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Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author: Gérard Said
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780444529022
Size: 41.60 MB
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Disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are the cause of prominent neurological symptoms including weakness, sensory loss, pain and autonomic dysfunction associated with deficits, morbidity and mortality. These disorders may be primary hereditary or cryptogenic neurologic disorders confined to the PNS or part of the pathology of both the central nervous system and the PNS. Most PNS disorders are secondary to other system disorders and may be responsive to treatment of the primary disease. Important advances have been obtained in several areas including molecular genetics, biochemistry, immunology, morphology and physiology that have enhanced our understanding of the causes and consequences of damage to peripheral nerve. Understanding of both these groups of PNS diseases has greatly expanded over recent years and has led to important advances of treatment both to protect and to repair damages of peripheral nerve. This volume provides an overview of the state-of-the-art of examination, diagnosis and treatment of these very diverse disorders and will be of interest to both the research and clinical neuroscience and neurology communities. Covers both hereditary and cryptogenic neurologic disorders Includes advances in the basic science of PNS from molecular genetics, biochemistry, immunology, morphology and physiology Detailed coverage of neuropathy in connective tissue disorders, infectious disorders, metabolic disorders and malignancy

Huntington Disease

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128019034
Size: 46.17 MB
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Huntington Disease summarizes the most recent findings related to the disease, providing both cutting edge coverage for clinical/research specialists looking to expand their knowledge base of Huntington disease information, as well as solid groundwork for advanced students from various backgrounds (neurology, psychiatry, neuropsychology, genetics). The volume includes all major areas of Huntington disease clinical care and research, whereas many other HD texts focus solely on neurological symptoms. This book also addresses behavioral and cognitive symptoms, brain imaging, and family dynamics and therapeutic alliances in working with individuals affected by HD. Clinical trials are covered extensively, including design considerations for therapeutic studies. The devastating nature of Huntington’s disease is well appreciated throughout the neuroscience, neurology, and psychiatric communities, and a great amount of basic and clinical research is currently taking place. However, much of that occurs in isolated research silos, and it is critical that an interdisciplinary resource be developed to provide in depth information to enhance communication and collaboration. This volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series is that resource. Includes coverage of both basic science and clinical aspects of the disease, as well as treatment, experimental therapeutics, and biomarkers Provides an essential resource for the non-neurologist, including necessary background for understanding the disease before making a more detailed study proposal Provides an interdisciplinary approach that can be applied in everyday clinic and research efforts Features chapters edited by leaders in the field around the globe—the broadest expert coverage available

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author: José Berciano
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128078820
Size: 66.85 MB
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Hereditary ataxias (HA) encompass an increasing number of degenerative disorders characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia usually accompanied by extracerebellar semeiology including peripheral nerve involvement. Classically, HA were classified according to their pathological hallmark comprising three main forms: (1) spinal form predominantly with degeneration of spinocerebellar tracts, posterior columns, and pyramidal tracts (Friedreich’s ataxia, FA); (2) olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA); and (3) cortical cerebellar atrophy (CCA). In the 1980s Harding proposed a clinico-genetic classification based upon age of onset, modality of transmission, and clinical semeiology. The main categories in this classification were as follows: (1) early onset cerebellar ataxia (EOCA) with age of onset below 25 years and usually with autosomal recessive (AR) transmission (this group encompasses FA and syndromes different from FA); (2) autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) with adult onset and with either cerebellar-plus syndrome or pure cerebellar semeiology; and (3) idiopathic late onset onset cerebellar ataxia (ILOCA). With the advent of molecular genetics, the nosology of HA has been in a state of constant flux. At present EOCA comprises at least 17 genotypes (designated with the acronym of ARCA derived from AR cerebellar ataxia), whereas under the umbrella of ADCA 30 genotypes have been reported. In this chapter we will review peripheral nerve involvement in classical pathological entities (OPCA and CCA), ARCA, ADCA, and ILOCA paying special attention to the most prevalent syndromes in each category. As a general rule, nerve involvement is relatively common in any form of ataxia except ILOCA, the most common pattern being either sensory or sensorimotor neuronopathy with a dying-back process. An exception to this rule is AR spastic ataxia of Charlevoix–Saguenay where nerve conduction studies show the characteristic pattern of intermediate neuropathy implying that sacsin mutation causes both axonal and Schwann cell dysfunction.

Handbook Of Clinical Neurology

Author: P. J. Vinken
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 62.58 MB
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This title is directed primarily towards health care professionals outside of the United States. A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series (Series Editors: Michael J. Aminoff, Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, USA; François Boller, Bethesda, USA; Dick F. Swaab, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Amsterdam, the Netherlands) on neuromuscular junction disorders. A volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, which has an unparalleled reputation as the world's most comprehensive source of information in neurology. International list of contributors including the leading workers in the field. Describes the advances which have occurred in clinical neurology and the neurosciences, their impact on the understanding of neurological disorders and on patient care.

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author: P. Bouche
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128078502
Size: 13.68 MB
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Peripheral nerve entrapments are frequent. They usually appear in anatomical tunnels such as the carpal tunnel. Nerve compressions may be due to external pressure such as the fibular nerve at the fibular head. Malignant or benign tumors may also damage the nerve. For each nerve from the upper and lower limbs, detailed clinical, electrophysiological, imaging, and therapeutic aspects are described. In the upper limbs, carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow are the most frequent manifestations; the radial nerve is less frequently involved. Other nerves may occasionally be damaged and these are described also. In the lower limbs, the fibular nerve is most frequently involved, usually at the fibular head by external compression. Other nerves may also be involved and are therefore described. The clinical and electrophysiological examination are very important for the diagnosis, but imaging is also of great use. Treatments available for each nerve disease are discussed.

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author: W. Grisold
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128078715
Size: 58.89 MB
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The peripheral nervous system can be affected by malignancies involving different mechanisms. Neoplastic nerve lesion by compression, invasion, and infiltration is rare and occurs in particular in leukemia (neuroleukemiosis) and lymphoma (neurolymphomatosis). Its occurrence is much rarer in cancer, and even less so in sarcoma. The neoplastic infiltration of peripheral nerves by solid tumors is characterized by specific topographical sites such as the base of the skull, the ear, nose and throat region, and the cervico-brachial plexus as well as the lumbar and sacral plexus. Rarely malignant invasion affects the cranial nerves of the face where it can spread centripetally. Autonomic nerves and ganglia can also be affected. The retrograde spread of cancer in nerves is a bad prognostic sign. The clinical diagnosis is determined by tumor type, the pattern of involvement, and often pain.

Handbook Of Neuropsychological Assessment

Author: Antonio E. Puente
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1489906827
Size: 31.48 MB
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The growth of clinical neuropsychology has been unprecedented. This growth has been oriented more toward the provision of than toward the foundation for services. Thus, while a greater number of psychologists are performing a greater number of neuropsychological procedures, there seems to us an uneven parallel growth between these services and the empirical foundations for them. It should come to no one's surprise that increasingly aggressive attacks on the field have been leveled. Despite these attacks, clinical neuropsychology con tinues to enjoy exceptional growth within psychology and acceptance by other health practitioners, insurance companies, legislators, judges, juries, and above all, consumers of our services. Growth without self-reflection is a dangerous enterprise, as is growth without directions. We find it disconcerting that existing and limited "self analysis" has assumed that neuropsychological dysfunction is immune to the same variables that affect psychological dysfunction. Some attention has been paid to the most obvious ones, such as age, but all others have been ignored and/ or misunderstood. This neglect has spawned a body of knowledge replete with questionable data and unfounded conclusions. Hence, it is surprising that clinical neuropsychologists consider themselves to be more scientifically sound than their regular clinical counterparts.

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author: Matthew C. Kiernan
Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters
ISBN: 0128078359
Size: 40.23 MB
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The chief role of the axon is that of impulse conduction, which depends on the electrical cable structure and voltage-dependent ion channels of the axonal membrane. Over recent decades, the development of specialized techniques such as patch clamping and site-directed mutagenesis have established the contribution of neuronal ion channel function to the processes of impulse conduction in myelinated nerves. Recently, these insights from in vitro studies have been translated into the clinical realm. In keeping with this progress, clinical axonal excitability techniques have been developed to provide information related to the activity of a variety of ion channels, energy-dependent pumps, and ion exchange processes activated during impulse conduction in peripheral axons. These noninvasive techniques have been extensively applied to the study of the biophysical properties of human peripheral nerves in vivo and have provided important insights into axonal ion channel function in health and neurological disease, particularly in relation to the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie neuropathy.

Peripheral Nerve Disorders

Author: Jean-Michel Vallat
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118618416
Size: 43.97 MB
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Peripheral Nerve Disorders: Pathology and Genetics is adefinitive, clinically-oriented guide to the pathology ofperipheral nerve disorders. These commonly seen neurological challenges have many causes andaccurate diagnosis is often necessary via pathological analysis.New techniques exploiting molecular biological knowledge haveopened up new vistas to understanding the pathogenesis of thesedisorders, and hence their effective management. This new title takes a disease-oriented approach to understandingthe pathology of these conditions. It combines classical andcontemporary techniques to enable practitioners in neurology andneuropathology to better understanding of the disease processesunderlying patients’ presentations and to formulateappropriate management plans. Peripheral Nerve Disorders: Pathology and Genetics is avaluable resource for neurologists, neuropathologists,pathologists, neurobiologists and geneticists.