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On The Margins Of Citizenship

Author: Allison C. Carey
Publisher: Temple University Press
ISBN: 1592136982
Size: 13.69 MB
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On the Margins of Citizenship provides a comprehensive, sociological history of the fight for civil rights for people with intellectual disabilities. Allison Carey, who has been active in disability advocacy and politics her entire life, draws upon a broad range of historical and legal documents as well as the literature of citizenship studies to develop a "relational-practice" approach to the issues of intellectual disability and civil rights. She examines how and why parents, self-advocates, and professionals fought for different visions of rights for this population throughout the twentieth century and the changes that took place over that time. Presenting the shifting constitutional and legal restrictions for this marginalized group, Carey argues that policies tend to sustain an ambiguity that simultaneously promises rights yet also allows their retraction.

Getting Tough

Author: Julilly Kohler-Hausmann
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400885183
Size: 26.32 MB
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The politics and policies that led to America's expansion of the penal system and reduction of welfare programs In 1970s America, politicians began "getting tough" on drugs, crime, and welfare. These campaigns helped expand the nation's penal system, discredit welfare programs, and cast blame for the era's social upheaval on racialized deviants that the state was not accountable to serve or represent. Getting Tough sheds light on how this unprecedented growth of the penal system and the evisceration of the nation's welfare programs developed hand in hand. Julilly Kohler-Hausmann shows that these historical events were animated by struggles over how to interpret and respond to the inequality and disorder that crested during this period. When social movements and the slowing economy destabilized the U.S. welfare state, politicians reacted by repudiating the commitment to individual rehabilitation that had governed penal and social programs for decades. In its place, they championed strategies of punishment, surveillance, and containment. The architects of these tough strategies insisted they were necessary, given the failure of liberal social programs and the supposed pathological culture within poor African American and Latino communities. Kohler-Hausmann rejects this explanation and describes how the spectacle of enacting punitive policies convinced many Americans that social investment was counterproductive and the "underclass" could be managed only through coercion and force. Getting Tough illuminates this narrative through three legislative cases: New York's adoption of the 1973 Rockefeller drug laws, Illinois's and California's attempts to reform welfare through criminalization and work mandates, and California's passing of a 1976 sentencing law that abandoned rehabilitation as an aim of incarceration. Spanning diverse institutions and weaving together the perspectives of opponents, supporters, and targets of punitive policies, Getting Tough offers new interpretations of dramatic transformations in the modern American state.

American Shame

Author: Myra Mendible
Publisher: Indiana University Press
ISBN: 0253019869
Size: 45.96 MB
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On any given day in America’s news cycle, stories and images of disgraced politicians and celebrities solicit our moral indignation, their misdeeds fueling a lucrative economy of shame and scandal. Shame is one of the most coercive, painful, and intriguing of human emotions. Only in recent years has interest in shame extended beyond a focus on the subjective experience of this emotion and its psychological effects. The essays collected here consider the role of shame as cultural practice and examine ways that public shaming practices enforce conformity and group coherence. Addressing abortion, mental illness, suicide, immigration, and body image among other issues, this volume calls attention to the ways shaming practices create and police social boundaries; how shaming speech is endorsed, judged, or challenged by various groups; and the distinct ways that shame is encoded and embodied in a nation that prides itself on individualism, diversity, and exceptionalism. Examining shame through a prism of race, sexuality, ethnicity, and gender, these provocative essays offer a broader understanding of how America’s discourse of shame helps to define its people as citizens, spectators, consumers, and moral actors.

Out Of The Horrors Of War

Author: Audra Jennings
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 0812293193
Size: 55.54 MB
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From workplace accidents to polio epidemics and new waves of immigration to the returning veterans of World War II, the first half of the twentieth century brought the issue of disability—what it was, what it meant, and how to address it—into national focus. Out of the Horrors of War: Disability Politics in World War II America explores the history of disability activism, concentrating on the American Federation of the Physically Handicapped (AFPH), a national, cross-disability organization founded during World War II to address federal disability policy. Unlike earlier disability groups, which had been organized around specific disabilities or shared military experience, AFPH brought thousands of disabled citizens and veterans into the national political arena, demanding equal access to economic security and full citizenship. At its core, the AFPH legislative campaign pushed the federal government to move disabled citizens from the margins to the center of the welfare state. Through extensive archival research, Audra Jennings examines the history of AFPH and its enduring legacy in the disability rights movement. Counter to most narratives that place the inception of disability activism in the 1970s, Jennings argues that the disability rights movement is firmly rooted in the politics of World War II. In the years immediately following the war, leaders in AFPH worked with organized labor movements to advocate for an ambitious political agenda, including employer education campaigns, a federal pension program, improved access to healthcare and education, and an affirmative action program for disabled workers. Out of the Horrors of War extends the arc of the disability rights movement into the 1940s and traces how its terms of inclusion influenced the movement for decades after, leading up to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

Routledge Handbook Of Disability Law And Human Rights

Author: Peter Blanck
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317043693
Size: 38.20 MB
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This handbook provides a comprehensive and authoritative state-of-the-art review of the current and emerging research and policy on disability law. Bringing together a team of respected and experienced experts, the handbook offers a range of jurisdictional and multidisciplinary perspectives. The authors consider historical and contemporary, as well as comparative perspectives of disability law. Divided into three parts, the contributors provide a comprehensive reference to the theoretical underpinnings, ongoing debates and emerging fields within the subject. The study provides a strong basis for consideration of contemporary disability law, its research foundations, and progressive developments in the area. The book incorporates interdisciplinary and comparative country perspectives to capture the breadth of current discourse on disability law. This handbook provides a valuable resource for a wide range of scholars, public and private researchers, NGOs, and practitioners working in the area of disability law, and across national and transnational disability schemes. The work will be of important interest to those in the fields of sociology, history, psychology, economics, political science, rehabilitation sciences, medicine, technology, and law, among others.

Fantasies Of Identification

Author: Ellen Samuels
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 1479821373
Size: 76.80 MB
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In the mid-nineteenth-century United States, as it became increasingly difficult to distinguish between bodies understood as black, white, or Indian; able-bodied or disabled; and male or female, intense efforts emerged to define these identities as biologically distinct and scientifically verifiable in a literally marked body. Combining literary analysis, legal history, and visual culture, Ellen Samuels traces the evolution of the “fantasy of identification”—the powerful belief that embodied social identities are fixed, verifiable, and visible through modern science. From birthmarks and fingerprints to blood quantum and DNA, she examines how this fantasy has circulated between cultural representations, law, science, and policy to become one of the most powerfully institutionalized ideologies of modern society. Yet, as Samuels demonstrates, in every case, the fantasy distorts its claimed scientific basis, substituting subjective language for claimed objective fact. From its early emergence in discourses about disability fakery and fugitive slaves in the nineteenth century to its most recent manifestation in the question of sex testing at the 2012 Olympic Games, Fantasies of Identification explores the roots of modern understandings of bodily identity.

Comparing Special Education

Author: John G. Richardson
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804779139
Size: 20.74 MB
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In today's schools the number of students who receive additional resources to access the curriculum is growing rapidly, and the ongoing expansion of special education is among the most significant worldwide educational developments of the past century. Yet even among developed democracies the range of access varies hugely, from one student in twenty to one student in three. In contemporary conflicts about educational standards and accountability, special education plays a key role as it draws the boundaries between exclusion and inclusion. Comparing Special Education unites in-depth comparative and historical studies with analyses of global trends, with a particular focus on special and inclusive education in the United States, England, France, and Germany. The authors examine the causes and consequences of various institutional and organizational developments, illustrate differences in forms of educational governance and social policy priorities, and highlight the evolution of social logics from segregation of students with special educational needs to their inclusion in local schools.

The Handbook Of Intellectual Disability And Clinical Psychology Practice

Author: Alan Carr
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131757608X
Size: 70.49 MB
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The Handbook of Intellectual Disability and Clinical Psychology Practice will equip clinical psychologists in training with the skills necessary to complete a clinical placement in the field of intellectual disability. Building on the success of the previous edition this handbook has been extensively revised. Throughout, the text, references, and website addresses and have been updated to reflect important developments since the publication the first edition. Recent research findings on the epidemiology, aetiology, course, outcome, assessment and treatment of all psychological problems considered in the book have been incorporated into the text. Account has been taken of changes in the diagnosis and classification of intellectual disability and psychological problems reflected in the AAIDD-11 and the DSM-5. New chapters on the assessment of adaptive behaviour and support needs, person-centred active support, and the assessment of dementia in people with intellectual disability have been added. The book is divided into eight sections: Section 1: Covers general conceptual frameworks for practice - diagnosis, classification, epidemiology and lifespan development. Section 2: Focuses on assessment of intelligence, adaptive behaviour, support needs, quality of life, and the processes of interviewing and report writing. Section 3: Covers intervention frameworks, specifically active support, applied behavioural analysis and cognitive behaviour therapy. Section 4: Deals with supporting families of children with intellectual disability, genetic syndromes and autism spectrum disorders. Section 5: Covers issues associated with intellectual disability first evident or prevalent in middle childhood. Section 6: Deals with adolescent concerns including life skills training, relationships and sexuality. Section 7: Focuses on residential, vocational and family-related challenges of adulthood and aging. Section 8: Deals with professional issues and risk assessment. Chapters cover theoretical and empirical issues on the one hand and practice issues on the other. They close with summaries and suggestions for further reading for practitioners and families containing a member with an intellectual disability. Where appropriate, in many chapters, practice exercises to aid skills development have been included. The second edition of the Handbook of Intellectual Disability and Clinical Psychology Practice is one of a set of three volumes which cover the lion’s share of the curriculum for clinical psychologists in training in the UK and Ireland. The other two volumes are the Handbook of Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology, Third Edition (by Alan Carr) and the Handbook of Adult Clinical Psychology Practice, Second Edition (edited by Alan Carr & Muireann McNulty).

Disability As A Fluid State

Author: Sharon N. Barnartt
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing
ISBN: 0857243780
Size: 70.57 MB
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Disability is often described in a way that suggests it is a permanent, relatively stable state. This volume argues that the relationship between impairment (physical state) and disability is neither fixed nor permanent but is fluid and not easily predicted.