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Pharmaceutical Economics And Policy

Author: Stuart O. Schweitzer
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190623802
Size: 27.96 MB
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Pharmaceuticals constitute a relatively small share of the total healthcare expenditure in most developed economies, and yet they play a critical role in the ongoing debate over how best to advance, improve, and afford healthcare. Despite this, and perhaps because of this, the industry has had, for many years, an outsized claim to fame and controversy, praise and criticisms, support and condemnation. Unfortunately, many participants in the debate do not fully understand the complexities of the industry and its role in the overall healthcare system. The analytical tools of economics provide a strong foundation for a better understanding of the dynamics of the pharmaceutical industry, its contribution to health and healthcare, its dual and often conflicting priorities of affordability and innovation, as well as the various private and public policy initiatives directed at the sector. This third edition of a uniquely comprehensive and balanced examination of the industry includes several new chapters on important topics such as the full-fledged generics sector, the arrival of biosimilars or generic biological drugs, the global consolidation of manufacturers, the evolving reimbursement landscape, and the emergence of the world's most populous nations, such as China, India, and Brazil, as both suppliers and consumers of pharmaceutical products. Other chapters have been fully rewritten or extensively updated, covering such important topics as the cost efficiency of research and development, pace of new innovations, economic evaluation and value-based pricing of drugs, and public and private interventions in the industry.

Pharmaceutical Economics And Public Policy

Author: Ronald Vogel
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781439801345
Size: 21.30 MB
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Get a comprehensive explanation of the key economic concepts on how the pharmaceutical market functions The pharmaceutical industry has come under intense public scrutiny for the perception of product prices being too high and for concerns about research and development spending. Pharmaceutical Economics and Public Policy carefully explains the fundamentals of pharmaceutical economics while examining spending, costs, rates of return, and policies affecting the industry. This text provides a comprehensive economic analysis of the most important dimensions of the pharmaceutical market with easy-to-understand analysis of the implications of public policy. Key economic concepts necessary for understanding how the pharmaceutical market functions are clearly explained in detail. Though it is a manufacturing industry, the pharmaceutical industry has several economic aspects that make it fundamentally different from any other. Pharmaceutical Economics and Public Policy takes these sometimes confusing and difficult economic aspects within this unique industry and makes them understandable. The book is carefully referenced and includes numerous figures and tables to clearly present data. Topics in Pharmaceutical Economics and Public Policy include: policymaking—self-interest vs. public interest a pharmaceutical market overview empirical data on cost effectiveness of pharmaceutical use the economics and politics of the regulatory process the economics of patent policies pharmaceutical cost structure why price discrimination occurs in patented pharmaceuticals governmental price controls R&D expenditures sales and marketing expenditures rates of profitability in the pharmaceutical industry mergers and acquisitions and the connection to higher risk levels the future of the pharmaceutical industry Pharmaceutical Economics and Public Policy is an invaluable resource for educators, graduate students, policymakers, legislators, policy analysts, government agencies, and trade associations involved with pharmaceuticals.

Pharmaceutical Economics

Author: William S. Comanor
Publisher: Edward Elgar Pub
ISBN: 9780857934499
Size: 11.25 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Pharmaceutical Economics begins with an investigation of the structure of the industry and its three main components: the research firms which produce innovative products; the generic drug industry and its expanding role; and the biotech industry, which is regarded as the future for pharmaceuticals. Further sections discuss topics including demand and incentives, pricing and regulation.

Studies In Pharmaceutical Economics

Author: Mickey Smith
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780789000620
Size: 18.13 MB
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Readers of Studies in Pharmaceutical Economics learn the value of economic research in forming health policy while they develop an understanding of the various factors that influence the cost of pharmaceutical care for patients, pharmacists, physicians, and manufacturers. Pharmaceutical economists, product managers, and policymakers learn different methods for controlling costs, patient compliance, therapeutic outcomes, and the effects of restrictions on prescription drugs on the use and cost of other health care services. Above all, readers will find this book provides them with the necessary `know-how’for survival in the dynamic and competitive health care marketplace. The chapters of Studies in Pharmaceutical Economics range in scope from editorials to technical papers on new research methods. Readers will find the following key topics covered: pricing strategies marketing implications policy issues methods for controlling utilization and cost multi-tier pricing and its effects on pharmacists and consumers analytical approaches to research This valuable guidebook to the conditions characterizing the growing field of pharmacoeconomics maps the effects of clinical pharmacy services on the lengths of hospital stays, on hospital admissions, on adverse reactions, and on physician’s methods and habits of prescription. It also provides readers with practical policy applications and means for assessing trends in the market. These include the effects of extending Medicare coverage to outpatient prescription drugs and a technique for incorporating severity-of-illness measures into analysis of the cost-effectiveness of treatment. Professors of pharmacy administration and their students, product managers and pharmaceutical economists in the drug industry, and drug program administrators can use Studies in Pharmaceutical Economics as an introduction to the ways in which pharmaceutical economic research can bring efficiency and cost-effectiveness into their programs. Professors of pharmacy administration and their students, product managers and pharmaceutical economists in the drug industry, and drug program administrators (medical, HMOs, in service companies) can use Studies in Pharmaceutical Economics as an introduction to the ways in which pharmaceutical economic research can bring efficiency and cost-effectiveness into their programs.

Das Kapital Des Staates

Author: Mariana Mazzucato
Publisher: Antje Kunstmann
ISBN: 395614001X
Size: 67.93 MB
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Freie Märkte, smarte junge Erfinder und Wagniskapital treiben die Wirtschaft voran; der Staat stört dabei nur und muss daher nach Kräften zurückgedrängt werden. Wie ein Mantra wird dieser oberste Glaubensartikel des Neoliberalismus seit Jahrzehnten wiederholt – aber stimmt er auch? Die Ökonomin Mariana Mazzucato, die seit Jahren über den Zusammenhang zwischen Innovation und Wachstum forscht, beweist das Gegenteil: Wann und wo immer technologische Innovationen zu wirtschaftlichem Aufschwung und Wohlstand geführt haben, hatte ein aktiver Staat die Hand im Spiel. Von der Elektrifizierung bis zum Internet – Motor der Entwicklung, oft bis zur Markteinführung, war stets der Staat. Apples Welterfolg gründet auf Technologien, die sämtlich durch die öffentliche Hand gefördert wurden; innovative Medikamente, für die die Pharmaindustrie ihren Kunden gern hohe Entwicklungskosten in Rechnung stellt, stammen fast ausnahmslos aus staatlicher Forschung. Innovationen und nachhaltiges Wachstum, das derzeit alle fordern, werden also kaum von der Börse kommen. Viel eher von einem Staat, der seine angestammte Rolle neu besetzt, sein einzigartiges Kapital nutzt und mit langem Atem Zukunftstechnologien wie den Ausbau erneuerbarer Energien vorantreibt. Ein brandaktuelles Buch, das die aktuelle Diskussion über die Zukunft der Wirtschaft und die Rolle des Staates vom Kopf auf die Füße stellt.

Der Gro E Ausbruch

Author: Angus Deaton
Publisher: Klett-Cotta
ISBN: 3608100741
Size: 59.80 MB
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Heute sind die Menschen gesünder, wohlhabender und sie leben länger als früher. Einem Teil der Menschheit ist »Der Große Ausbruch« aus Armut, Not, Krankheit und Entbehrung in Freiheit, Bildung, Demokratie und eine freie globale Weltwirtschaft gelungen. Dennoch nimmt die Ungleichheit zwischen Nationen und Menschen unaufhaltsam zu. Das Opus Magnum des Nobelpreisträgers beschreibt, wie Lebens- und Gesundheitsstandards sich weltweit erhöhen ließen, wenn Aufrichtigkeit und neue Fairness Einzug in die globale Weltwirtschaft hielten. Aus dem »Wohlstand der Nationen« könnte ein Wohlstand aller Nationen werden. Angus Deaton, der Träger des Wirtschaftsnobelpreises 2015, schildert die Geschichte der Weltwirtschaft überraschend neu und anders. Vor 250 Jahren bescherte die Industrielle Revolution Westeuropa und den USA nachhaltigen Aufschwung und wirtschaftlicher Fortschritt, der bis heute andauert. Viele Menschen in Großbritannien, Frankreich, den USA und Deutschland überwanden ihre Armut, eigneten sich Bildung an und gestalteten ihre Staaten freiheitlich und demokratisch um. Aber bereits damals öffnete sich die Kluft zwischen Reich und Arm. Erhellend und eindringlich entwirft der Ökonom ein Panorama überwältigender Entdeckungen und phantastischer Erfindungen: Von der Überwindung von Pest, Cholera und Epidemien, von den Errungenschaften wie Impfungen, Antibiotika, Hygiene, sauberem Trinkwasser und den Erfolgen der modernen Medizin und Technik. Dennoch holen schmerzhafte Rückschläge auch die modernen Gesellschaften – vor allem aber die Ärmsten – immer wieder ein: entsetzliche Hungersnöte, Naturkatastrophen, Drogenhandel, Krebserkrankungen und die AIDS/HIV-Epidemie auf der anderen Seite. Alternativen bieten Reformen: Die Entwicklungs- und Protektionspolitik des Westens sollte eingestellt, jedenfalls grundlegend verändert werden. Dringend müssten die Handelshemmnisse aufgehoben werden, um der ganzen globalisierten Welt ihren eigenen „Großen Ausbruch“ zu eröffnen. Unser Wohlstand ist anfällig; Umdenken und anders Handeln sind dringend erforderlich. Hatten die USA noch vor 20 Jahren einen bis dahin nie gekannten Wohlstand für viele Amerikaner erreicht, wächst das einstige Vorbild der westlichen Welt heute wirtschaftlich schleppend oder gar nicht. Die Ungleichheit unter den Amerikanern hat schlagartig zugenommen. Hingegen hat sich das Wirtschaftswachstum in Indien und China vervielfacht und das Leben von mehr als zwei Milliarden Menschen unvorstellbar verbessert. »Dieses Thema bedarf einer großen Leinwand und eines kühnen Pinselstrichs, und Angus Deaton liefert auf virtuose Weise beides.« The Economist

Health Economics And Policy

Author: James W. Henderson
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1285758498
Size: 21.47 MB
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The 6th edition of HEALTH ECONOMICS AND POLICY thoroughly demonstrates how microeconomic principles apply to health care delivery and its policies. The text explores the changing nature of health care, the social and political sides of issues, and the future of health care delivery and finance under the Affordable Care Act; the text also teaches students to analyze public policy from an economic perspective. Written for non-economics majors, HEALTH ECONOMICS AND POLICY delivers significant economic content and is appropriate for economics majors. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Health Economics And Policy Challenges In Global Emerging Markets

Author: Mihajlo Jakovljevic
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781634847087
Size: 36.24 MB
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This book is an attempt to tackle some of the key global health challenges with a focus on the leading, emerging countries and mature free-market economies facing similar issues. It consists of seven chapters written by well-recognized scholars in the field affiliated to academia, pharmaceutical industry and hospital sectors based in Japan, USA, China, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland, Ireland, Serbia, Bulgaria, Poland and Albania. The contributors had diverse expert profiles in health economics, clinical medicine, public health and population aging. Regional health care issues were processed and referred to the BRICS and N-11 nations, North American region, Far East Asia, Western and Eastern Europe. Some of the difficulties of contemporary health systems tackled in certain chapters were: population aging, health spending, insurance coverage, health technology assessment, costs of pharmaceutical development, neurological disorder and diabetes economics, public health legislation and caregiver assessment in a traditional Asian setting. All of the aforementioned research might give a dynamic impetus and expand a mental horizon to the professionals dealing with these issues. We believe that this book deserves a broad global audience consisting of health care professionals, policy makers, health economists, clinical physicians and lay persons eager to expand their knowledge in the field. Our attitude is based on the worldwide academic recognition of the listed contributors. The degree of success of these ambitiously targeted efforts will be assessed by our esteemed audience in years to come.

Peterson S Graduate Programs In The Humanities Arts And Social Sciences 1996

Author: Peterson's Guides Staff
Publisher: Peterson's Nelnet Company
ISBN: 9781560795025
Size: 40.12 MB
Format: PDF
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Graduate students depend on this series and ask for it by name. Why? For over 30 years, it's been the only one-stop source that supplies all of their information needs. The new editions of this six-volume set contain the most comprehensive information available on more than 1,500 colleges offering over 31,000 master's, doctoral, and professional-degree programs in more than 350 disciplines.New for 1997 -- Non-degree-granting research centers, institutes, and training programs that are part of a graduate degree program.Five discipline-specific volumes detail entrance and program requirements, deadlines, costs, contacts, and special options, such as distance learning, for each program, if available. Each Guide features "The Graduate Adviser", which discusses entrance exams, financial aid, accreditation, and more.The most exhaustive compilation of more than 10,000 programs in subject areas ranging from applied arts, architecture, and Hispanic studies to political science.