depart from the paradigm shift concept. This particular paradigm shift is based on the fact that a radical change has taken shape over the years in the way environmental issues are handled. Previously, environmental policy had always been characterised by is top-down approach in which government determined the actual objectives of policy and assumed that it could win over business, non governmental organisations and citizens to act in line with those objectives. There was also a great deal of faith in the technical solutions to environmental issues. Today's environmental policy is based on a totally different philosophy. Environmental objectives are now reached in association with business, non-governmental organisations and citizens. These actors are also involved in bringing environmental policy into practice. In other words, the implementation of policy has a more interactive nature. New relationships emerge between government, the market and civil society, and policy discourses also become integrated. The environmental interest is more often weighed against the econom1c interests, the spatial development and against social justice.

Knowledge Power And Participation In Environmental Policy Analysis

Author: Rob Hoppe
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351325701
Size: 61.60 MB
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This volume probes practical dilemmas and competing re- search perspectives in environmental policy analysis. Scholars working in different fields, research traditions, societies, and policy domains offer significant insights into the processes and consequences of environmental policy making. Part 1, "Coping with Boundaries," describes present-day conflict between experts and greater public participation in environmental policy. It shows that the institutionalization of increasingly complex environmental problems has led to a conflict between technocracy and democracy. Part 2, "The Transnational Challenge," examines modes of cooperation between grassroots movements, scientists, and regional authorities in the United States and Canada. These and other modes of cooperation laid the foundations for the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, increased the effectiveness of air pollution treaties, and increased climate change. Part 3, "Bio-Hazards: Policies and Paralysis," deals with environmental prob-lems closest to the everyday concerns of the public at large because they have immediate implications for food safety and other values. Part 4, "The Citizens' Perspective," focuses on citizen vis-a-vis environmental policy, noting that in order to make policies work citizens must be willing and able to participate in policy-making and cooperate in implementing environmental choices. Part 5, "Confronting Ordinary and Expert Knowledge," explores opportunities and constraints affecting public participation in evaluation of science. Part 6, "Developments in Research Programming," addresses such questions as whether scientists still have opportunities to do the research they want without being interrupted or disturbed by policy makers and other stakeholders. Part 7, "Policy Sciences' Aspirations," explores different avenues for improving environmental policy. Volume twelve in the PSRA series should inspire further investigations of the relations among knowledge, power, and participation in environmental policy. It will be of timely interest to environmentalists, policy-makers, scholars, and the general public.

Policy Instruments For Environmental And Natural Resource Management

Author: Thomas Sterner
Publisher: Resources for the Future
ISBN: 9781891853128
Size: 71.31 MB
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As Thomas Sterner points out, the economic 'toolkit' for dealing with environmental problems has become formidable. It includes taxes, charges, permits, deposit-refund systems, labeling, and other information disclosure mechanisms. Though not all these devices are widely used, empirical application has started within some sectors, and we are beginning to see the first systematic efforts at an advanced policy design that takes due account of market-based incentives. Sterner?s book encourages more widespread and careful use of economic policy instruments. Intended primarily for application in developing and transitional countries, the book compares the accumulated experiences of the use of economic policy instruments in the U.S. and Europe, as well as in select rich and poor countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Ambitious in scope, the book discusses the design of instruments that can be employed in a wide range of contexts, including transportation, industrial pollution, water pricing, waste, fisheries, forests, and agriculture. Policy Instruments for Environmental and Natural Resource Management is deeply rooted in economics but also informed by perspectives drawn from political, legal, ecological, and psychological research. Sterner notes that, in addition to meeting requirements for efficiency, the selection and design of policy instruments must satisfy criteria involving equity and political acceptability. He is careful to distinguish between the well-designed plans of policymakers and the resulting behavior of society. A copublication of Resources for the Future, the World Bank, and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida).

Flexible Mechanisms For An Efficient Climate Policy

Author: Karl Ludwig Brockmann
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783790813142
Size: 69.86 MB
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In the Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, industrialized countries agreed on binding absolute targets for greenhouse gas emissions and on the admission of flexible market-economy instruments - such as emissions trading, joint implementation and the clean development mechanism - used for reaching the targets. The contributions in this volume reveal that flexible instruments can lower the costs of climate protection considerably - not only in theory, but also in practice. Concerning implementation, it will be necessary to take care of possible loopholes, uncertainties and transaction costs which may be too high if no proper design is chosen.

Product Policy In Europe New Environmental Perspectives

Author: F. Oosterhuis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400902778
Size: 66.42 MB
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Product Policy in Europe: New Environmental Perspectives presents an overview and assessment of a relatively new area of environmental policy in Europe. Whereas the more `traditional' environment policy mainly deals with individual emissions, waste and substances, product policy is a more comprehensive approach addressing the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. The study reviews the current state of affairs and the prospects for product policy in the EU and Switzerland. It shows the relationship with other areas of environmental policy and the potential role of new instruments and approaches. Four case studies (on paint, batteries, public procurement and eco-labelling) illustrate the barriers and opportunities of product policy. Environmental policy makers and policy analysts will find useful information and recommendations in this book. It is also written for those who have a professional interest in reducing the environmental impact of products, including marketing managers, product developers, procurement officers and staff members of environmental and consumer organisations, standardisation and certification institutions, etc.