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Optimality Theory And Language Change

Author: D.E. Holt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401001952
Size: 56.82 MB
Format: PDF
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This work discusses many optimization and linguistic issues in great detail. It treats the history of a variety of languages, including English, French, Germanic, Galician/ Portuguese, Latin, Russian, and Spanish and shows that the application of Optimality Theory allows for innovative and improved analyses. It contains a complete bibliography on OT and language change. It is of interest to historical linguists, researchers into OT and linguistic theory, and phonologists and syntacticians with an interest in historical change.

The Contrastive Hierarchy In Phonology

Author: B. Elan Dresher
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521889731
Size: 54.91 MB
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'Contrast' - the opposition between distinctive sounds in a language - is one of the most central concepts in linguistics. This book presents an original account of the logic and history of contrast in phonology. It provides empirical evidence from diverse phonological domains that only contrastive features are computed by the phonological component of grammar. It argues that the contrastive specifications of phonemes are governed by language-particular feature hierarchies. This approach assigns a key role to abstract cognitive structures, challenging contemporary approaches that favour phonetic explanations of phonological phenomena. Tracing the evolution of the hypothesis that contrastive features play a special role in phonology, it shows how this insight has been obscured by misunderstandings of the role of the contrastive feature hierarchy. Questioning the widely held notion that contrast should be based on minimal pairs, Elan Dresher argues that the contrastive hierarchy is indispensable to illuminating accounts of phonological patterning.

Optimality Theory

Author: Joost Dekkers
Publisher: Clarendon Press
ISBN: 9780198238447
Size: 42.92 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The introduction of Optimality Theory (OT) by Prince and Smolenski in 1995 is frequently seen as the most important development in generative grammar of the 1990s. It has profoundly changed the understanding of sound systems; it has given a new impetus to the study of language acqusition; and its potential for the discovery and explanation of the universal properties of language is increasingly recognized. OT subsitutes constraints for rules in universal grammar and linguistic performance. Constraints are ranked so that a a lower-ranked constraint may be violated in order to satisfy a higher. The assumption that constraints are vioable can be considered as the formal correlate of linguistic tendencies, whereas their ranking expresses the degree to which individual languages exhibit these tendencies. OT may thus be used to describe the characteristics of any language, but it is as yet too general to provide a substantive theory of grammar. In this book a range of scholars consider the specific properties that an OT grammar should have. After an extensive introduction, the volume is divided into four parts. Parts One and Two are concerned respectively with prosodic representations and segmental phonology. Parts Three and Four then consider the application of OT to syntax and syntatic theory and to language acquistion and learnability. This wide-ranging collection of new work by leading scholars from the USA and Europe will interest linguists and postgraduatestudents in all the main fields of discipline. Its insights and the research it reports will also be valuable to those whose theoretical position is apparently at odds with the principles of OT.

The Oxford Handbook Of Derivational Morphology

Author: Rochelle Lieber
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191651788
Size: 13.31 MB
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The Oxford Handbook of Derivational Morphology is intended as a companion volume to The Oxford Handbook of Compounding (OUP 2009) Written by distinguished scholars, its 41 chapters aim to provide a comprehensive and thorough overview of the study of derivational morphology. The handbook begins with an overview and a consideration of definitional matters, distinguishing derivation from inflection on the one hand and compounding on the other. From a formal perspective, the handbook treats affixation (prefixation, suffixation, infixation, circumfixation, etc.), conversion, reduplication, root and pattern and other templatic processes, as well as prosodic and subtractive means of forming new words. From a semantic perspective, it looks at the processes that form various types of adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and verbs, as well as evaluatives and the rarer processes that form function words. The book also surveys derivation in fifteen language families that are widely dispersed in terms of both geographical location and typological characteristics.

Linguistic Fundamentals For Natural Language Processing

Author: Emily M. Bender
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627050124
Size: 73.15 MB
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Many NLP tasks have at their core a subtask of extracting the dependencies—who did what to whom—from natural language sentences. This task can be understood as the inverse of the problem solved in different ways by diverse human languages, namely, how to indicate the relationship between different parts of a sentence. Understanding how languages solve the problem can be extremely useful in both feature design and error analysis in the application of machine learning to NLP. Likewise, understanding cross-linguistic variation can be important for the design of MT systems and other multilingual applications. The purpose of this book is to present in a succinct and accessible fashion information about the morphological and syntactic structure of human languages that can be useful in creating more linguistically sophisticated, more language-independent, and thus more successful NLP systems. Table of Contents: Acknowledgments / Introduction/motivation / Morphology: Introduction / Morphophonology / Morphosyntax / Syntax: Introduction / Parts of speech / Heads, arguments, and adjuncts / Argument types and grammatical functions / Mismatches between syntactic position and semantic roles / Resources / Bibliography / Author's Biography / General Index / Index of Languages

Language Change And Linguistic Theory

Author: D. Gary Miller
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN:
Size: 13.63 MB
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This v. 1 book investigates a large range of changes and their motivations in all parts of the grammar and lexicon. The core argument is that, in the absence of a Grand Unification Theory in linguistics, a natural language changes. Changes occur in successive formal grammars.

Feminism And Linguistic Theory

Author: Deborah Cameron
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1349223344
Size: 12.10 MB
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An introduction to theories about language in attempts to understand and transform women's lives. This evolving body of work encompasses linguistics, anthropology, literary and cultural theory, psychoanalysis and postmodern philosophy.

Optimality Theoretic Studies In Spanish Phonology

Author: Fernando Martínez-Gil
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027292620
Size: 62.90 MB
Format: PDF
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This outstanding volume offers the first comprehensive collection of optimality-theoretic studies in Spanish phonology. Bringing together most of the best-known researchers in the field, it presents a state-of-the-art overview of research in Spanish phonology within the non-derivational framework of optimality theory. The book is structured around six major areas of phonological research: phonetics–phonology interface, segmental phonology, syllable structure and stress, morphophonology, language variation and change, and language acquisition, including general as well as more specialized articles. The reader is guided through the volume with the help of the introduction and a detailed index. The book will serve as core reading for advanced graduate-level phonology courses and seminars in Spanish linguistics, and in general linguistics phonology courses. It will also constitute an essential reference for researchers in phonology, phonological theory, and Spanish, and related areas, such as language acquisition, bilingualism, education, and speech and hearing science.

The Handbook Of Language Emergence

Author: Brian MacWhinney
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118346092
Size: 73.94 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This authoritative handbook explores the latest integrated theory for understanding human language, offering the most inclusive text yet published on the rapidly evolving emergentist paradigm. Brings together an international team of contributors, including the most prominent advocates of linguistic emergentism Focuses on the ways in which the learning, processing, and structure of language emerge from a competing set of cognitive, communicative, and biological constraints Examines forces on widely divergent timescales, from instantaneous neurolinguistic processing to historical changes and language evolution Addresses key theoretical, empirical, and methodological issues, making this handbook the most rigorous examination of emergentist linguistic theory ever