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Paradoxes In Scientific Inference

Author: Mark Chang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466509864
Size: 30.20 MB
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Paradoxes are poems of science and philosophy that collectively allow us to address broad multidisciplinary issues within a microcosm. A true paradox is a source of creativity and a concise expression that delivers a profound idea and provokes a wild and endless imagination. The study of paradoxes leads to ultimate clarity and, at the same time, indisputably challenges your mind. Paradoxes in Scientific Inference analyzes paradoxes from many different perspectives: statistics, mathematics, philosophy, science, artificial intelligence, and more. The book elaborates on findings and reaches new and exciting conclusions. It challenges your knowledge, intuition, and conventional wisdom, compelling you to adjust your way of thinking. Ultimately, you will learn effective scientific inference through studying the paradoxes.

Philosophical Problems Of Statistical Inference

Author: T. Seidenfeld
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789027709653
Size: 57.13 MB
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Probability and inverse inference; Neyman-Pearson theory; Fisherian significance testing; The fiducial argument: one parameter; The fiducial argument: several parameters; Ian hacking's theory; Henry Kyburg's theory; Relevance and experimental design.

On Science Inference Information And Decision Making

Author: A. Szaniawski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792349228
Size: 32.59 MB
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Klemens Szaniawski was born in Warsaw on March 3, 1925. He began to study philosophy in the clandestine Warsaw University during World War II. Tadeusz Kotarbinski, Jan Lukasiewicz, Maria and Stanislaw Ossowskis, Wladyslaw Tatarkiewicz, and Henryk Hii: were among his teachers. Sza­ niawski was also a member of the Polish Home Army (AK), one of the young­ est. He was arrested and spent the last period of the war as a prisoner in Auschwitz. After 1945, he continued his studies in the University of L6dz; his Master thesis was devoted to French moral thought of the 17th and 18th cen­ turies. Then he worked in the Department of Ethics in L6dZ. In 1950, he received his Ph. D. on the basis of the dissertation on the concept of honour in knight groups in the Middle Ages; Maria Ossowska was the supervisor. In the early fifties he moved to Warsaw to the Department of Logic, directed by Kotarbinski. He took his habilitation exams in 1961. In 1969 he became a professor. Since 1970 he was the head of Department of the Logic at the Warsaw University. In the sixties Szaniawski was also the Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Sociology. In 1984 he was elected the Rector Magnificus of the Warsaw University but the Ministry overruled the autonomous democra­ tic vote of the academic community. He served as the President of the Polish (since 1977) taking this post after Kotarbinski.

Principles Of Scientific Methods

Author: Mark Chang
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482238101
Size: 37.33 MB
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Principles of Scientific Methods focuses on the fundamental principles behind scientific methods. The book refers to "science" in a broad sense, including natural science, physics, mathematics, statistics, social science, political science, and engineering science. A principle is often abstract and has broad applicability while a method is usually concrete and specific. The author uses many concrete examples to explain principles and presents analogies to connect different methods or problems to arrive at a general principle or a common notion. He mainly discusses a particular method to address the great idea behind the method, not the method itself. The book shows how the principles are not only applicable to scientific research but also to our daily lives. The author explains how scientific methods are used for understanding how and why things happen, making predictions, and learning how to prevent mistakes and solve problems. Studying the principles of scientific methods is to think about thinking and to enlighten our understanding of scientific research. Scientific principles are the foundation of scientific methods. In this book, you’ll see how the principles reveal the big ideas behind our scientific discoveries and reflect the fundamental beliefs and wisdoms of scientists. The principles make the scientific methods coherent and constitute the source of creativity.

The Foundations Of Scientific Inference

Author: Wesley Salmon
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre
ISBN: 0822971259
Size: 34.97 MB
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Not since Ernest Nagel’s 1939 monograph on the theory of probability has there been a comprehensive elementary survey of the philosophical problems of probablity and induction. This is an authoritative and up-to-date treatment of the subject, and yet it is relatively brief and nontechnical. Hume’s skeptical arguments regarding the justification of induction are taken as a point of departure, and a variety of traditional and contemporary ways of dealing with this problem are considered. The author then sets forth his own criteria of adequacy for interpretations of probability. Utilizing these criteria he analyzes contemporary theories of probability, as well as the older classical and subjective interpretations.

Science Explanation And Rationality

Author: James H. Fetzer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195352917
Size: 61.98 MB
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Carl G. Hempel exerted greater influence upon philosophers of science than any other figure during the 20th century. In this far-reaching collection, distinguished philosophers contribute valuable studies that illuminate and clarify the central problems to which Hempel was devoted. The essays enhance our understanding of the development of logical empiricism as the major intellectual influence for scientifically-oriented philosophers and philosophically-minded scientists of the 20th century.

Circularity

Author: Ron Aharoni
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814723703
Size: 29.81 MB
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"Circularity" is the story of a Janus-faced conceptual structure, that on the one hand led to deep scientific discoveries, and on the other hand is used to trick the mind into believing the impossible. Alongside mathematical revolutions that eventually led to the invention of the computer, the book describes ancient paradoxes that arise from circular thinking. Another aspect of circularity, its ability to entertain, leads to a surprising insight on the time old question "What is humor". The book presents the ubiquity of circularity in many fields, and its power to confuse and to instruct. See Press Release: Vicious circles -- confusing, instructive, amusing? Contents:The Dark Side — Paradoxes:MagicFree WillThe Mind–Body ProblemThe Illuminated Side — Scientific Breakthroughs:Large Infinities and Still Larger OnesGödel's Incompleteness TheoremTuring Invents the ComputerFor the Experienced Hikers Readership: Researchers in mathematics, philosophy and general public.

Inference Method And Decision

Author: R.D. Rosenkrantz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401012377
Size: 75.50 MB
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This book grew out of previously published papers of mine composed over a period of years; they have been reworked (sometimes beyond recognition) so as to form a reasonably coherent whole. Part One treats of informative inference. I argue (Chapter 2) that the traditional principle of induction in its clearest formulation (that laws are confirmed by their positive cases) is clearly false. Other formulations in terms of the 'uniformity of nature' or the 'resemblance of the future to the past' seem to me hopelessly unclear. From a Bayesian point of view, 'learning from experience' goes by conditionalization (Bayes' rule). The traditional stum bling block for Bayesians has been to fmd objective probability inputs to conditionalize upon. Subjective Bayesians allow any probability inputs that do not violate the usual axioms of probability. Many subjectivists grant that this liberality seems prodigal but own themselves unable to think of additional constraints that might plausibly be imposed. To be sure, if we could agree on the correct probabilistic representation of 'ignorance' (or absence of pertinent data), then all probabilities obtained by applying Bayes' rule to an 'informationless' prior would be objective. But familiar contra dictions, like the Bertrand paradox, are thought to vitiate all attempts to objectify 'ignorance'. BuUding on the earlier work of Sir Harold Jeffreys, E. T. Jaynes, and the more recent work ofG. E. P. Box and G. E. Tiao, I have elected to bite this bullet. In Chapter 3, I develop and defend an objectivist Bayesian approach.

Bayesian Inference And Maximum Entropy Methods In Science And Engineering

Author: Kevin Hunter Knuth
Publisher: Amer Inst of Physics
ISBN: 9780735404687
Size: 51.79 MB
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For over 25 years the MaxEnt workshops have explored the use of Bayesian probability theory, entropy and information theory in scientific and engineering applications. This volume considers Methods, Applications, and Foundations. Application areas include, but are not limited to: astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, earth science, and engineering.