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Organ Shortage

Author: Anne-Maree Farrell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139500104
Size: 27.44 MB
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Organ shortage is an ongoing problem in many countries. The needless death and suffering which have resulted necessitate an investigation into potential solutions. This examination of contemporary ethical means, both practical and policy-oriented, of reducing the shortfall in organs draws on the experiences of a range of countries. The authors focus on the resolution and negotiation of ethical conflict, examine systems approaches such as the 'Spanish model' and the US Breakthrough Collaboratives, evaluate policy proposals relating to incentives, presumed consent, and modifications regarding end-of-life care, and evaluate the greatly increased use of (non-heart-beating) donors suffering circulatory death, as well as living donors. The proposed strategies and solutions are not only capable of resolving the UK's own organ-shortage crisis, but also of being implemented in other countries grappling with how to address the growing gap between supply and demand for organs.

The Global Organ Shortage

Author: T. Randolph Beard
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804784647
Size: 10.31 MB
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Although organ transplants provide the best, and often the only, effective therapy for many otherwise fatal conditions, the great benefits of transplantation go largely unrealized because of failures in the organ acquisition process. In the United States, for instance, more than 10,000 people die every year either awaiting transplantation, or as a result of deteriorating health exacerbated by the shortage of organs. Issues pertaining to organ donation and transplantation represent, perhaps, the most complex and morally controversial medical dilemmas aside from abortion and euthanasia. However, these quandaries are not unsolvable. This book proposes compensating organ donors within a publicly controlled monopsony. This proposal is quite similar to current practice in Spain, where compensation for cadaveric donation now occurs "in secret," as this text reveals. To build their recommendations, the authors provide a medical history of transplantation, a history of the development of national laws and waiting lists, a careful examination of the social costs and benefits of transplantation, a discussion of the causes of organ shortages, an evaluation of "partial" reforms tried or proposed, an extensive ethical evaluation of the current system and its competitors.

The Organ Shortage Crisis In America

Author: Andrew Michael Flescher
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626165440
Size: 58.75 MB
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Nearly 120,000 people are in need of healthy organs in the United States. Every ten minutes a new name is added to the list, while on average twenty people die each day waiting for an organ to become available. Worse, our traditional reliance on cadaveric organ donation is becoming increasingly insufficient, and in recent years there has been a decline in the number of living donors as well as in the percentage of living donors relative to overall kidney donors. Some transplant surgeons and policy advocates have responded to this shortage by arguing for the legalization of the sale of organs among living donors. Andrew Flescher objects to this approach by going beyond concerns traditionally cited about social justice, commodification, and patient safety, and moving squarely onto the terrain of discussing what motivates major and costly acts of human selflessness. What is the most efficacious means of attracting prospective living kidney donors? Flescher, drawing on literature in the fields of moral psychology and economics, as well as on scores of interviews with living donors, suggests that inculcating a sense of altruism and civic duty is a more effective means of increasing donor participation than the resort to financial incentives. He encourages individuals to spend time with patients on dialysis in order to become acquainted with their plight and, as an alternative to lump-sum payments, consider innovative solutions that positively impact living donor participation that do not undermine the spirit of the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984. This book not only re-examines the important debate over whether to allow the sale of organs; it is also the first volume in the field to take a close look at alternative solutions to the organ shortage crisis.

Organ Transplantation In Times Of Donor Shortage

Author: Ralf Jox
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319164414
Size: 69.96 MB
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This book analyzes the reasons for organ shortage and ventures innovative ideas for approaching this problem. It presents 29 contributions from a highly interdisciplinary group of world experts and upcoming professionals in the field. Every year thousands of patients die while waiting for organ transplantation. Health authorities, medical professionals and bioethicists worldwide point to the urgent and yet unsolved problem of organ shortage, which will be even intensified due to the increasing life expectancy. Even though the practical problem seems to be well known, the search for suitable solutions continues and often restricts itself by being limited through disciplinary and national borders. Combining philosophical reflection with empirical results, this volume enables a unique insight in the ethics of organ transplantation and offers fresh ideas for policymakers, health care professionals, academics and the general public.

Regenerative Medicine Applications In Organ Transplantation

Author: Giuseppe Orlando
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012398520X
Size: 13.68 MB
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Regenerative Medicine Applications in Organ Transplantation illustrates exactly how these two fields are coming together and can benefit one another. It discusses technologies being developed, methods being implemented, and which of these are the most promising. The text encompasses tissue engineering, biomaterial sciences, stem cell biology, and developmental biology, all from a transplant perspective. Organ systems considered include liver, renal, intestinal, pancreatic, and more. Leaders from both fields have contributed chapters, clearly illustrating that regenerative medicine and solid organ transplantation speak the same language and that both aim for similar medical outcomes. The overall theme of the book is to provide insight into the synergy between organ transplantation and regenerative medicine. Recent groundbreaking achievements in regenerative medicine have received unprecedented coverage by the media, fueling interest and enthusiasm in transplant clinicians and researchers. Regenerative medicine is changing the premise of solid organ transplantation, requiring transplantation investigators to become familiar with regenerative medicine investigations that can be extremely relevant to their work. Similarly, regenerative medicine investigators need to be aware of the needs of the transplant field to bring these two fields together for greater results. Bridges the gap between regenerative medicine and solid organ transplantation and highlights reasons for collaboration Explains the importance and future potential of regenerative medicine to the transplant community Illustrates to regenerative medicine investigators the needs of the transplant discipline to drive and guide investigations in the most promising directions

Organ Shortage The Solutions

Author: J.-L. Touraine
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401102015
Size: 74.43 MB
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Organ Shortage: The Solutions is the latest subject in the Continuing Education series, organized by Fondation Marcel Mérieux and Université Claude Bernard in Lyon. The annual subject is chosen to reflect the status of the topical issues of the year, as taught by leading international experts. The contribution of transplantation and clinical immunology to advanced medicine is considerable and promising. The annual volumes in this series keep the reader abreast of these developments.

The Organ Shortage Crisis In America

Author: Andrew Michael Flescher
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626165440
Size: 34.57 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Nearly 120,000 people are in need of healthy organs in the United States. Every ten minutes a new name is added to the list, while on average twenty people die each day waiting for an organ to become available. Worse, our traditional reliance on cadaveric organ donation is becoming increasingly insufficient, and in recent years there has been a decline in the number of living donors as well as in the percentage of living donors relative to overall kidney donors. Some transplant surgeons and policy advocates have responded to this shortage by arguing for the legalization of the sale of organs among living donors. Andrew Flescher objects to this approach by going beyond concerns traditionally cited about social justice, commodification, and patient safety, and moving squarely onto the terrain of discussing what motivates major and costly acts of human selflessness. What is the most efficacious means of attracting prospective living kidney donors? Flescher, drawing on literature in the fields of moral psychology and economics, as well as on scores of interviews with living donors, suggests that inculcating a sense of altruism and civic duty is a more effective means of increasing donor participation than the resort to financial incentives. He encourages individuals to spend time with patients on dialysis in order to become acquainted with their plight and, as an alternative to lump-sum payments, consider innovative solutions that positively impact living donor participation that do not undermine the spirit of the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984. This book not only re-examines the important debate over whether to allow the sale of organs; it is also the first volume in the field to take a close look at alternative solutions to the organ shortage crisis.

Opportunities For Organ Donor Intervention Research

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309464870
Size: 58.75 MB
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The organ donation and transplantation system strives to honor the gift of donated organs by fully using those organs to save and improve the quality of the lives of their recipients. However, there are not enough donated organs to meet the demand and some donated organs may not be recovered, some recovered organs may not be transplanted, and some transplanted organs may not function adequately. Organ donor intervention research can test and assess interventions (e.g., medications, devices, and donor management protocols) to maintain or improve organ quality prior to, during, and following transplantation. The intervention is administered either while the organ is still in the deceased donor or after it is recovered from the donor but before it is transplanted into a recipient. Organ donor intervention research presents new challenges to the organ donation and transplantation community because of ethical questions about who should be considered a human subject in a research study, whose permission and oversight are needed, and how to ensure that such research does not threaten the equitable distribution of a scarce and valuable resource. Opportunities for Organ Donor Intervention Research focuses on the ethical, legal, regulatory, policy, and organizational issues relevant to the conduct of research in the United States involving deceased organ donors. This report provides recommendations for how to conduct organ donor intervention research in a manner that maintains high ethical standards, that ensures dignity and respect for deceased organ donors and their families, that provides transparency and information for transplant candidates who might receive a research organ, and that supports and sustains the public’s trust in the process of organ donation and transplantation.

Replacement Parts

Author: Arthur L. Caplan
Publisher: Georgetown University Press
ISBN: 1626162379
Size: 42.10 MB
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In Replacement Parts, internationally recognized bioethicist Arthur L. Caplan and coeditors James J. McCartney and Daniel P. Reid assemble seminal writings from medicine, philosophy, economics, and religion that address the ethical challenges raised by organ transplantation. Caplan's new lead essay explains the shortfalls of present policies. From there, book sections take an interdisciplinary approach to fundamental issues like the determination of death and the dead donor rule; the divisive case of using anencephalic infants as organ donors; the sale of cadaveric or live organs; possible strategies for increasing the number of available organs, including market solutions and the idea of presumed consent; and questions surrounding transplant tourism and "gaming the system" by using the media to gain access to organs. Timely and balanced, Replacement Parts is a first-of-its-kind collection aimed at surgeons, physicians, nurses, and other professionals involved in this essential lifesaving activity that is often fraught with ethical controversy.