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Patent Failure

Author: James Bessen
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400828692
Size: 24.48 MB
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In recent years, business leaders, policymakers, and inventors have complained to the media and to Congress that today's patent system stifles innovation instead of fostering it. But like the infamous patent on the peanut butter and jelly sandwich, much of the cited evidence about the patent system is pure anecdote--making realistic policy formation difficult. Is the patent system fundamentally broken, or can it be fixed with a few modest reforms? Moving beyond rhetoric, Patent Failure provides the first authoritative and comprehensive look at the economic performance of patents in forty years. James Bessen and Michael Meurer ask whether patents work well as property rights, and, if not, what institutional and legal reforms are necessary to make the patent system more effective. Patent Failure presents a wide range of empirical evidence from history, law, and economics. The book's findings are stark and conclusive. While patents do provide incentives to invest in research, development, and commercialization, for most businesses today, patents fail to provide predictable property rights. Instead, they produce costly disputes and excessive litigation that outweigh positive incentives. Only in some sectors, such as the pharmaceutical industry, do patents act as advertised, with their benefits outweighing the related costs. By showing how the patent system has fallen short in providing predictable legal boundaries, Patent Failure serves as a call for change in institutions and laws. There are no simple solutions, but Bessen and Meurer's reform proposals need to be heard. The health and competitiveness of the nation's economy depend on it.

Die Einschr Nkbarkeit Des Patentrechtlichen Unterlassungsanspruchs Im Einzelfall

Author: Marcus Sonnenberg
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658048131
Size: 22.82 MB
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Der patentrechtliche Unterlassungsanspruch verleiht dem Inhaber ein weitreichendes Ausschließlichkeitsrecht, dessen Ausübung grundsätzlich unbeschränkt ausgestaltet ist. Dies bereitet dann Schwierigkeiten, wenn die Rechtsdurchsetzung im Einzelfall in Konflikt zu den Schutzzwecken der Rechtsgewährung von Patentrechten tritt. So kann die Geltendmachung des Unterlassungsanspruchs durch Rechtsinhaber, die ihr Patentrecht nicht zur Entwicklung, Herstellung, Kennzeichnung oder Absatzförderung von Produkten einsetzen, problematisch sein. Dies gilt insbesondere dann, wenn der Unterlassungsanspruch ausschließlich als Drohmittel eingesetzt wird, um möglichst hohe Erlöse zu erzielen. Dem entgegen steht der Charakter von Patente, die auch als verkehrsfähige Wirtschaftsgüter fungieren sollen. Hierbei erfüllen gerade Patentinhaber in Gestalt von Verwertungsgesellschaften eine sehr wichtige wirtschaftliche Funktion. Das Buch arbeitet solche problematischen Fallkonstellationen heraus und untersucht, unter welchen Voraussetzungen eine Einschränkung des patentrechtlichen Unterlassungsanspruchs, auch im Hinblick auf die Zwecken und Funktionen dieses Rechts, nach internationalen, europäischen und nationalen Vorgaben möglich und geboten ist. Dabei wird auch, aufgrund der besonderen Bedeutung solcher Fallkonstellationen in den USA, die US-amerikanische Rechtslage vergleichend hinzugezogen.

Pharmaceutical Innovation Competition And Patent Law

Author: Josef Drexl
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857932462
Size: 15.86 MB
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Public health, safety and access to reasonably priced medicine are common policy goals of pharmaceutical regulations. As both the context for innovation and competitive structure change, industry actors dynamically challenge the balance between the incentive for protection and the achievement of those policy goals. Considering the arguments from the perspectives of innovation, competition law and patent law, this book explores the difficult question of balancing protection with access, highlighting the difficulties in harmonization and coordination. The contributors to this book, including academics, judges and practitioners from Europe, the US and Japan, explore to what extent patent strategies and life-cycle management practices take advantage of patent laws and health-care regulation and disrupt the necessary balance between incentives for innovation and access to affordable medicine and health care. Addressing fundamental questions in the field of pharmaceutical innovation, this book will appeal to scholars and practitioners in intellectual property, competition law and life sciences regulation, as well as pharmaceutical companies and regulators.

Nationen Im Innovationswettlauf

Author: Beat Hotz-Hart
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 365803081X
Size: 39.30 MB
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Das Buch zeigt die Zusammenhänge zwischen Innovationen bzw. Innovationsprozessen mit der Entwicklung moderner Volkswirtschaften. Untersucht werden die Faktoren und ihre Interaktionen, die für die Leistung der Innovationssysteme von Regionen oder ganzer Nationen verantwortlich sind. Dabei geht es um die Beiträge des Bildungssystems, der öffentlichen und privaten Forschungs- und Entwicklungsaktivitäten, von Unternehmen mit ihren Innovationsstrategien inklusive den staatlichen Rahmenbedingungen wie dem Schutz des geistigen Eigentums. Umsetzung und Diffusion von Innovationen werden unter anderem anhand von Unternehmensgründungen geprüft. Damit verbundene Innovationsnetzwerke entwickeln sich unter dem Druck und in der hohen Dynamik der Globalisierung weiter. Zusätzliche Kapitel behandeln politische Strategien von Nationen und Regionen, die sich im globalen Innovationswettbewerb behaupten wollen. Dabei werden aus polit-ökonomischer Sicht die Faktoren von Erfolg und Misserfolg im globalen Innovationswettbewerb der führenden Nationen in Europa mit den USA und den wichtigsten asiatischen Staaten verglichen und die künftige Entwicklung dieser Volkswirtschaften abgeschätzt. Mit einem Geleitwort von Prof. Dominique Foray.

The Law Of Intellectual Property

Author: Craig Allen Nard
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business
ISBN: 145488665X
Size: 66.94 MB
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This comprehensive and practical book focuses on the core concepts of Intellectual Property. Its innovative pedagogy engages students with problems drawn from actual cases and provides them with introductions to cases and contextual summaries in the notes. Patent: Up to date Federal Circuit and Supreme Court case law, including: • Nautilus, Alice, Teva, Williamson, and Lexmark • Detailed substantive comments following the principal cases • More statistics and charts, particularly relating to USPTO decision-making and PTAB inter partes review • Enhanced Patent Reform Perspectives (i.e., America Invents Act) Copyright: • Expanded coverage of contemporary developments in copyright law, with 13 new cases; • Broader coverage of recent developments gives adopters greater flexibility in choosing materials within that structure. Trademark: • Updated to reflect recent Supreme Court decisions • New materials on bars to registration, functionality, expressive use, and remedies

The Biologist S Imagination

Author: William Hoffman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199361320
Size: 61.10 MB
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Scholars and policymakers alike agree that innovation in the biosciences is key to future growth. The field continues to shift and expand, and it is certainly changing the way people live their lives in a variety of ways. With a large share of federal research dollars devoted to the biosciences, the field is just beginning to live up to its billing as a source of innovation, economic productivity and growth. Vast untapped potential to imagine and innovate exists in the biosciences given new tools now widely available. In The Biologist's Imagination, William Hoffman and Leo Furcht examine the history of innovation in the biosciences, tracing technological innovation from the late eighteenth century to the present and placing special emphasis on how and where technology evolves. Place is often key to innovation, from the early industrial age to the rise of the biotechnology industry in the second half of the twentieth century. The book uses the distinct history of bioinnovation to discuss current trends as they relate to medicine, agriculture, energy, industry, ecosystems, and climate. Fast-moving research fields like genomics, synthetic biology, stem cell research, neuroscience, bioautomation and bioprinting are accelerating these trends. Hoffman and Furcht argue that our system of bioscience innovation is itself in need of innovation. It needs to adapt to the massive changes brought about by converging technologies and the globalization of higher education, workforce skills, and entrepreneurship. The Biologist's Imagination is both a review of past models for bioscience innovation and a forward-looking, original argument for what future models should take into account.

The Eureka Myth

Author: Jessica Silbey
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804793530
Size: 80.37 MB
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Are innovation and creativity helped or hindered by our intellectual property laws? In the two hundred plus years since the Constitution enshrined protections for those who create and innovate, we're still debating the merits of IP laws and whether or not they actually work as intended. Artists, scientists, businesses, and the lawyers who serve them, as well as the Americans who benefit from their creations all still wonder: what facilitates innovation and creativity in our digital age? And what role, if any, do our intellectual property laws play in the growth of innovation and creativity in the United States? Incentivizing the "progress of science and the useful arts" has been the goal of intellectual property law since our constitutional beginnings. The Eureka Myth cuts through the current debates and goes straight to the source: the artists and innovators themselves. Silbey makes sense of the intersections between intellectual property law and creative and innovative activity by centering on the stories told by artists, scientists, their employers, lawyers and managers, describing how and why they create and innovate and whether or how IP law plays a role in their activities. Their employers, business partners, managers, and lawyers also describe their role in facilitating the creative and innovative work. Silbey's connections and distinctions made between the stories and statutes serve to inform present and future innovative and creative communities. Breaking new ground in its examination of the U.S. economy and cultural identity, The Eureka Myth draws out new and surprising conclusions about the sometimes misinterpreted relationships between creativity and intellectual property protections.

Patent Policy

Author: Pia Weiss
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136981861
Size: 50.79 MB
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There exists a vast body of literature on all aspects associated with patents, including innovation, patent policy instruments, licensing, and the tension between patent policy and competition policy. However, most of the works focusing on patent policy are only available as journal articles or as reprints in book collections. This book bridges that gap in presenting a systematic overview of models dedicated to patent policy.

The Oxford Handbook Of International Antitrust Economics

Author: Roger D. Blair
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019938861X
Size: 61.25 MB
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More than any other area of regulation, antitrust economics shapes law and policy in the United States, the Americas, Europe, and Asia. In a number of different areas of antitrust, advances in theory and empirical work have caused a fundamental reevaluation and shift of some of the assumptions behind antitrust policy. This reevaluation has profound implications for the future of the field. The Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics has collected chapters from many of the leading figures in antitrust. In doing so, this two volume Handbook provides an important reference guide for scholars, teachers, and practitioners. However, it is more than a merely reference guide. Rather, it has a number of different goals. First, it takes stock of the current state of scholarship across a number of different antitrust topics. In doing so, it relies primarily upon the economics scholarship. In some situations, though, there is also coverage of legal scholarship, case law developments, and legal policies. The second goal of the Handbook is to provide some ideas about future directions of antitrust scholarship and policy. Antitrust economics has evolved over the last 60 years. It has both shaped policy and been shaped by policy. The Oxford Handbook of International Antitrust Economics will serve as a policy and research guide of next steps to consider when shaping the future of the field of antitrust.