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Our Punitive Society

Author: Randall G. Shelden
Publisher: Waveland Press
ISBN: 1478610182
Size: 62.49 MB
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This brand new text identifies the macroeconomic forces relevant to imprisonmentpoverty and political powerlessnessand explores viable and humane alternatives to our current incarceration binge.

The Meaning And Nature Of Punishment

Author: David Shichor
Publisher: Waveland Press
ISBN: 1478610212
Size: 34.57 MB
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There are conflicting theories and opinions about the laws, rules, and customs that regulate everyday life and about how to deal with those who violate accepted standards. Formal punishment of individuals as an organized reaction to lawbreaking prompts serious debates concerning justice versus utility, universality versus particularity, and consensus versus conflict. The problematic nature of punishment has been a major philosophical and practical concern in Western societies for centuries. Who has the right to punish? How should society punish? How much punishment is just? Punishment involves agencies and representatives of government depriving people of their liberty. It is a means of social control intended to cause a measure of "suffering" to those who violate the law and harm others. Punishing a member of society raises serious moral and ethical concerns; it also raises questions about social issues such as equality and discrimination. Punishment is a component of the criminal justice system commonly taken for granted. Most individuals have an opinion about punishment based on their general view of what is right and what is wrong. There are, however, invisible aspects of punishment that affect not only those who break the law and those directly affected by the incarceration of the lawbreaker but also the society that decides what type of punishment is meted out. The theoretical arguments and justifications for punishment reveal the values of society concerning justice, human rights, social equality, and relations between the state and its citizens.

Locking Up Our Own

Author: James Forman, Jr.
Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux
ISBN: 0374712905
Size: 80.38 MB
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In recent years, America’s criminal justice system has become the subject of an increasingly urgent debate. Critics have assailed the rise of mass incarceration, emphasizing its disproportionate impact on people of color. As James Forman, Jr., points out, however, the war on crime that began in the 1970s was supported by many African American leaders in the nation’s urban centers. In Locking Up Our Own, he seeks to understand why. Forman shows us that the first substantial cohort of black mayors, judges, and police chiefs took office amid a surge in crime and drug addiction. Many prominent black officials, including Washington, D.C. mayor Marion Barry and federal prosecutor Eric Holder, feared that the gains of the civil rights movement were being undermined by lawlessness—and thus embraced tough-on-crime measures, including longer sentences and aggressive police tactics. In the face of skyrocketing murder rates and the proliferation of open-air drug markets, they believed they had no choice. But the policies they adopted would have devastating consequences for residents of poor black neighborhoods. A former D.C. public defender, Forman tells riveting stories of politicians, community activists, police officers, defendants, and crime victims. He writes with compassion about individuals trapped in terrible dilemmas—from the men and women he represented in court to officials struggling to respond to a public safety emergency. Locking Up Our Own enriches our understanding of why our society became so punitive and offers important lessons to anyone concerned about the future of race and the criminal justice system in this country.

Race Incarceration And American Values

Author: Glenn C. Loury
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262260948
Size: 11.35 MB
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The United States, home to five percent of the world's population, now houses twenty-five percent of the world's prison inmates. Our incarceration rate -- at 714 per 100,000 residents and rising -- is almost forty percent greater than our nearest competitors (the Bahamas, Belarus, and Russia). More pointedly, it is 6.2 times the Canadian rate and 12.3 times the rate in Japan. Economist Glenn Loury argues that this extraordinary mass incarceration is not a response to rising crime rates or a proud success of social policy. Instead, it is the product of a generation-old collective decision to become a more punitive society. He connects this policy to our history of racial oppression, showing that the punitive turn in American politics and culture emerged in the post-civil rights years and has today become the main vehicle for the reproduction of racial hierarchies. Whatever the explanation, Loury argues, the uncontroversial fact is that changes in our criminal justice system since the 1970s have created a nether class of Americans -- vastly disproportionately black and brown -- with severely restricted rights and life chances. Moreover, conservatives and liberals agree that the growth in our prison population has long passed the point of diminishing returns. Stigmatizing and confining of a large segment of our population should be unacceptable to Americans. Loury's call to action makes all of us now responsible for ensuring that the policy changes.

Punishment For Sale

Author: Donna Selman
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 9781442201736
Size: 79.91 MB
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Punishment for Sale is the definitive modern history of private prisons, told through social, economic and political frames. The authors explore the origin of the ideas of modern privatization, the establishment of private prisons, and the efforts to keep expanding in the face of problems and bad publicity. The book provides a balanced telling of the story of private prisons and the resistance they engendered within the context of criminology, and it is intended for supplemental use in undergraduate and graduate courses in criminology, social problems, and race and ethnicity.

Handbook Of Research On School Violence In American K 12 Education

Author: Crews, Gordon A.
Publisher: IGI Global
ISBN: 1522562478
Size: 79.34 MB
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In recent years, the United States has seen a vast increase in bloodshed stemming from violence within the education system. Understanding the underlying factors behind these atrocities may be the first step in preventing more brutality in the future. The Handbook of Research on School Violence in American K-12 Education provides emerging research exploring the theoretical and practical aspects of the phenomena of school violence through the lens of social science and humanities perspectives. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as preventative measures, cyberbullying, minority issues, risk factors, and dealing with the traumatic aftermath of such events, this book is ideally designed for researchers, students, psychologists, sociologists, teachers, law enforcement, school counselors, policymakers, and administrators seeking current research on the interconnectedness between families, schools, bullying, and subsequent violence.

Color Behind Bars Racism In The U S Prison System 2 Volumes

Author: Scott Wm. Bowman
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 0313399042
Size: 33.12 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A diverse, critical analysis of racial and ethnic disparities within the American criminal justice system that encourages critical thinking by providing various sides to the issues. • Presents a historical examination of racial and ethnic influences in the early formation of the criminal justice system • Allows readers to identify the ways in which our prison system has changed throughout history regarding racism—and the ways in which it has remained the same • Provides a critical analysis of the current race- and ethnicity-based criminal justice system • Identifies intersectionalities of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status within the criminal justice system

Clean Well Lighted Sentences A Guide To Avoiding The Most Common Errors In Grammar And Punctuation

Author: Janis Bell
Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company
ISBN: 0393337154
Size: 31.22 MB
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A lighthearted and succinct guide to common errors in American sentence structure comprehensively explains grammar and usage problems while revealing the "dos and don'ts" of punctuation, in a guide that complements each chapter with a reinforcing quiz. 13,000 first printing.

Delinquency And Juvenile Justice In American Society

Author: Randall G. Shelden
Publisher: Waveland Press
ISBN: 1478610174
Size: 14.44 MB
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Extensively revised, the second edition blends theory, research, and applications into a superb overview of the complex issues surrounding juvenile delinquency and societys attempts to address juvenile crime. After providing an excellent historical foundation, Shelden presents the theories essential to understanding crime and delinquency. He then explores the system and its effects on juveniles and society, including comprehensive coverage of female delinquency. The social, legal, and political influences on how the public perceives juveniles and the inequality in U.S. society that affects families, communities, and schools are highlighted throughout the book. The concluding chapter looks at solutions that have worked and identifies trends in treating juvenile delinquency. The authors almost four decades of teaching about and researching juveniles and the system make him eminently qualified to offer readers the tools necessary to think critically about delinquency and to evaluate the policies enacted to manage the juveniles who violate the laws. Delinquency and Juvenile Justice in American Society, 2/E provides affordable, up-to-date, easily accessible, and thorough analysis of a significant topic.