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Persons Identity And Political Theory

Author: Catherine Galko Campbell
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400779178
Size: 73.90 MB
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This book examines the conception of the person at work in John Rawls’s writings from Theory of Justice to Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. The book aims to show that objections to Rawls’s political conception of the person fail and that a Rawlsian conception of political identity is defensible. The book shows that the debate between liberals and communitarians is relevant to the current debate regarding perfectionism and neutrality in politics, and clarifies the debate between Rawls and communitarians in a way that will promote fruitful discussion on the issue of political identity. It does this by providing a clearer account of a conception of personal identity according to which persons are socially constituted, including the intuitions and assumptions underlying the communitarians’ conception of persons as “socially constituted.” It examines the communitarian objections to liberal political theory and to the liberal conception of persons, the “unencumbered self.” The book differentiates between two types of objection to the liberal conception of persons: the metaphysical and normative. It explains Rawls's political conception of persons, and the metaphysical and normative commitments Rawls incurs—and does not incur—in virtue of that conception. It shows that both kind of objection to Rawls's political conception of the person fail. Finally, modifying Rawls’s political conception of the person, a Rawlsian conception of political identity is explained and defended.

Identity Persons And Political Theory

Author: Catherine M. Galko
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 43.37 MB
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Many critics' objections to Rawls's conception of political identity begin from a conception of persons as "socially constituted," a conception according to which persons' identities are at least partially constituted by their social circumstances. I explain and clarify one such conception of personal identity. I argue that Rawls's use of the original position does not commit him to a metaphysical conception of personal identity. I claim that metaphysical objections to Rawls's use of the original position fail because they are based on misunderstandings of the original position. I explain "normative objections" to Rawls's conception of political identity. These objections are that Rawls's conception of political identity is unacceptable as a conception of political identity. The reason it is unacceptable, according to critics, is either that, (i) while Rawls's conception is not a metaphysical conception of personal identity, it implicitly relies on false metaphysical views, or (ii) it fails to pick out the features that proper conception of political identity would take to be valuable. I argue that the normative objections fail to undermine Rawls's conception of political identity. I claim that Rawls's conception of political identity does not implicitly rely on metaphysical views, and that it is the most defensible conception of political identity for a society such as ours.

Das Recht Der V Lker

Author: John Rawls
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110898535
Size: 26.57 MB
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Welche Bedingungen lassen Völker gerecht und friedlich zusammenleben? Unter welchen Umständen sind Kriege gerechtfertigt? Welche Leitlinien müssen gegeben sein für Organisationen, die eine gerechte Gesellschaft von Völkern mit gleichen Rechten herzustellen vermögen? In acht Grundsätzen für eine gerechte internationale Ordnung entwickelt der amerikanische Philosoph John Rawls einen hypothetischen "Vertrag der Gesellschaft der Völker". Das jüngste Buch von John Rawls ist nach A Theory of Justice 1971, dt. 1975) und Political Liberalism (1993, dt. 1998) ein weiteres wichtiges Werk des bedeutenden amerikanischen Philosophen. Die Originalausgabe (The Law of Peoples, 1999) hat zu heftigen Kontroversen geführt.

In Defense Of Liberal Pluralism

Author: Upendra Chidella
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443882453
Size: 39.80 MB
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This book takes a critical view of Kantian and Neo-Kantian moral philosophers’ preference of universalism, the unity of morality, moral impartiality, consensus, and common morality. The central claim of the book is if the human condition is treated as complex and infested with irreducible choices and alternatives, then moral rightness and wrongness ought to operate beyond these binaries; giving epistemic status to Pluralism’s multiple rationalities. Redefining liberal-pluralism, the book also argues that moral reasoning is necessarily bound by paradoxes and contradictions, seen in our choices of life-projects, in the conflict between individual morality and common morality, and in justifying what is morally reasonable in the interpersonal framework. Equivocation in moral argumentation cannot be valued without understanding the nature of the ‘interpersonal’ that ought to sufficiently argue for moral disagreement, irreducible pluralism and limits of morality. Liberal-pluralism, thus, signifies the quasi-relational (partially admitting Gilbert Harman) nature of moral reasoning in the multi-agent framework. It also takes account of reciprocity, fairness, reasonableness, tolerance, open-ended morality, and agreeing to disagree. However, this idea of liberal-pluralism no way undermines rationality and reason, nor turns to anti-theory; rather, it only treats morality as guided by ‘reason without unification’ and ‘pluralism without relativism’.

Multikulturalismus Und Die Politik Der Anerkennung

Author: Charles Taylor
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783518295298
Size: 60.32 MB
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Charles Taylor greift in seinem Essay eines der brennenden Gegenwartsprobleme liberaler Demokratien auf: Gleichbehandlung der Individuen bei Achtung kultureller und ethnischer Identitäten. Die prekäre Dialektik von Universalismus und Partikularismus, die auch im Schlagwort von der ”multikulturellen Gesellschaft“ widerhallt, analysiert er ideengeschichtlich sowie politisch-praktisch an den zeitgenössischen westlichen Gesellschaften. Er beschreibt den Wertewandel, die Selbstbehauptungswünsche von Minderheiten und die rechtlichen Widersprüche in den Autonomiebestrebungen von Volksgruppen. Taylors Analyse ist ein Glücksfall und das Buch mit den Kommentaren von führenden Sozialphilosophen einer der wichtigsten Diskussionsbeiträge zum Thema ”Multikulturalismus“

Liberalism And The Defence Of Political Constructivism

Author: C. McKinnon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1403918511
Size: 69.92 MB
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Contemporary liberal political justification is often accused of preaching to the converted: liberal principles are acceptable only to people already committed to liberal values. Catriona McKinnon addresses this important criticism by arguing that self-respect and its social conditions should be placed at the heart of the liberal approach to justification. A commitment to self-respect delivers a commitment to the liberal values of toleration and public reason, but self-respect itself is not an exclusively liberal value.

Reasonably Radical

Author: Anthony Simon Laden
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 9780801438318
Size: 35.45 MB
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Liberalism and the politics of identity seem incompatible. Liberalism starts from the capacity of reasonable individuals to order their lives. The politics of feminism and multiculturalism, however, argue that liberal individualism glosses over structural inequalities and relies on unjust normalizing pressures. Modern political philosophy must reconcile these two viewpoints if it is to move forward. Reasonably Radical synthesizes both approaches in a new form of liberal theory: deliberative liberalism. Anthony Simon Laden demonstrates that liberal theory can accommodate deep diversity once it recasts its understanding of the legitimization of just principles. Liberalism traditionally argues for the legitimacy of liberal political principles on the basis of citizens' consent, but derives that consent from what it regards as common human attributes. Laden, however, drawing on Rousseau and Hegel, two thinkers often ignored by contemporary liberals, claims that legitimacy cannot be so derived. According to deliberative liberalism, citizens' actual deliberation confers legitimacy on political principles in virtue of its being reasonable, regardless of whether it yields consensus. Laden argues that political deliberation can only be reasonable under certain social conditions, however. These include a reciprocal distribution of power and respect for deep diversity. Reasonable principles thus require radical politics, and both find a home in this clear theoretical articulation of identity politics which is at the same time a strong new vision of liberalism.

Rights Democracy And Fulfillment In The Era Of Identity Politics

Author: David Ingram
Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield
ISBN: 0742533484
Size: 46.16 MB
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Rights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity Politics develops a critical theory of human rights and global democracy. Ingram both develops a theory of rights and applies it to a range of concrete and timely issues, such as the persistence of racism in contemporary American society; the emergence of so-called "whiteness theory;" the failure of identity politics; the tensions between emphases on antidiscrimination and affirmative action in the Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990; the great unresolved issues of workplace democracy; and the dilemmas of immigration policy for the U.S. and Europe.

Contemporary Debates In Political Philosophy

Author: Thomas Christiano
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781444310382
Size: 47.97 MB
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This collection of 24 essays, written by eminent philosophers and political theorists, brings together fresh debates on some of the most fundamental questions in contemporary political philosophy, including human rights, equality, constitutionalism, the value of democracy, identity and political neutrality. Presents fresh debates on six of the fundamental questions in contemporary political philosophy Each question is treated by a pair of opposing essays written by eminent scholars Lively debate format sharply defines the issues, invites the reader to participate in the exchange of arguments and paves the way for further discussion Will serve as an accessible introduction to the major topics in political philosophy, whilst also capturing the imagination of professional philosophers Offers the unique opportunity to observe leading philosophers engaging in head-to-head debate