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Ordinary Men

Author: Christopher R. Browning
Publisher: HarperCollins
ISBN: 0062303031
Size: 13.83 MB
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Christopher R. Browning’s shocking account of how a unit of average middle-aged Germans became the cold-blooded murderers of tens of thousands of Jews—now with a new afterword and additional photographs. Ordinary Men is the true story of Reserve Police Battalion 101 of the German Order Police, which was responsible for mass shootings as well as round-ups of Jewish people for deportation to Nazi death camps in Poland in 1942. Browning argues that most of the men of RPB 101 were not fanatical Nazis but, rather, ordinary middle-aged, working-class men who committed these atrocities out of a mixture of motives, including the group dynamics of conformity, deference to authority, role adaptation, and the altering of moral norms to justify their actions. Very quickly three groups emerged within the battalion: a core of eager killers, a plurality who carried out their duties reliably but without initiative, and a small minority who evaded participation in the acts of killing without diminishing the murderous efficiency of the battalion whatsoever. While this book discusses a specific Reserve Unit during WWII, the general argument Browning makes is that most people succumb to the pressures of a group setting and commit actions they would never do of their own volition. Ordinary Men is a powerful, chilling, and important work with themes and arguments that continue to resonate today. “A remarkable—and singularly chilling—glimpse of human behavior...This meticulously researched book...represents a major contribution to the literature of the Holocaust."—Newsweek

Ordinary Men

Author: Christopher R. Browning
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0062037757
Size: 11.33 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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The shocking account of how a unit of average middle-aged Germans became the cold-blooded murderers of tens of thousands of Jews.

Ordinary Men

Author: Christopher R. Browning
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 9780060995065
Size: 73.40 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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The shocking account of how a unit of average middle-aged Germans became the cold-blooded murderers of tens of thousands of Jews.

Hitler S Willing Executioners

Author: Daniel Jonah Goldhagen
Publisher: Vintage
ISBN: 9780307426239
Size: 33.49 MB
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This groundbreaking international bestseller lays to rest many myths about the Holocaust: that Germans were ignorant of the mass destruction of Jews, that the killers were all SS men, and that those who slaughtered Jews did so reluctantly. Hitler's Willing Executioners provides conclusive evidence that the extermination of European Jewry engaged the energies and enthusiasm of tens of thousands of ordinary Germans. Goldhagen reconstructs the climate of "eliminationist anti-Semitism" that made Hitler's pursuit of his genocidal goals possible and the radical persecution of the Jews during the 1930s popular. Drawing on a wealth of unused archival materials, principally the testimony of the killers themselves, Goldhagen takes us into the killing fields where Germans voluntarily hunted Jews like animals, tortured them wantonly, and then posed cheerfully for snapshots with their victims. From mobile killing units, to the camps, to the death marches, Goldhagen shows how ordinary Germans, nurtured in a society where Jews were seen as unalterable evil and dangerous, willingly followed their beliefs to their logical conclusion. "Hitler's Willing Executioner's is an original, indeed brilliant contribution to the...literature on the Holocaust."--New York Review of Books "The most important book ever published about the Holocaust...Eloquently written, meticulously documented, impassioned...A model of moral and scholarly integrity."--Philadelphia Inquirer From the Trade Paperback edition.

The Origins Of The Final Solution

Author: Christopher R. Browning
Publisher: U of Nebraska Press
ISBN: 9780803203921
Size: 21.95 MB
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This groundbreaking work is the most detailed, carefully researched, and comprehensive analysis of the evolution of Nazi policy from the persecution and "ethnic cleansing" of Jews in 1939 to the Final Solution of the Holocaust in 1942.

Remembering Survival Inside A Nazi Slave Labor Camp

Author: Christopher R. Browning
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 9780393079432
Size: 10.27 MB
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"An important, revealing story, exceptionally well told."—Jonathan Yardley, Washington Post Employing the rich testimony of almost three hundred survivors of the slave-labor camps of Starachowice, Poland, Christopher R. Browning draws the experiences of the Jewish prisoners, the Nazi authorities, and the neighboring Poles together into a chilling history of a little-known dimension of the Holocaust. Brutal and deadly in their living and work conditions, these camps represented the only chance of survival for local Jews after the ghetto liquidations of 1942. There they produced munitions for the German war effort while scrambling to survive murderous and corrupt camp regimes and desperately trying to protect children, spouses, parents, and neighbors. When the labor camps closed in the summer of 1944, the surviving Starachowice Jews still had to confront Auschwitz and then the reprisals of anti-Semitic Polish neighbors. Combining harrowing detail and insightful analysis, Browning's history is indispensable scholarship and an unforgettable story of survival.

The Wannsee Conference And The Final Solution

Author: Mark Roseman
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 9780312422349
Size: 49.59 MB
Format: PDF
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Attempts to unravel the many complex mysteries surrounding a document, called the "Secret Reich matter," created by a group of Nazi leaders in 1942 at a lavish villa on the shore of Berlin's Lake Wannsee, that tallied up the Jews in Europe, classified half and quarter Jews, and ordered the senseless slaughter of thousands of Jews as the "final solution to the Jewish Question."

Hitler S Police Battalions

Author: Edward B. Westermann
Publisher: Univ Pr of Kansas
ISBN:
Size: 75.24 MB
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When the German Wehrmacht swarmed across Eastern Europe, an elite corps followed and close at its heels. Along with the SS and Gestapo, the Ordnungspolizei, or Uniformed Police, played a central role in Nazi genocide that until now has been generally neglected by historians of the war. Beginning with the invasion of Poland, the Uniformed Police were charged with following the army to curb resistance, pacify the countryside, patrol Jewish ghettos, and generally maintain order in the conquered territories. Edward Westermann examines how this force emerged as a primary instrument of annihilation, responsible for the murder of hundreds of thousands of the Third Reich's political and racial enemies. In "Hitler's Police Battalions he reveals how the institutional mindset of these "ordinary policeman" allowed them to commit atrocities without a second thought. Westermann reveals initiatives pursed before the war by Heinrich Himmler and Karl Daluege to create a culture within the existing police forces that fostered anti-Semitism and anti-Communism as institutional norms. Challenging prevailing interpretations of German culture, he draws on extensive archival research-"including the testimony of former policemen-"to illuminate this transformation. Purged of dissidents, indoctrinated to idolize Hitler, and trained in military combat, these police battalions repeatedly conducted actions against Jews, Slavs, gypsies, asocials, and other groups on their own initiative, even when they had the choice not to. In addition to documenting these atrocities, Westermann examines cooperation between the Ordnungspolizci and the SS and Gestapo, and the close relationship between police and Wehrmacht in theconduct of the anti-partisan campaign. Throughout, Westermann stresses he importance of ideological indoctrination within specific groups. It was the organizational culture of the Uniformed Police, he maintains, and not German

Hitler The Germans And The Final Solution

Author: Ian Kershaw
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300148232
Size: 43.28 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume presents a comprehensive, multifaceted picture both of the destructive dynamic of the Nazi leadership and of the attitudes and behavior of ordinary Germans as the persecution of the Jews spiraled into total genocide.