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Organ Shortage

Author: Anne-Maree Farrell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139500104
Size: 70.93 MB
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Organ shortage is an ongoing problem in many countries. The needless death and suffering which have resulted necessitate an investigation into potential solutions. This examination of contemporary ethical means, both practical and policy-oriented, of reducing the shortfall in organs draws on the experiences of a range of countries. The authors focus on the resolution and negotiation of ethical conflict, examine systems approaches such as the 'Spanish model' and the US Breakthrough Collaboratives, evaluate policy proposals relating to incentives, presumed consent, and modifications regarding end-of-life care, and evaluate the greatly increased use of (non-heart-beating) donors suffering circulatory death, as well as living donors. The proposed strategies and solutions are not only capable of resolving the UK's own organ-shortage crisis, but also of being implemented in other countries grappling with how to address the growing gap between supply and demand for organs.

The Organ Shortage Crisis In America

Author: Andrew Michael Flescher
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626165459
Size: 43.93 MB
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Nearly 120,000 people are in need of healthy organs in the United States. Every ten minutes a new name is added to the list, while on average twenty people die each day waiting for an organ to become available. Worse, our traditional reliance on cadaveric organ donation is becoming increasingly insufficient, and in recent years there has been a decline in the number of living donors as well as in the percentage of living donors relative to overall kidney donors. Some transplant surgeons and policy advocates have responded to this shortage by arguing for the legalization of the sale of organs among living donors. Andrew Flescher objects to this approach by going beyond concerns traditionally cited about social justice, commodification, and patient safety, and moving squarely onto the terrain of discussing what motivates major and costly acts of human selflessness. What is the most efficacious means of attracting prospective living kidney donors? Flescher, drawing on literature in the fields of moral psychology and economics, as well as on scores of interviews with living donors, suggests that inculcating a sense of altruism and civic duty is a more effective means of increasing donor participation than the resort to financial incentives. He encourages individuals to spend time with patients on dialysis in order to become acquainted with their plight and, as an alternative to lump-sum payments, consider innovative solutions that positively impact living donor participation that do not undermine the spirit of the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984. This book not only re-examines the important debate over whether to allow the sale of organs; it is also the first volume in the field to take a close look at alternative solutions to the organ shortage crisis.

The Global Organ Shortage

Author: T. Randolph Beard
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804784647
Size: 57.96 MB
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Although organ transplants provide the best, and often the only, effective therapy for many otherwise fatal conditions, the great benefits of transplantation go largely unrealized because of failures in the organ acquisition process. In the United States, for instance, more than 10,000 people die every year either awaiting transplantation, or as a result of deteriorating health exacerbated by the shortage of organs. Issues pertaining to organ donation and transplantation represent, perhaps, the most complex and morally controversial medical dilemmas aside from abortion and euthanasia. However, these quandaries are not unsolvable. This book proposes compensating organ donors within a publicly controlled monopsony. This proposal is quite similar to current practice in Spain, where compensation for cadaveric donation now occurs "in secret," as this text reveals. To build their recommendations, the authors provide a medical history of transplantation, a history of the development of national laws and waiting lists, a careful examination of the social costs and benefits of transplantation, a discussion of the causes of organ shortages, an evaluation of "partial" reforms tried or proposed, an extensive ethical evaluation of the current system and its competitors.

Organ Shortage The Solutions

Author: J.-L. Touraine
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401102015
Size: 14.13 MB
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Organ Shortage: The Solutions is the latest subject in the Continuing Education series, organized by Fondation Marcel Mérieux and Université Claude Bernard in Lyon. The annual subject is chosen to reflect the status of the topical issues of the year, as taught by leading international experts. The contribution of transplantation and clinical immunology to advanced medicine is considerable and promising. The annual volumes in this series keep the reader abreast of these developments.

Regulations Regarding Living Organ Donation In Europe

Author: Leonie Lopp
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642337996
Size: 67.47 MB
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Organ transplantation is a much-discussed subject, and the importance of living organ donation is increasing significantly. Yet despite all efforts, too few donor organs are available to help all patients in need. This book analyses whether the national legal regulations are also partly responsible for the organ shortage in the Member States of the European Union. In addition to a detailed analysis of the various national regulations, the main arguments in favour of and against legal restrictions on living organ donation are considered. Furthermore, the European Union’s authority is investigated, namely, whether it is entitled to establish statutory provisions for the Member States with respect to a harmonized regulation of living organ donation. Based on the results of the analysis, the author establishes a Best Practice Proposal for living organ donation.

Organ Donation

Author: Corona Brezina
Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc
ISBN: 1435852753
Size: 64.97 MB
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Discusses issues related to organ donation, donor registration, transplant surgery, and living with a donated organ.

Organ Donation And Transplantation After Cardiac Death

Author: David Talbot
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199217335
Size: 77.26 MB
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With the success of organ transplantation and the declining number of heart beating cadaver donors, the number of patients awaiting a transplant continues to rise. This means that alternative sources of donors have been sought, including donors after cardiac death. Such donors sustain rapid damage to their organs due to ischaemia, and as a consequence some organs do not work initially and some none at all. Written by international experts,this book lays out the moral, legal and ethical restraints to using such donors for organ transplant together with the techniques that have been adopted to improve their outcome. The different approaches and results of renal transplant according to country are covered together with the procedures andoutcomes adopted to use other organs, notably liver and lung. The outcome of transplanting a vital organ which fails to function immediately is death of the recipient. The success of transplanting such 'damaged' organs shows how far progress has been made with utilising such donors and why the proportion of transplants has increased so dramatically in recent years (developments have allowed these programmes to flourish such that in the UK 25% of kidney transplants were from such donors in2006).

The U S Organ Procurement System

Author: David L. Kaserman
Publisher: American Enterprise Institute
ISBN: 9780844741710
Size: 60.50 MB
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Experts make a compelling and persuasive case for markets in human organs.

Entrepreneurial Economics Bright Ideas From The Dismal Science

Author: Oakland Alexander Tabarrok Director of Research The Independent Institute
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198033127
Size: 65.49 MB
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This intriguing collection is designed to show how economists can play a more active role in designing and directing the nation's social institutions. By taking the task of political economy seriously, the contributors (including some of today's most distinguished economists) reveal the power of economic thought to offer innovative solutions to some of the most difficult problems facing society today. By creating markets where none existed before, the authors propose efficient, reliable, and profitable improvements to current systems of health insurance, financial markets, human organ distribution, judicial practice, bankruptcy and securities regulation, patenting, and transportation. Written in the entrepreneurial spirit, these essays show economics to be an ambitious, dynamic, and far-from-dismal science.

Organ Donation And Transplantation Awareness And Roles Of Healthcare Professionals A Systematic Literature Review

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Abstract : Aims and objectives: To examine the role of healthcare professionals in the organ donation and transplantation process. Background: Globally, there remains a perennial disequilibrium between organ donation and organ transplantation. Several factors account for this disequilibrium; however, as healthcare professionals are not only strategically positioned as the primary intermediaries between organ donors and transplant recipients, but also professionally situated as the implementers of organ donation and transplantation processes, they are often blamed for the global organ shortage. Design: Mixed‐method systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta‐Analysis Protocols 2015 checklist. Methods: Databases were searched including CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science and EMBASE using the search terms "organ donation, " "healthcare professionals, " "awareness" and "roles" to retrieve relevant publications. Results: Thirteen publications met the inclusion criteria. The global organ shortage is neither contingent upon unavailability of suitable organs nor exclusively dependent upon healthcare professionals. Instead, the existence of disequilibrium between organ donation and transplantation is necessitated by a web of factors. These include the following: healthcare professionals' attitudes towards, and experience of, the organ donation and transplantation process, underpinned by professional education, specialist clinical area and duration of professional practice; conflicts of interests; ethical dilemmas; altruistic values towards organ donation; and varied organ donation legislations in different legal jurisdictions. Conclusion: This review maintains that if this web of factors is to be adequately addressed by healthcare systems in different global and legal jurisdictions, there should be sufficient organs voluntarily donated to meetall transplantation needs. Relevance to clinical practice: There is a suggestion that healthcare professionals partly account for the global shortage in organ donation, but there is a need to examine how healthcare professionals' roles, knowledge, awareness, skills and competencies might impact upon the organ donation and transplantation process.