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Particles In Water

Author: John Gregory
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203508459
Size: 44.62 MB
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Based on the author’s more than 35 years of experience, Particles in Water: Properties and Processes examines particles and their behavior in water systems. The book offers clear and accessible methods for characterizing a range of particles both individually and as aggregates. The author delineates the principles for understanding particle properties and shows how such information contributes to the understanding and improvement of water treatment processes, including sedimentation, flocculation, and filtration. A distillation of the author's years of experience, the book explores practical applications of fundamental principles. Outlining the origin, nature, and properties of particles in water, the author covers particle size, transport processes, and light scattering and provides a broad outline of important techniques for particle size determination. He discusses the important topic of surface charge, which plays a major role in colloid stability and interactions between particles, with some emphasis on the role of dissolved salts. The book gives an account of particle aggregation kinetics, the form of aggregates, and aggregate strength and explores coagulation and flocculation and the modes of action of some common additives used in these processes. The book concludes with an overview of important solid-liquid separation processes and the principles on which they are based. The author presents the material in an easily accessible style, using just enough math to be clear but not so much as to be overwhelming. Highlighting the growing importance of advanced filtration systems in water treatment, this book provides an excellent summary of the behavior of particles in water systems and in relation to the techniques designed to capture and remove them.

Light Scattering By Particles In Water

Author: Miroslaw Jonasz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080548678
Size: 14.64 MB
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Light scattering-based methods are used to characterize small particles suspended in water in a wide range of disciplines ranging from oceanography, through medicine, to industry. The scope and accuracy of these methods steadily increases with the progress in light scattering research. This book focuses on the theoretical and experimental foundations of the study and modeling of light scattering by particles in water and critically evaluates the key constraints of light scattering models. It begins with a brief review of the relevant theoretical fundamentals of the interaction of light with condensed matter, followed by an extended discussion of the basic optical properties of pure water and seawater and the physical principles that explain them. The book continues with a discussion of key optical features of the pure water/seawater and the most common components of natural waters. In order to clarify and put in focus some of the basic physical principles and most important features of the experimental data on light scattering by particles in water, the authors employ simple models. The book concludes with extensive critical reviews of the experimental constraints of light scattering models: results of measurements of light scattering and of the key properties of the particles: size distribution, refractive index (composition), structure, and shape. These reviews guide the reader through literature scattered among more than 210 scientific journals and periodicals which represent a wide range of disciplines. A special emphasis is put on the methods of measuring both light scattering and the relevant properties of the particles, because principles of these methods may affect interpretation and applicability of the results. The book includes extensive guides to literature on light scattering data and instrumentation design, as well as on the data for size distributions, refractive indices, and shapes typical of particles in natural waters. It also features a comprehensive index, numerous cross-references, and a reference list with over 1370 entries. An errata sheet for this work can be found at: http://www.tpdsci.com/Ref/Jonasz_M_2007_LightScatE.php *Extensive reference section provides handy compilations of knowledge on the designs of light scattering meters, sources of experimental data, and more *Worked exercises and examples throughout

The Properties Of Water And Their Role In Colloidal And Biological Systems

Author: Carel J. Van Oss
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123743036
Size: 76.24 MB
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The book also treats the surface properties of apolar and polar molecules, polymers, particles and cells, as well as their mutual interaction energies, when immersed in water, under the influence of the three prevailing non-covalent forces, i.e., Lewis acid-base (AB), Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) and electrical double layer (EL) interactions. The polar AB interactions, be they attractive or repulsive, typically represent up to 90% of the total interaction energies occurring in water. Thus the addition of AB energies to the LW + EL energies of the classical DLVO theory of energy vs. distance analysis makes this powerful tool (the Extended DLVO theory) applicable to the quantitative study of the stability of particle suspensions in water.-

Particle Deposition And Aggregation

Author: M. Elimelech
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 1483161374
Size: 62.44 MB
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Particle Deposition and Aggregation: Measurement, Modelling and Simulation describes how particle deposition and aggregation can be measured, modeled, and simulated in a systematic manner. It brings together the necessary disciplines of colloid and surface chemistry, hydrodynamics, experimental methods, and computational methods to present a unified approach to this problem. The book is divided into four parts. Part I presents the theoretical principles governing deposition and aggregation phenomena, including a discussion of the forces that exist between particles and the hydrodynamic factors that control the movement of the particles and suspending fluid. Part II introduces methods for modeling the processes, first at a simple level (e.g. single particle-surface, single particle-single particle interactions in model flow conditions) and then describes the simulation protocols and computation tools which may be employed to describe more complex (multiple-particle interaction) systems. Part III summarizes the experimental methods of quantifying aggregating and depositing systems and concludes with a comparison of experimental results with those predicted using simple theoretical predictions. Part IV is largely based on illustrative examples to demonstrate the application of simulation and modeling methods to particle filtration, aggregation, and transport processes. This book should be useful to graduates working in process and environmental engineering research or industrial development at a postgraduate level, and to scientists who wish to extend their knowledge into more realistic process conditions in which the fluid hydrodynamics and other complicating factors must be accommodated.

Ultra Fine Particles

Author: Tyozi Uyeda
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0815519419
Size: 17.93 MB
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This book was written with several objectives in mind: 1. To share with as many scientists and engineers as possible the intriguing scientific aspects of ultra-fine particles (UFPs) and to show their potential as new materials. 2. Entice such researchers to participate in the development of this emerging field. 3. To publicize the achievements of the Ultra-Fine Particle Project, which was carried out under the auspices of the Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology program (ERATO). In addition to the members of the Ultra-Fine Particle Project, contributions from other pioneers in this field are included. To achieve the first objective described above, the uniformity of the contents and focus on a single central theme have been sacrificed somewhat to provide a broad coverage. It is expected that the reader can discover an appropriate topic for further development of new materials and basic technology by reading selected sections of this book. Alternately, one may gain an overview of this new field by reviewing the entire book, which can potentially lead to new directions in the development of UFPs.

The Role Of Colloidal Systems In Environmental Protection

Author: Monzer Fanun
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444632840
Size: 52.92 MB
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The Role of Colloidal Systems in Environmental Protection describes the importance of colloids in many applications that contribute to environmental protection, including drinking water and wastewater treatment, heavy metal remediation, treatment of radioactive materials, corrosion, and energy conversion. Knowledge of the physical and chemical composition of colloids is important to understand and accurately model the relevant processes. The book familiarizes the reader with the technological features of the application of colloids in environmental protection, and provides chemical engineers, researchers, and scientists in academic and corporate communities with the latest developments in this field. Each chapter covers the whole spectrum of the relevant science, from the fundamentals to applications. Provides the applied technological features of colloids in environmental protection Gives insight into the use of bio-solid colloids as contaminant carriers Covers the natural occurrence of biosurfactants in the environment and their applications Provides information on the use of nanoparticles for environmental applications Chapters written by recognized and respected experts in the field from all over the world

Operational Control Of Coagulation And Filtration Processes

Author: American Water Works Association
Publisher: American Water Works Association
ISBN: 1613001215
Size: 66.61 MB
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This AWWA manual of practice describes jar testing, particle counting, and other techniques and processes for monitoring, optimizing, and controlling water treatment.

Handbook Of Water And Wastewater Treatment Technologies

Author: Nicholas P. Cheremisinoff
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 9780750674980
Size: 40.94 MB
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This Handbook is an authoritative reference for process and plant engineers, water treatment plant operators and environmental consultants. Practical information is provided for application to the treatment of drinking water and to industrial and municipal wastewater. The author presents material for those concerned with meeting government regulations, reducing or avoiding fines for violations, and making cost-effective decisions while producing a high quality of water via physical, chemical, and thermal techniques. Included in the texts are sidebar discussions, questions for thinking and discussing, recommended resources for the reader, and a comprehensive glossary. Two companion books by Cheremisinoff are available: Handbook of Air Pollution Control Technologies, and Handbook of Solid Waste Management and Waste Minimization Technologies. * Covers the treatment of drinking water as well as industrial and municipal wastewater * Cost-efficiency considerations are incorporated in the discussion of methodologies * Provides practical and broad-based information in one comprehensive source

Aquatic Surface Chemistry

Author: Werner Stumm
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471829959
Size: 78.65 MB
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The solid-solution interface. Adsorption mechanisms in aquatic surface chemistry. Adsorption mechanisms. Organic compounds. Inorganic compounds. The electric double layer at the solid-solution interface. Electronic work function and potential of zero charge. Single-crystal electrodes. The problem of polycrystalline electrodes. Specific ionic adsorption. Adsorption of neutral molecules. Chemisorption and surface mobility. A two-phase model for the interpretation of proton and metal ion interaction with charged polyelectrolyte gels and their linear analogs. Development of the unified model. Application of the unified model to the interpretation of proton and metal-ion interaction with various charged polymeric systems. The surface chemistry of oxides, hydroxides, and oxide minerals. Coordination chemistry of the oxide-water interface. Acid-base characteristics of surface hydroxyl groups. Metal complexes. Adsorption of anions. Ternary surface complexes. Aspects of the molecular structure in surface complexes; spectroscopic investigations. Cation adsorption. Anion and organic ligand adsorption. Final considerations. Surface chemical processes in soil. Soil materials. Available models. Applicability of the models to the soil water system. The formation and dissolution of solid phases. The hydrolysis of iron in synthetic, biological, and aquatic media. Mononuclear aquahydroxo complexes of iron (III) and the primary steps of polynuclear growth. Hydrolysis in salt solutions. Iron hydrolysis in cells. Aquatic media: hydrolysis induced by oxidation of ferrous ions. The morphological variety of hydrolysis products. The dissolution of oxides and aluminum silicates; examples of surface-coordination-controlled kinetics. Surface-controlled dissolution. The ligand-promoted dissolution of ... The proton-promoted dissolution of hydrous oxides. Kinetic dependence on solute concentrations; fractional reaction orders. Weathering. The role of chemical weathering in the neutralization of acids. Reductive dissolution of metal oxides. Oxidation state and solubility. The geochemical setting. Dissolution without changes in oxidation state. Mechanism of reductive dissolution. Kinetics of reductive dissolution: simple models. Kinetics of reductive dissolution: additional considerations. Adsorption of redox-inert species. Effects of oxide mineralogy and surface structure. Experimental verification of theory. Monte Carlo simulations of surface reaction rate laws. Surface reaction rate laws: simple models. Dislocations. Monte Carlo model. Results and discussion. Dislocations with a strain field included. New evidence for the mechanisms of dissolution of silicate minerals. Evidence of surface reaction control during dissolution of silicate minerals. New data on the dissolution of silicates and the surface reaction hypothesis. Concluding remarks. Regulating the composition of natural waters. Surface chemical aspects of the distribution and fate of metal ions in lakes. Interactions of metal ions with surfaces of natural particles. Interaction of metal ions with biota: simple chemical models. The role of settling particles in the vertical transport of metal ions in lakes. Interpretation of metal complexation by heterogeneous complexants. Background: metals and ligands. Measurement of metal-ligand complexation equilibrium data. Representation of complexation equilibria. Application of the G(K') function to interpretation of heterogeneous complexant properties (Using Metal-Fulvic Interaction). Particle-particle interactions. Particle transport. Chemical aspects. A physicochemical synthesis. Environmental applications. The role of colloids in the partitioning of solutes in natural waters. Surface reactions of ions and polar compounds. Organic film solvation of hydrophobic compounds. Strange observations. Experimental artifacts. Reversibility of colloid aggregation. Artifacts and reality. Coagulation kinetics and simulations of particle-size distributions. Size distributions in peptizable suspensions. Apparent partition coefficients in natural waters. Abiotic transformation of organic chemicals at the particle-water interface. Kinetic models and equations. Heterogeneous organic reactions in sediment suspensions. Heterogeneous photoreactions. The role particles in regulating the composition of seawater. Particle in the ocean. Classification of deep-ocean profiles. Deep-ocean profiles of the elements. From molecules to planetary environments: understanding global change. Change. Observation. Earth convection: megaprocesses: geochemical cycles. Erosion. Bioprecipitation.